Comparison of [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 and [(11)C]PBR28, two radioligands for translocator protein (18 kDa) in human and monkey: Implications for positron emission tomographic imaging of this inflammation biomarker.
ABSTRACT: UNLABELLED:Ten percent of humans lack specific binding of [(11)C]PBR28 to 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker for inflammation. "Non-binders" have not been reported using another TSPO radioligand, [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195, despite its use for more than two decades. This study asked two questions: (1) What is the cause of non-binding to PBR28? and (2) Why has this phenomenon not been reported using [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195? METHODS:Five binders and five non-binders received whole-body imaging with both [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 and [(11)C]PBR28. In vitro binding was performed using leukocyte membranes from binders and non-binders and the tritiated versions of the ligand. Rhesus monkeys were imaged with [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 at baseline and after blockade of TSPOs. RESULTS:Using [(11)C]PBR28, uptake in all five organs with high densities of TSPO (lung, heart, brain, kidney, and spleen) was 50% to 75% lower in non-binders than in binders. In contrast, [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 distinguished binders and non-binders in only heart and lung. For the in vitro assay, [(3)H]PBR28 had more than 10-fold lower affinity to TSPO in non-binders than in binders. The in vivo specific binding of [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 in monkey brain was approximately 80-fold lower than that reported for [(11)C]PBR28. CONCLUSIONS:Based on binding of [(3)H]PK 11195 to leukocyte membranes, both binders and non-binders express TSPO. Non-binding to PBR28 is caused by its low affinity for TSPO in non-binders. Non-binding may be differentially expressed in organs of the body. The relatively low in vivo specific binding of [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 may have obscured its detection of non-binding in peripheral organs.
Project description:Positron emission tomography (PET) targeting the 18?kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is used to quantify neuroinflammation. Translocator protein is expressed throughout the brain, and therefore a classical reference region approach cannot be used to estimate binding potential (BPND). Here, we used blockade of the TSPO radioligand [(11)C]PBR28 with the TSPO ligand XBD173, to determine the non-displaceable volume of distribution (VND), and hence estimate the BPND. A total of 26 healthy volunteers, 16 high-affinity binders (HABs) and 10 mixed affinity binders (MABs) underwent a [(11)C]PBR28 PET scan with arterial sampling. Six of the HABs received oral XBD173 (10 to 90?mg), 2?hours before a repeat scan. In XBD173-dosed subjects, VND was estimated via the occupancy plot. Values of BPND for all subjects were calculated using this VND estimate. Total volume of distribution (VT) of MABs (2.94±0.31) was lower than VT of HABs (4.33±0.29) (P<0.005). There was dose-dependent occupancy of TSPO by XBD173 (ED50=0.34±0.13?mg/kg). The occupancy plot provided a VND estimate of 1.98 (1.69, 2.26). Based on these VND estimates, BPND for HABs is approximately twice that of MABs, consistent with predictions from in vitro data. Our estimates of [(11)C]PBR28 VND and hence BPND in the healthy human brain are consistent with in vitro predictions. XBD173 blockade provides a practical means of estimating VND for TSPO targeting radioligands.
Project description:PK 11195 and DAA1106 bind with high-affinity to the translocator protein (TSPO, formerly known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor). TSPO expression in glial cells increases in response to cytokines and pathological stimuli. Accordingly, [(11)C]-PK 11195 and [(11)C]-DAA1106 are recognized molecular imaging (MI) agents capable of monitoring changes in TSPO expression occurring in vivo and in response to various neuropathologies.Here we tested the pharmacological characteristics and TSPO-monitoring potential of two novel MI agents: NIR-conPK and NIR-6T. NIR-conPK is an analogue of PK 11195 conjugated to the near-infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophore: IRDye 800CW. NIR-6T is a DAA1106 analogue also conjugated to IRDye 800CW.We found that NIR-6T competed for [(3)H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenates with nanomolar affinity, but did not exhibit specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture, indicating that NIR-6T is unlikely to constitute a useful MI agent for monitoring TSPO expression in intact cells. Conversely, we found that NIR-conPK did not compete for [(3)H]-PK 11195 binding in astrocytoma cell homogenate, but exhibited specific binding in intact astrocytoma cells in culture with nanomolar affinity, suggesting that NIR-conPK binds to a protein distinct, but related to, TSPO. Accordingly, treating intact astrocytoma cells and microglia in culture with cytokines led to significant changes in the amount of NIR-conPK specific binding without corresponding change in TSPO expression. Remarkably, the cytokine-induced changes in the protein targeted by NIR-conPK in intact microglia were selective, since IFN-gamma (but not TNFalpha and TGFbeta) increased the amount of NIR-conPK specific binding in these cells.Together these results suggest that NIR-conPK binds to a protein that is related to TSPO, and expressed by astrocytomas and microglia. Our results also suggest that the expression of this protein is increased by specific cytokines, and thus allows for the monitoring of a particular subtype of microglia activation.
