Alpha- and beta-Adducin polymorphisms affect podocyte proteins and proteinuria in rodents and decline of renal function in human IgA nephropathy.
ABSTRACT: Adducins are cytoskeletal actin-binding proteins (alpha, beta, gamma) that function as heterodimers and heterotetramers and are encoded by distinct genes. Experimental and clinical evidence implicates alpha- and beta-adducin variants in hypertension and renal dysfunction. Here, we have addressed the role of alpha- and beta-adducin on glomerular function and disease using beta-adducin null mice, congenic substrains for alpha- and beta-adducin from the Milan hypertensive (MHS) and Milan normotensive (MNS) rats and patients with IgA nephropathy. Targeted deletion of beta-adducin in mice reduced urinary protein excretion, preceded by an increase of podocyte protein expression (phospho-nephrin, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin, ZO-1, Fyn). The introgression of polymorphic MHS beta-adducin locus into MNS (Add2, 529R) rats was associated with an early reduction of podocyte protein expression (nephrin, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin, ZO-1, podocin, Fyn), followed by severe glomerular and interstitial lesions and increased urinary protein excretion. These alterations were markedly attenuated when the polymorphic MHS alpha-adducin locus was also present (Add1, 316Y). In patients with IgA nephropathy, the rate of decline of renal function over time was associated to polymorphic beta-adducin (ADD2, 1797T, rs4984) with a significant interaction with alpha-adducin (ADD1, 460W, rs4961). These findings suggest that adducin genetic variants participate in the development of glomerular lesions by modulating the expression of specific podocyte proteins.
Project description:The three adducin proteins (α, β, and γ) share extensive sequence, structural, and functional homology. Heterodimers of α- and β-adducin are vital components of the red cell membrane skeleton, which is required to maintain red cell elasticity and structural integrity. In addition to anemia, targeted deletion of the α-adducin gene (Add1) reveals unexpected, strain-dependent non-erythroid phenotypes. On an inbred 129 genetic background, Add1 null mice show abnormal inward curvature of the cervicothoracic spine with complete penetrance. More surprisingly, a subset of 129-Add1 null mice develop severe megaesophagus, while examination of peripheral nerves reveals a reduced number of axons in 129-Add1 null mice at four months of age. These unforeseen phenotypes, described here, reveal new functions for adducin and provide new models of mammalian disease.
Project description:Adducin (ADD) is a family of membrane skeleton proteins including ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3 that are encoded by distinct genes on different chromosomes. Adducin is primarily responsible for the assembly of spectrin-actin network that provides physical support to the plasma membrane and mediates signal transduction in various cellular physiological processes upon regulation by protein kinase C-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent pathways. Abnormal phosphorylation, genetic variations, and alternative splicing of adducin may contribute to alterations in cellular functions involved in pathogenic processes. These alterations are associated with a wide range of diseases including cancer. This paper begins with a discussion on how adducin partakes in the structural formation of membrane skeleton, its regulation, and related functional characteristics, followed by a review on the pathogenesis of hypertension, biliary atresia, and cancer with respect to increased disease susceptibility mediated by adducin polymorphism and/or dysregulation. Given the functional diversity of adducin in different cellular compartments, we aim to provide a knowledge base whereby its pathophysiological roles can be better understood. More importantly, we aim to provide novel insights that may be of significance in turning the adducin model to clinical application.
Project description:Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases that seriously endangers human health and has become a significant public health problem worldwide. In the vast majority of patients, the cause of hypertension is unknown, called essential hypertension (EH), accounting for more than 95% of total hypertension. Epidemiological and genetic studies of humans and animals provide strong evidence of a causal relationship between high salt intake and hypertension. Adducin is one of the important candidate genes for essential hypertension. Adducin is a heterodimeric or heterotetrameric protein that consists of ?, ?, and ? subunits; the three subunits are encoded by genes (ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3) that map to three different chromosomes. Animal model experiments and clinical studies suggest that changes in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at part of the adducin family gene increase the Na+-K+-ATPase activity of the renal tubular basement membrane and increase the reabsorption of Na+ by renal tubular epithelial cells, which may cause hypertension. This review makes a summary on the structure, function, and mechanism of adducin and the role of adducin on the onset of EH, providing a basis for the early screening, prevention, and treatment of EH.
