Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identify multiple loci associated with pulmonary function.
ABSTRACT: Spirometric measures of lung function are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important lung-function measures: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC), an indicator of airflow obstruction. This meta-analysis included 20,890 participants of European ancestry from four CHARGE Consortium studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study and Rotterdam Study. We identified eight loci associated with FEV(1)/FVC (HHIP, GPR126, ADAM19, AGER-PPT2, FAM13A, PTCH1, PID1 and HTR4) and one locus associated with FEV(1) (INTS12-GSTCD-NPNT) at or near genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)) in the CHARGE Consortium dataset. Our findings may offer insights into pulmonary function and pathogenesis of chronic lung disease.
Project description:Pulmonary function measures are heritable traits that predict morbidity and mortality and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) in the SpiroMeta consortium (n = 20,288 individuals of European ancestry). We conducted a meta-analysis of top signals with data from direct genotyping (n < or = 32,184 additional individuals) and in silico summary association data from the CHARGE Consortium (n = 21,209) and the Health 2000 survey (n < or = 883). We confirmed the reported locus at 4q31 and identified associations with FEV(1) or FEV(1)/FVC and common variants at five additional loci: 2q35 in TNS1 (P = 1.11 x 10(-12)), 4q24 in GSTCD (2.18 x 10(-23)), 5q33 in HTR4 (P = 4.29 x 10(-9)), 6p21 in AGER (P = 3.07 x 10(-15)) and 15q23 in THSD4 (P = 7.24 x 10(-15)). mRNA analyses showed expression of TNS1, GSTCD, AGER, HTR4 and THSD4 in human lung tissue. These associations offer mechanistic insight into pulmonary function regulation and indicate potential targets for interventions to alleviate respiratory disease.
Project description:Two recent metaanalyses of genome-wide association studies conducted by the CHARGE and SpiroMeta consortia identified novel loci yielding evidence of association at or near genome-wide significance (GWS) with FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC. We hypothesized that a subset of these markers would also be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. Thirty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 17 genes in 11 previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions were tested for association with COPD status in four COPD case-control study samples (NETT/NAS, the Norway case-control study, ECLIPSE, and the first 1,000 subjects in COPDGene; total sample size, 3,456 cases and 1,906 controls). In addition to testing the 32 spirometric GWS SNPs, we tested a dense panel of imputed HapMap2 SNP markers from the 17 genes located near the 32 GWS SNPs and in a set of 21 well studied COPD candidate genes. Of the previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions, three loci harbored SNPs associated with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate: the 4q24 locus including FLJ20184/INTS12/GSTCD/NPNT, the 6p21 locus including AGER and PPT2, and the 5q33 locus including ADAM19. In conclusion, markers previously associated at or near GWS with spirometric measures were tested for association with COPD status in data from four COPD case-control studies, and three loci showed evidence of association with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate.
Project description:RATIONALE:Genomic loci are associated with FEV1 or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC in population samples, but their association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been proven, nor have their combined effects on lung function and COPD been studied. OBJECTIVES:To test association with COPD of variants at five loci (TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4) and to evaluate joint effects on lung function and COPD of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and variants at the previously reported locus near HHIP. METHODS:By sampling from 12 population-based studies (n = 31,422), we obtained genotype data on 3,284 COPD case subjects and 17,538 control subjects for sentinel SNPs in TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4. In 24,648 individuals (including 2,890 COPD case subjects and 13,862 control subjects), we additionally obtained genotypes for rs12504628 near HHIP. Each allele associated with lung function decline at these six SNPs contributed to a risk score. We studied the association of the risk score to lung function and COPD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Association with COPD was significant for three loci (TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4) and the previously reported HHIP locus, and suggestive and directionally consistent for AGER and TSHD4. Compared with the baseline group (7 risk alleles), carrying 10-12 risk alleles was associated with a reduction in FEV1 (? = -72.21 ml, P = 3.90 × 10(-4)) and FEV1/FVC (? = -1.53%, P = 6.35 × 10(-6)), and with COPD (odds ratio = 1.63, P = 1.46 × 10(-5)). CONCLUSIONS:Variants in TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4 are associated with COPD. Our highest risk score category was associated with a 1.6-fold higher COPD risk than the population average score.
