Provider-focused intervention increases adherence-related dialogue but does not improve antiretroviral therapy adherence in persons with HIV.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Physicians' limited knowledge of patients' antiretroviral adherence may reduce their ability to perform effective adherence counseling. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, cross-over study of an intervention to improve physicians' knowledge of patients' antiretroviral adherence. The intervention was a report given to the physician before a routine office visit that included data on Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported data on antiretroviral adherence, patients' beliefs about antiretroviral therapy, reasons for missed doses, alcohol and drug use, and depression. We audio recorded 1 intervention and 1 control visit for each patient to analyze differences in adherence-related dialogue. RESULTS:One hundred fifty-six patients were randomized, and 106 completed all 5 study visits. Paired audio recorded visits were available for 58 patients. Using a linear regression model that adjusted for site and baseline Medication Event Monitoring System adherence, adherence after intervention visits did not differ significantly from control visits (2.0% higher, P = 0.31, 95% confidence interval: -1.95% to 5.9%). There was a trend toward more total adherence-related utterances (median of 76 vs. 49.5, P = 0.07) and a significant increase in utterances about the current regimen (median of 51.5 vs. 32.5, P = 0.0002) in intervention compared with control visits. However, less than 10% of adherence-related utterances were classified as "problem solving" in content, and one third of physicians' problem-solving utterances were directive in nature. CONCLUSIONS:Receipt of a detailed report before clinic visits containing data about adherence and other factors did not improve patients' antiretroviral adherence. Analyses of patient-provider dialogue suggests that providers who care for persons with HIV may benefit from training in adherence counseling techniques.
Project description:Adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) report problems in relationship building and information exchange during clinic visits. To explore the origin of these communication challenges, we compare communication in pediatric SCD, diabetes, and asthma visits. We collected visit videos and parent surveys from 78 children ages 9-16 years with SCD, asthma, or diabetes. Coders assessed child, parent, and physician utterances reflecting relationship building, information giving, and information gathering. Associations of engagement with type of chronic disease visit were performed with negative binomial regression. Compared to SCD visits, children in diabetes visits spoke 53% more relationship-building utterances (p < .05) and physicians in asthma visits spoke 48% fewer relationship building utterances to the child (p < .01). In diabetes visits, physicians gave almost twice as much information to children and gave 48% less information to parents (both p < .01) compared to SCD visits. Compared to SCD visits, physicians spoke fewer information-gathering utterances to parents in diabetes and asthma visits (85% and 72% respectively, both p < .001). SCD visits reflect less engagement of the children and greater physician effort to gather information from parents. These differences highlight opportunities to enhance engagement as a mechanism for ultimately improving SCD care.
Project description:Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is critical to successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Few interventions have been demonstrated to improve both adherence and virologic outcomes. We sought to determine whether an intervention derived from problem solving theory, Managed Problem Solving (MAPS), would improve antiretroviral outcomes.We conducted a randomized investigator blind trial of MAPS compared with usual care in HIV-1 infected individuals at 3 HIV clinics in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Eligible patients had plasma HIV-1 viral loads greater than 1000 copies/mL and were initiating or changing therapy. Managed Problem Solving consists of 4 in-person and 12 telephone-based meetings with a trained interventionist, then monthly follow-up calls for a year. Primary outcome was medication adherence measured using electronic monitors, summarized as fraction of doses taken quarterly over 1 year. Secondary outcome was undetectable HIV viral load over 1 year. We assessed 218 for eligibility, with 190 eligible and 180 enrolled, 91 randomized to MAPS and 89 to usual care. Fifty-six participants were lost to follow-up: 33 in the MAPS group and 23 in usual care group.In primary intention-to-treat analyses, the odds of being in a higher adherence category was 1.78 (95% CI,1.07-2.96) times greater for MAPS than usual care. In secondary analyses, the odds of an undetectable viral load was 1.48 (95% CI, 0.94-2.31) times greater for MAPS than usual care. In as-treated analyses, the effect of MAPS was stronger for both outcomes. There was neither a difference by prior treatment status nor change in effect over time.Managed Problem Solving is an effective antiretroviral adherence intervention over the first year with a new regimen. It was equally effective at improving adherence in treatment experienced and naïve patients and did not lose effect over time. Implementation of MAPS should be strongly considered where resources are available.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00130273.