Project description:PET can image neuroinflammation by targeting the translocator protein (TSPO), which is upregulated in activated microglia. The high nonspecific binding of the first-generation TSPO radioligand [11C]PK-11195 limits accurate quantification. [18F]GE-180, a novel TSPO ligand, displays superior binding to [11C]PK-11195 in vitro. Our objectives were to: (1) evaluate tracer characteristics of [18F]GE-180 in the brains of healthy human subjects; and (2) investigate whether the TSPO Ala147Thr polymorphism influences outcome measures.Ten volunteers (five high-affinity binders, HABs, and five mixed-affinity binders, MABs) underwent a dynamic PET scan with arterial sampling after injection of [18F]GE-180. Kinetic modelling of time-activity curves with one-tissue and two-tissue compartment models and Logan graphical analysis was applied to the data. The primary outcome measure was the total volume of distribution (V T) across various regions of interest (ROIs). Secondary outcome measures were the standardized uptake values (SUV), the distribution volume and SUV ratios estimated using a pseudoreference region.The two-tissue compartment model was the best model. The average regional delivery rate constant (K 1) was 0.01 mL cm-3 min-1 indicating low extraction across the blood-brain barrier (1 %). The estimated median V T across all ROIs was also low, ranging from 0.16 mL cm-3 in the striatum to 0.38 mL cm-3 in the thalamus. There were no significant differences in V T between HABs and MABs across all ROIs.A reversible two-tissue compartment model fitted the data well and determined that the tracer has a low first-pass extraction (approximately 1 %) and low V T estimates in healthy individuals. There was no observable dependency on the rs6971 polymorphism as compared to other second-generation TSPO PET tracers. Investigation of [18F]GE-180 in populations with neuroinflammatory disease is needed to determine its suitability for quantitative assessment of TSPO expression.
Project description:The optimization of translocator protein (TSPO) ligands for Positron Emission Tomography as well as for the modulation of neurosteroids is a critical necessity for the development of TSPO-based diagnostics and therapeutics of neuropsychiatrics and neurodegenerative disorders. Structural hints on the interaction site and ligand binding mechanism are essential for the development of efficient TSPO ligands. Recently published atomic structures of recombinant mammalian and bacterial TSPO1, bound with either the high-affinity drug ligand PK 11195 or protoporphyrin IX, have revealed the membrane protein topology and the ligand binding pocket. The ligand is surrounded by amino acids from the five transmembrane helices as well as the cytosolic loops. However, the precise mechanism of ligand binding remains unknown. Previous biochemical studies had suggested that ligand selectivity and binding was governed by these loops. We performed site-directed mutagenesis to further test this hypothesis and measured the binding affinities. We show that aromatic residues (Y34 and F100) from the cytosolic loops contribute to PK 11195 access to its binding site. Limited proteolytic digestion, circular dichroism and solution two-dimensional (2-D) NMR using selective amino acid labelling provide information on the intramolecular flexibility and conformational changes in the TSPO structure upon PK 11195 binding. We also discuss the differences in the PK 11195 binding affinities and the primary structure between TSPO (TSPO1) and its paralogous gene product TSPO2.