Project description:Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analyses have identified a strong association signal for lung function, which maps to a region on 4q24 containing two oppositely transcribed genes: glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain containing (GSTCD) and integrator complex subunit 12 (INTS12). Both genes were found to be expressed in a range of human airway cell types. The promoter regions and transcription start sites were determined in mRNA from human lung and a novel splice variant was identified for each gene. We obtained the following evidence for GSTCD and INTS12 co-regulation and expression: (i) correlated mRNA expression was observed both via Q-PCR and in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) study, (ii) induction of both GSTCD and INTS12 mRNA expression in human airway smooth muscle cells was seen in response to TGF?1, (iii) a lung eQTL study revealed that both GSTCD and INTS12 mRNA levels positively correlate with percent predicted FEV1, and (iv) FEV1 GWAS associated SNPs in 4q24 were found to act as an eQTL for INTS12 in a number of tissues. In fixed sections of human lung tissue, GSTCD protein expression was ubiquitous, whereas INTS12 expression was predominantly in epithelial cells and pneumocytes. During human fetal lung development, GSTCD protein expression was observed to be highest at the earlier pseudoglandular stage (10-12 weeks) compared with the later canalicular stage (17-19 weeks), whereas INTS12 expression levels did not alter throughout these stages. Knowledge of the transcriptional and translational regulation and expression of GSTCD and INTS12 provides important insights into the potential role of these genes in determining lung function. Future work is warranted to fully define the functions of INTS12 and GSTCD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The pulmonary function measures of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases and predict cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous loci associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, but the causal variants remain uncertain. We hypothesized that novel or rare variants poorly tagged by GWASs may explain the significant associations between FEV1/FVC and 2 genes: ADAM19 and HTR4. METHODS AND RESULTS:We sequenced ADAM19 and its promoter region along with the ?21-kb portion of HTR4 harboring GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms for pulmonary function and analyzed associations with FEV1/FVC among 3983 participants of European ancestry from Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Meta-analysis of common variants in each region identified statistically significant associations (316 tests; P<1.58×10(-4)) with FEV1/FVC for 14 ADAM19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 24 HTR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. After conditioning on the sentinel GWASs hit in each gene (ADAM19 rs1422795, minor allele frequency=0.33 and HTR4 rs11168048, minor allele frequency=0.40], 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism remained statistically significant (ADAM19 rs13155908, minor allele frequency=0.12; P=1.56×10(-4)). Analysis of rare variants (minor allele frequency <1%) using sequence kernel association test did not identify associations with either region. CONCLUSIONS:Sequencing identified 1 common variant associated with FEV1/FVC independent of the sentinel ADAM19 GWAS hit and supports the original HTR4 GWAS findings. Rare variants do not seem to underlie GWAS associations with pulmonary function for common variants in ADAM19 and HTR4.
Project description:Genetic studies of human lung function and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease have identified a highly significant and reproducible signal on 4q24. It remains unclear which of the two candidate genes within this locus may regulate lung function: GSTCD, a gene with unknown function, and/or INTS12, a member of the Integrator Complex which is currently thought to mediate 3'end processing of small nuclear RNAs.We found that, in lung tissue, 4q24 polymorphisms associated with lung function correlate with INTS12 but not neighbouring GSTCD expression. In contrast to the previous reports in other species, we only observed a minor alteration of snRNA processing following INTS12 depletion. RNAseq analysis of knockdown cells instead revealed dysregulation of a core subset of genes relevant to airway biology and a robust downregulation of protein synthesis pathways. Consistent with this, protein translation was decreased in INTS12 knockdown cells. In addition, ChIPseq experiments demonstrated INTS12 binding throughout the genome, which was enriched in transcriptionally active regions. Finally, we defined the INTS12 regulome which includes genes belonging to the protein synthesis pathways.INTS12 has functions beyond the canonical snRNA processing. We show that it regulates translation by regulating the expression of genes belonging to protein synthesis pathways. This study provides a detailed analysis of INTS12 activities on a genome-wide scale and contributes to the biology behind the genetic association for lung function at 4q24.