Project description:In October 2013, Tanzania adopted Option B+ under which HIV-positive pregnant women are initiated on antiretroviral therapy in reproductive and child health clinics at diagnosis. Studies have shown that adherence and retention to antiretroviral treatment can be problematic.We implemented a group randomized controlled trial in 24 reproductive and child health clinics in eight districts in Mbeya region. The trial tested the impact of implementing paper-based appointment tracking and community outreach systems on the rate of missed appointments and number of days covered by dispensed antiretroviral medications among women previously established on antiretroviral therapy. We used interrupted time series analysis to assess study outcomes. Clinic staff and patients in intervention clinics were aware of the intervention because of change in clinic procedures; data collectors knew the study group assignment.Three months pre-intervention, we identified 1924 and 1226 patients established on antiretroviral therapy for six months or more in intervention and control clinics, respectively, of whom 83.4% and 86.9% had one or more post-intervention visits. The unadjusted rate of missed visits declined from 36.5% to 34.4% in intervention clinics and increased from 38.9% to 45.5% in control clinics following the intervention. Interrupted time series analyses demonstrated a net decrease of 13.7% (95% CI [-15.4,-12.1]) for missed visits at six months post-intervention. Similar differential changes were observed for visits missed by 3, 7, 15, or 60 days.Appointment-tracking and community outreach significantly improved appointment-keeping for women on antiretroviral therapy. The facility staff controlled their workload better, identified missing patients rapidly, and worked with existing community organizations. There is now enough evidence to scale up this approach to all antiretroviral therapy and Option B+ reproductive and child health clinics in Tanzania as well as to evaluate the intervention in medical clinics that treat other chronic health conditions.Registry for International Development Impact Evaluations ID-55310280d8757.
Project description:Fixed incentives have been largely unsuccessful in improving adherence to antiretroviral medication. Therefore, we evaluate whether small incentives based on behavioral economic theory can increase adherence to antiretroviral medication among treatment-mature adults in Kampala, Uganda.A randomized control trial design tests whether providing small incentives based on either attending timely clinic visits (intervention group 1) or achieving high medication adherence (intervention group 2) can increase antiretroviral adherence. Antiretroviral adherence is measured by medical event monitoring system (MEMS) caps.Overall, 155 HIV-infected men and women age 19-78 were randomized into one of two intervention groups and received small prizes of US $1.50 awarded through a drawing conditional on either attending scheduled clinic appointments or achieving at least 90% antiretroviral adherence. The control group received the usual standard of care.Preliminary results based on pooling the intervention groups showed individuals receiving incentives were 23.7 percentage points more likely to achieve 90% antiretroviral adherence compared with the control group [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.7-40.7%]. Specifically, 63.3% (95% CI, 52.9-72.8%) of participants in the pooled intervention groups maintained at least 90% mean adherence during the first 9 months of the intervention, compared with 39.6% (95% CI, 25.8-54.7%) in the control group.Small prize incentives resulted in a statistically significant increase in antiretroviral adherence. Although more traditional fixed incentives have not produced the desired results, these findings suggest that small incentives based on behavioral economic theory may be more effective in motivating long-term adherence among treatment-mature adults.