Project description:Neuroinflammation appears to contribute to neurotoxicity observed with heavy alcohol consumption. To assess whether chronic alcohol results in neuroinflammation we used PET and [11C]PBR28, a ligand that binds to the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), to compare participants with an alcohol use disorder (AUD: n?=?19) with healthy controls (HC: n?=?17), and alcohol-dependent (n?=?9) with -nondependent rats (n?=?10). Because TSPO is implicated in cholesterol's transport for steroidogenesis, we investigated whether plasma cholesterol levels influenced [11C]PBR28 binding. [11C]PBR28 binding did not differ between AUD and HC. However, when separating by TSPO genotype rs6971, we showed that medium-affinity binders AUD participants showed lower [11C]PBR28 binding than HC in regions of interest (whole brain, gray and white matter, hippocampus, and thalamus), but no group differences were observed in high-affinity binders. Cholesterol levels inversely correlated with brain [11C]PBR28 binding in combined groups, due to a correlation in AUD participants. In rodents, we observed no differences in brain [11C]PBR28 uptake between alcohol-dependent and -nondependent rats. These findings, which are consistent with two previous [11C]PBR28 PET studies, may indicate lower activation of microglia in AUD, whereas failure to observe alcohol effects in the rodent model indicate that species differences do not explain the discrepancy with prior rodent autoradiographic studies reporting increases in TSPO binding with chronic alcohol. However, reduced binding in AUD participants could also reflect competition from endogenous TSPO ligands such as cholesterol; and since the rs6971 polymorphism affects the cholesterol-binding domain of TSPO this could explain why differences were observed only in medium-affinity binders.
Project description:UNLABELLED:11C-PBR28 PET can detect the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) expressed within macrophages. However, quantitative evaluation of the signal in brain tissue from donors with multiple sclerosis (MS) shows that PBR28 binds the TSPO with high affinity (binding affinity [Ki], ?4 nM), low affinity (Ki, ?200 nM), or mixed affinity (2 sites with Ki, ?4 nM and ?300 nM). Our study tested whether similar binding behavior could be detected in brain tissue from donors with no history of neurologic disease, with TSPO-binding PET ligands other than 11C-PBR28, for TSPO present in peripheral blood, and with human brain PET data acquired in vivo with 11C-PBR28. METHODS:The affinity of TSPO ligands was measured in the human brain postmortem from donors with a history of MS (n=13), donors without any history of neurologic disease (n=20), and in platelets from healthy volunteers (n=13). Binding potential estimates from thirty-five 11C-PBR28 PET scans from an independent sample of healthy volunteers were analyzed using a gaussian mixture model. RESULTS:Three binding affinity patterns were found in brains from subjects without neurologic disease in similar proportions to those reported previously from studies of MS brains. TSPO ligands showed substantial differences in affinity between subjects classified as high-affinity binders (HABs) and low-affinity binders (LABs). Differences in affinity between HABs and LABs are approximately 50-fold with PBR28, approximately 17-fold with PBR06, and approximately 4-fold with DAA1106, DPA713, and PBR111. Where differences in affinity between HABs and LABs were low (?4-fold), distinct affinities were not resolvable in binding curves for mixed-affinity binders (MABs), which appeared to express 1 class of sites with an affinity approximately equal to the mean of those for HABs and LABs. Mixed-affinity binding was detected in platelets from an independent sample (HAB, 69%; MAB, 31%), although LABs were not detected. Analysis of 11C-PBR28 PET data was not inconsistent with the existence of distinct subpopulations of HABs, MABs, and LABs. CONCLUSION:With the exception of 11C-PK11195, all TSPO PET ligands in current clinical application recognize HABs, LABs, and MABs in brain tissue in vitro. Knowledge of subjects' binding patterns will be required to accurately quantify TSPO expression in vivo using PET.