Project description:RATIONALE:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci influencing lung function, but fewer genes influencing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known. OBJECTIVES:Perform meta-analyses of GWAS for airflow obstruction, a key pathophysiologic characteristic of COPD assessed by spirometry, in population-based cohorts examining all participants, ever smokers, never smokers, asthma-free participants, and more severe cases. METHODS:Fifteen cohorts were studied for discovery (3,368 affected; 29,507 unaffected), and a population-based family study and a meta-analysis of case-control studies were used for replication and regional follow-up (3,837 cases; 4,479 control subjects). Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV(1) and its ratio to FVC (FEV(1)/FVC) both less than their respective lower limits of normal as determined by published reference equations. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The discovery meta-analyses identified one region on chromosome 15q25.1 meeting genome-wide significance in ever smokers that includes AGPHD1, IREB2, and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 genes. The region was also modestly associated among never smokers. Gene expression studies confirmed the presence of CHRNA5/3 in lung, airway smooth muscle, and bronchial epithelial cells. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in HTR4, a gene previously related to FEV(1)/FVC, achieved genome-wide statistical significance in combined meta-analysis. Top single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM19, RARB, PPAP2B, and ADAMTS19 were nominally replicated in the COPD meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest an important role for the CHRNA5/3 region as a genetic risk factor for airflow obstruction that may be independent of smoking and implicate the HTR4 gene in the etiology of airflow obstruction.
Project description:A study was undertaken to determine if quantitative CT estimates of lung parenchymal overinflation and airway dimensions in smokers with a normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) can predict the rapid decline in FEV(1) that leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Study participants (n = 143; age 45-72 years; 54% male) were part of a lung cancer screening trial, had a smoking history of >30 pack years and a normal FEV(1) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline (mean (SD) FEV(1) 99.4 (12.8)%, range 80.2-140.7%; mean (SD) FEV(1)/FVC 77.9 (4.4), range 70.0-88.0%). An inspiratory multislice CT scan was acquired for each subject at baseline. Custom software was used to measure airway lumen and wall dimensions; the percentage of the lung inflated beyond a predicted maximal lung inflation, the low attenuation lung area with an x ray attenuation lower than -950 HU and the size distribution of the overinflated lung areas and the low attenuation area were described using a cluster analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that these CT measurements combined with other baseline characteristics might identify those who would develop an excessive annual decline in FEV(1).The mean (SD) annual change in FEV(1) was -2.3 (4.7)% predicted (range -23.0% to +8.3%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the annual change in FEV(1)%predicted was significantly associated with baseline percentage overinflated lung area measured on quantitative CT, FEV(1)% predicted, FEV(1)/FVC and gender.Quantitative CT scan evidence of overinflation of the lung predicts a rapid annual decline in FEV(1) in smokers with normal FEV(1).
Project description:Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR129-2-HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX and KCNJ2. Two loci previously associated with spirometric measures (GSTCD and PTCH1) were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed up in samples from African-American, Korean, Chinese and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and the pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.
Project description:Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR1, TLR5, TLR6) and downstream markers (CCR1, MAPK14, ICAM1) leads to increased systemic inflammation. Our objective was to study the association between the gene expression levels of these six genes and lung function (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV<sub>1</sub>), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and FEV<sub>1</sub>/FVC). We studied gene expression levels and lung function in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Spirometry testing was used to measure lung function and gene expression levels were measured using the Nanostring platform. Multivariate linear regression models were used to study the association between lung function measured at year 30, 10-year decline from year 20 to year 30, and gene expression levels (highest quartile divided into two levels - 75th to 95th and>95th to 100th percentile) adjusting for center, smoking and BMI, measured at year 25. Year 30 FEV<sub>1</sub> and FVC were lower in the highest level of TLR5 compared to the lowest quartile with difference of 4.00% (p for trend: 0.04) and 3.90% (p for trend: 0.05), respectively. The 10-year decline of FEV<sub>1</sub> was faster in the highest level of CCR1 as compared to the lowest quartile with a difference of 1.69% (p for trend: 0.01). There was no association between gene expression and FEV<sub>1</sub>/FVC. Higher gene expression levels in TLR5 and CCR1 are associated with lower lung function and faster decline in FEV<sub>1</sub> over 10 years, in a threshold manner, providing new insights into the role of inflammation in lung function.