Project description:Patient recall of treatment information is a key variable towards chronic disease (CD) management. It is unclear what communication and patient participation characteristics predict recall.To assess what aspects of doctor-patient communication predict patient recall of medication information. To describe lifestyle treatment recall, in CD primary care patients.Observational study within a RCT.Community-based primary care (PC) practices. Family physicians (n=18): practicing >5 years, with a CD patient caseload. Patients (n=159): >40 years old, English speaking, computer literate, off-target hypertension, type II diabetes and/or dyslipidaemia.Patient characteristics: age, education, number of CDs. Information characteristics: length of encounter, medication status, medication class. Communication variables: socio-emotional utterances, physician dominance and communication control scores and PACE (ask, check and express) utterances, measured by RIAS. Number of medication themes, dialogue and initiative measured by MEDICODE.Recall of CD, lifestyle treatment and medication information.Frequency of lifestyle discussions varied by topic. Patients recalled 43% (alcohol), 52% (diet) to 70% (exercise) of discussions. Two and a half of six possible medication themes were broached per medication discussion. Less than one was recalled. Discussing more themes, greater dialogue and patient initiative were significant predictors of improved medication information recall.Critical treatment information is infrequently exchanged. Active patient engagement and explicit conversations about medications are associated with improved treatment information recall in off-target CD patients followed in PC.Providers cannot take for granted that long-term off-target CD patients recall information. They need to encourage patient participation to improve recall of treatment information.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that involving pharmacists is an effective strategy for improving patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control. To date, few controlled studies have tested the cost-effectiveness of specific models for improving patient adherence and BP control in community pharmacies, where most Americans obtain prescriptions. We hypothesized that a team model of adherence monitoring and intervention in corporately owned community pharmacies can improve patient adherence, prescribing, and BP control among hypertensive black patients. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) Trial is a randomized controlled trial testing a multistep intervention for improving adherence monitoring and intervention in 28 corporately owned community pharmacies. Patients in the 14 control pharmacies received "usual care," and patients in the 14 intervention pharmacies received TEAM Care by trained pharmacists and pharmacy technicians working with patients and physicians. Data collectors screened 1250 patients and enrolled 597 hypertensive black patients. The primary end points were the proportion of patients achieving BP control and reductions in systolic and diastolic BP measured after 6 and 12 months. Secondary end points were changes in adherence monitoring and intervention, patient adherence and barriers to adherence, prescribing, and cost-effectiveness. Researchers also will examine potential covariates and barriers to change. Involving pharmacists is a potentially powerful means of improving BP control in blacks. Pharmacists are in an excellent position to monitor patients between clinic visits and to provide useful information to patients and physicians.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Non-adherence with diabetes medicines is a challenge. Approximately 54% of patients are non-adherent with their diabetes medicines. The objective of this study was to understand patients' preferences when addressing non-adherence based on the 3S approach-strategies (what approaches can be used in addressing non-adherence), settings (when and where should the intervention happen) and sources (who should provide the intervention). DESIGN:A focus group research design was used. SETTING:A primary outpatient clinic from an integrated healthcare system in the USA. PARTICIPANTS:Patients who were non-adherent with diabetes medicines. DATA COLLECTION:The focus group guide was based on the Medication Adherence Reasons Scale, which has 19 reasons identified for non-adherence. For each item in the scale, patients were asked for strategies that can be used in addressing that issue, the setting in which the interventions should be provided and the source to provide the interventions. DATA ANALYSIS:Open coding and content analysis. RESULTS:Two focus groups, each group having seven patients, were conducted. The major strategies identified were patient education, self-responsibility of patients, family support, reminders and societal support. The key educational needs were dealing with side effects and learning to use insulin properly, and a need for different learning styles when offering education. For the source, the major ones were physicians and pharmacists, having a continuous dialogue about the disease and medicines, and individuality in managing the disease. Respondents also recommended using a peer support group. For the setting, the patients preferred continuity of patient education throughout the disease. CONCLUSION:The 3S approach was able to elicit several recommendations from patients to improve their adherence with diabetes medicines. Educational strategies were identified as the foremost approach coming from physicians and pharmacists throughout their disease journey, in addition to peer support.
Project description:To assess the effectiveness and sustainability of a 6-month Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) intervention for black patients with hypertension in community chain pharmacies.Cluster randomized trial.28 chain pharmacies (14 TEAM and 14 control) in five Wisconsin cities from December 2006 to February 2009.576 black patients with hypertension.Trained pharmacist-technician teams implemented a 6-month intervention using scheduled visits, Brief Medication Questionnaires (BMQs), and novel toolkits for facilitating medication adherence and pharmacist feedback to patients and physicians. Control participants received patient information only.Refill adherence (?80% days covered) and changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and blood pressure control using blinded assessments at 6 and 12 months.At baseline, all patients had blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or more. Of those eligible, 79% activated the intervention (mean 4.25 visits). Compared with control participants at 6 months, TEAM participants achieved greater improvements in refill adherence (60% vs. 34%, P < 0.001), SBP (-12.62 vs. -5.31 mm Hg, P < 0.001), and blood pressure control (50% vs. 36%, P = 0.01). Six months after intervention discontinuation, TEAM participants showed sustained improvements in refill adherence ( P < 0.001) and SBP ( P = 0.004), though the difference in blood pressure control was not significant ( P < 0.05) compared with control participants. Analysis of intervention fidelity showed that patients who received the full intervention during months 1 through 6 achieved significantly greater 6- and 12-month improvements in refill adherence and blood pressure control compared with control participants.A team-based intervention involving community chain pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and novel toolkits led to significant and sustained improvements in refill adherence and SBP in black patients with hypertension.
