ABSTRACT: The ammosamides A-C are chlorinated pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline metabolites isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces strain CNR-698. The natural products, which possess a dense array of heteroatoms, were synthesized in 17-19 steps from 4-chloroisatin. That the five nitrogen atoms were introduced at the appropriate time and in a suitable oxidation state was key to the success of the total synthesis. Compared to synthetic deschloro ammosamide B, natural ammosamide B is much less susceptible to oxidative degradation.
Project description:A total synthesis of ammosamide B, a metabolite of the marine-derived Streptomyces strain CNR-698, has been executed in nine steps and 6.9% overall yield. The key step involves the condensation of a 4,6-diBoc-protected 1,3,4,6-tetraaminobenzene derivative with dimethyl 2-ketoglutaconate, which effectively constructs the pyrrolidinone ring and the quinoline ring in a single step. This contributes a unique approach to the synthesis of pyrroloquinoline alkaloids that offers the advantages of brevity and relatively high overall yield.
Project description:Cultivation of an obligate marine Streptomyces strain has provided the cytotoxic natural product chlorizidine A. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the metabolite is composed of a chlorinated 2,3-dihydropyrrolizine ring attached to a chlorinated 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one. The carbon stereocenter in the dihydropyrrolizine is S-configured. Remarkably, the 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one moiety has no precedence in the field of natural products. The presence of this ring system, which was demonstrated to undergo facile nucleophilic substitution reactions at the activated carbonyl group, is essential to the molecule's cytotoxicity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells.
Project description:Ammosamide D (1), an oxidized analog of the ammosamide family, was isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces variabilis. Pyrroloquinoline containing alkaloids are a growing class of natural products, with 1 being the first example of an oxidized analog resulting in a 5,6-dioxo-5,6-dihydroquinoline ring system. Attempts at chemical conversion of ammosamide B to ammosamide D revealed that a strong chemical oxidant is required. Ammosamide D has modest cytotoxicity to the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line.
Project description:A variety of ammosamide B analogues have been synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of quinone reductase 2 (QR2). The potencies of the resulting series of QR2 inhibitors range from 4.1 to 25,200 nM. The data provide insight into the structural parameters necessary for QR2 inhibitory activity. The natural product ammosamide B proved to be a potent QR2 inhibitor, and the potencies of the analogues generally decreased as their structures became more distinct from that of ammosamide B. Methylation of the 8-amino group of ammosamide B was an exception, resulting in an increase in quinone reductase 2 inhibitory activity from an IC(50) of 61 nM to IC(50) 4.1 nM.
Project description:This study began with the goal of identifying constituents from Zyzzya fuliginosa extracts that showed selectivity in our primary cytotoxicity screen against the PANC-1 tumor cell line. During the course of this project, which focused on six Z. fuliginosa samples collected from various regions of the Indo-Pacific, known compounds were obtained consisting of nine makaluvamine and three damirone analogues. Four new acetylated derivatives were also prepared. High-accuracy electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HAESI-MS) m/z ions produced through MS² runs were obtained and interpreted to provide a rapid way for dereplicating isomers containing a pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline core. In vitro human pancreas/duct epithelioid carcinoma (PANC-1) cell line IC50 data was obtained for 16 compounds and two therapeutic standards. These results along with data gleaned from the literature provided useful structure activity relationship conclusions. Three structural motifs proved to be important in maximizing potency against PANC-1: (i) conjugation within the core of the ABC-ring; (ii) the presence of a positive charge in the C-ring; and (iii) inclusion of a 4-ethyl phenol or 4-ethyl phenol acetate substituent off the B-ring. Two compounds, makaluvamine J (9) and 15-O-acetyl makaluvamine J (15), contained all three of these frameworks and exhibited the best potency with IC50 values of 54 nM and 81 nM, respectively. These two most potent analogs were then tested against the OVCAR-5 cell line and the presence of the acetyl group increased the potency 14-fold from that of 9 whose IC50 = 120 nM vs. that of 15 having IC50 = 8.6 nM.
Project description:IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexa-hydro-indolo[4,3,2-fg]quinoline-9-yl)methanol monohydrate], C(16)H(18)N(2)O·H(2)O, the non-aromatic ring (ring C of the ergoline skeleton) directly fused to the aromatic rings is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.659?(3)?Å, and shows an envelope conformation. In the crystal, hydrogen bonds between the lysergol and water mol-ecules contribute to the formation of layers parallel to (10[Formula: see text]).
Project description:A novel four-component bicyclization strategy has been established, allowing a flexible and practical approach to 37 examples of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines from low-cost and readily accessible arylglyoxals, pyrazol-5-amines, aromatic amines, 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, and cyclohexane-1,3-diones. The polysubstituted cyclopenta[d]pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines were stereoselectively synthesized through a microwave-assisted special [3+2+1]/[3+2] bicyclization with good control of the spatial configuration of exocyclic double bonds. The novel [3+2+1]/[2+2+1] bicyclization resulted in 17 examples of unreported pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolones. Reasonable mechanisms for forming two new types of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines are also proposed.
Project description:The first total synthesis of Aplidiopsamine A, a rare 3H-pyrrolo[2,3-c]quinoline alkaloid from the Aplidiopsis confluata, has been achieved following the proposed biosynthesis. This biomimetic synthesis requires only five steps and proceeds in 20.8% overall yield. Biological evaluation across large panels of discrete molecular targets identified that Aplidiopsamine A is a highly selective PDE4 inhibitor, a target for numerous CNS disorders.
Project description:Expeditious syntheses of cis-1-methyl-2,3,3a,4,5,9b-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo-[3,2h]isoquinoline /[2,3-f]]quinoline have been developed. The syntheses started with commercially available material and afforded excellent overall yields in straightforward steps. Intramolecular azomethine ylide-alkene [3+2] cycloaddition is the key step in the construction of these pyrroloisoquinoline and pyrroloquinoline scaffolds. This route is much more atom-economic than those reported in the literature and appropriate for scale-up synthesis.
Project description:Natural sesquiterpene lactones which contain an exocyclic methylene group in the ?-position of the lactone ring react readily with N-nucleophiles. When studying the reaction of the natural epoxyalantolactone with the primary amines we demonstrate the formation of a new heterocyclic system-the hydrogenated benzo[g]furo[4,3,2-cd]indol-3(1H)-one. Spectral data on the characteristics of the synthesized compounds are presented. The data on the reaction mechanisms and its applicability for the preparation are discussed.