Project description:A novel series of N(1)-methyl-(2-phenylindol-3-yl)glyoxylamides, 19-31, designed in accordance with our previously reported pharmacophore/topological model, showed high affinity for the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) and paved the way for developing a new radiolabeled probe. Thus ligand 31, N,N-di-n-propyl-(N(1)-methyl-2-(4'-nitrophenyl)indol-3-yl)glyoxylamide, featuring the best combination of affinity and lipophilicity, was labeled with carbon-11 for evaluation with positron emission tomography (PET) in monkey. After intravenous injection, [(11)C]31 entered brain to give a high proportion of TSPO-specific binding. These findings augur well for the future application of [(11)C]31 in humans. Consequently, the binding of 31 to human TSPO was tested on samples of brain membranes from deceased subjects who through ethically approved in vitro study had previously been established to be high-affinity binders (HABs), mixed-affinity binders (MABs), or low-affinity binders (LABs) for the known TSPO ligand, PBR28 (2). 31 showed high affinity for HABs, MABs, and LABs. In conclusion, [(11)C]31 represents a promising new chemotype for developing novel TSPO radioligands as biomarkers of neuroinflammation.
Project description:Translocator protein (TSPO) is a biomarker for detecting neuroinflammation by PET. 11C-(R)-PK11195 has been used to image TSPO since the 1980s. Here, we compared the utility of four 11C-labeled ligands-(R)-PK11195, PBR28, DPA-713, and ER176-to quantify TSPO in healthy humans. For all of these ligands, BP ND (specific-to-non-displaceable ratio of distribution volumes) was measured by partially blocking specific binding with XNBD173 administration. In high-affinity binders, DPA-713 showed the highest BP ND of 7.3 followed by ER176 (4.2), PBR28 (1.2), and PK11195 (0.8). Only ER176 allows the inclusion of low-affinity binders because of little influence of radiometabolites and high BP ND. If inclusion of all three genotypes is important for study logistics, ER176 is the best of these four radioligands for studying neuroinflammation.
Project description:PURPOSE:To examine the hypothesis that cerebral binding to the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of microglia activation, is elevated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and to assess the relationship between brain TSPO binding and dopaminergic pathology in PD. METHODS:The radioligand [11C]PBR28 was used for quantitative assessment of brain TSPO in 16 control subjects and 16 PD patients. To analyse the relationship between dopaminergic pathology and brain TSPO binding, PET studies of the dopamine transporter (DAT) were undertaken in PD patients using the DAT radioligand [18F]FE-PE2I. The total distribution volume of [11C]PBR28 was quantified in nigrostriatal regions, limbic cortices and thalamus, and the binding potential of [18F]FE-PE2I was quantified in nigrostriatal regions. RESULTS:Based on genotype analysis of the TSPO rs6971 polymorphism, 16 subjects (8 control subjects and 8 PD patients) were identified as high-affinity binders, and the remaining subjects were identified as mixed-affinity binders. A two-way ANOVA showed a strong main effect of TSPO genotype on the cerebral binding of [11C]PBR28, whereas no statistically significant main effect of diagnostic group, or a group by genotype interaction was found for any of the regions analysed. [18F]FE-PE2I PET studies in patients indicated a marked reduction in nigrostriatal binding to DAT. However, no correlations between the binding parameters were found for [11C]PBR28 and [18F]FE-PE2I. CONCLUSION:The findings do not support the hypothesis of elevated cerebral TSPO binding or a relationship between TSPO binding and dopaminergic pathology in PD.
Project description:The positron emission tomography radioligand [(11)C]PBR28 targets translocator protein (18?kDa) (TSPO) and is a potential marker of neuroinflammation. [(11)C]PBR28 binding is commonly quantified using a two-tissue compartment model and an arterial input function. Previous studies with [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195 demonstrated a slow irreversible binding component to the TSPO proteins localized in the endothelium of brain vessels, such as venous sinuses and arteries. However, the impact of this component on the quantification of [(11)C]PBR28 data has never been investigated. In this work we propose a novel kinetic model for [(11)C]PBR28. This model hypothesizes the existence of an additional irreversible component from the blood to the endothelium. The model was tested on a data set of 19 healthy subjects. A simulation was also performed to quantify the error generated by the standard two-tissue compartmental model when the presence of the irreversible component is not taken into account. Our results show that when the vascular component is included in the model the estimates that include the vascular component (2TCM-1K) are more than three-fold smaller, have a higher time stability and are better correlated to brain mRNA TSPO expression than those that do not include the model (2TCM).