Project description:Physicians' negative attitudes toward patients with obesity are well documented. Whether or how these beliefs may affect patient-physician communication is unknown. To describe the relationship between patient body mass index (BMI) and physician communication behaviors (biomedical, psychosocial/lifestyle, and rapport building) during typical outpatient primary care visits was aimed.Using audio-recorded outpatient encounters from 39 urban primary care physicians (PCPs) and 208 of their patients, the frequency of communication behaviors using the Roter Interaction Analysis System was examined. The independent variable was measured; patient BMI and dependent variables were communication behaviors by the PCP within the biomedical, psychosocial/lifestyle, and rapport building domains. A cross-sectional analysis using multilevel Poisson regression models to evaluate the association between BMI and physician communication was performed.PCPs demonstrated less emotional rapport with overweight and obese patients (incidence rate ratio, IRR, 0.65, 95%CI 0.48-0.88, P = 0.01; IRR 0.69, 95%CI 0.58-0.82, P < 0.01, respectively) than for normal weight patients. No differences in PCPs' biomedical or psychosocial/lifestyle communication by patient BMI were found.Our findings raise the concern that low levels of emotional rapport in primary care visits with overweight and obese patients may weaken the patient-physician relationship, diminish patients' adherence to recommendations, and decrease the effectiveness of behavior change counseling.
Project description:The firsthand experience of physicians using computer-assisted health-risk assessment is salient for designing practical eHealth solutions.The aim of this study was to enhance understanding about computer-assisted health-risk assessments from physicians' perspectives after completion of a trial at a Canadian, urban, multi-doctor, hospital-affiliated family practice clinic.A qualitative approach of face-to-face, in-depth, semi-structured interviews was used. All interviews were audio recorded and field notes taken. Analytic induction and constant comparative techniques were used for coding and analyses. Interpretation was facilitated by peer audit and insights gained from the social exchange theoretical perspective.Ten physicians (seven female and three male) participated in the interviews. Three overarching themes emerged in relation to computer-assisted health-risk assessments: (1) perceived benefits, (2) perceived concerns or challenges, and (3) feasibility. Physicians unanimously acknowledged the potential of computer-assisted health-risk assessments to open dialogue on psychosocial health risks. They also appreciated the general facilitative roles of the tool, such as improving time-efficiency by asking questions on health risks prior to the consultation and triggering patients' self-reflections on the risks. However, in the context of ongoing physician-patient relationships, physicians expressed concerns about the impact of the computer-assisted health-risk assessment tool on visit time, patient readiness to talk about psychosocial issues when the purpose of the visit was different, and the suitability of such risk assessment for all visits to detect new risk information. In terms of feasibility, physicians displayed general acceptance of the risk assessment tool but considered it most feasible for periodic health exams and follow-up visits based on their perceived concerns or challenges and the resources needed to implement such programs. These included clinic level (staff training, space, confidentiality) and organizational level (time, commitment and finances) support.Participants perceived computer-assisted health-risk assessment as a useful tool in family practice, particularly for identifying psychosocial issues. Physicians displayed a general acceptance of the computer tool and indicated its greater feasibility for periodic health exams and follow-up visits than all visits. Future physician training on psychosocial issues should address physicians' concerns by emphasizing the varying forms of "clinical success" for the management of chronic psychosocial issues. Future research is needed to examine the best ways to implement this program in diverse clinical settings and patient populations.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00385034; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00385034 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5pV8AGRgt).