Project description:Gain-of-function mutations of classic transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) were identified in familial FSGS, and increased expression of wild-type TRPC6 in glomeruli is observed in several human acquired proteinuric diseases. Synaptopodin, an actin binding protein that is important in maintaining podocyte function, is downregulated in various glomerular diseases. Here, we investigated whether synaptopodin maintains podocyte function by regulating podocyte surface expression and activity of TRPC6. We show indirect interaction and nonrandom association of synaptopodin and TRPC6 in podocytes. Knockdown of synaptopodin in cultured mouse podocytes increased the expression of TRPC6 at the plasma membrane, whereas overexpression of synaptopodin decreased it. Mechanistically, synaptopodin-dependent TRPC6 surface expression required functional actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Overexpression of wild-type or FSGS-inducing mutant TRPC6 in synaptopodin-depleted podocytes enhanced TRPC6-mediated calcium influx and induced apoptosis. In vivo, knockdown of synaptopodin also caused increased podocyte surface expression of TRPC6. Administration of cyclosporin A, which stabilizes synaptopodin, reduced LPS-induced proteinuria significantly in wild-type mice but to a lesser extent in TRPC6 knockout mice. Furthermore, administration of cyclosporin A reversed the LPS-induced increase in podocyte surface expression of TRPC6 in wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that alteration in synaptopodin levels under disease conditions may modify intracellular TRPC6 channel localization and activity, which further contribute to podocyte dysfunction. Reducing TRPC6 surface levels may be a new approach to restoring podocyte function.
Project description:The CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) activity and localization are influenced by the cytoskeleton, in particular by actin and its polymerization state. In this study we investigated whether the expression of the hypertensive mutations of ?-adducin (G460W-S586C in humans, F316Y in rats), an actin capping protein, led to a functional modification of CFTR activity and surface expression. The experiments were performed on HEK293 T cells cotransfected with CFTR and the human wild type (WT) or G460W mutated ?-adducin. In whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, both the CFTR chloride current and the slope of current activation after forskolin addition were significantly higher in HEK cells overexpressing the G460W adducin. A higher plasma membrane density of active CFTR channels was confirmed by cell-attached patch-clamp experiments, both in HEK cells and in cultured primary DCT cells, isolated from MHS (Milan Hypertensive Strain, a Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus) hypertensive model carrying the F316Y adducin mutation), compared to MNS (Milan Normotensive Strain) rats. Western blot experiments demonstrated an increase of the plasma membrane CFTR protein expression, with a modification of the channel glycosylation state, in the presence of the mutated adducin. A higher retention of CFTR protein in the plasma membrane was confirmed both by FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) and photoactivation experiments. The present data indicate that in HEK cells and in isolated DCT cells the presence of the G460W-S586C hypertensive variant of adducin increases CFTR channel activity, possibly by altering its membrane turnover and inducing a retention of the channel in the plasmamembrane. Since CFTR is known to modulate the activity of many others transport systems, the increased surface expression of the channel could have consequences on the whole network of transport in kidney cells.
Project description:Podocyte or endothelial cell VEGF-A knockout causes thrombotic microangiopathy in adult mice. To study the mechanism involved in acute and local injury caused by low podocyte VEGF-A we developed an inducible, podocyte-specific VEGF-A knockdown mouse, and we generated an immortalized podocyte cell line (VEGF(KD)) that downregulates VEGF-A upon doxycycline exposure. Tet-O-siVEGF:podocin-rtTA mice express VEGF shRNA in podocytes in a doxycycline-regulated manner, decreasing VEGF-A mRNA and VEGF-A protein levels in isolated glomeruli to ~20% of non-induced controls and urine VEGF-A to ~30% of control values a week after doxycycline induction. Induced tet-O-siVEGF:podocin-rtTA mice developed acute renal failure and proteinuria, associated with mesangiolysis and microaneurisms. Glomerular ultrastructure revealed endothelial cell swelling, GBM lamination and podocyte effacement. VEGF knockdown decreased podocyte fibronectin and glomerular endothelial alpha(V)beta(3) integrin in vivo. VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) interacts with beta(3) integrin and neuropilin-1 in the kidney in vivo and in VEGF(KD) podocytes. Podocyte VEGF knockdown disrupts alpha(V)beta(3) integrin activation in glomeruli, detected by WOW1-Fab. VEGF silencing in cultured VEGF(KD) podocytes downregulates fibronectin and disrupts alpha(V)beta(3) integrin activation cell-autonomously. Collectively, these studies indicate that podocyte VEGF-A regulates alpha(V)beta(3) integrin signaling in the glomerulus, and that podocyte VEGF knockdown disrupts alpha(V)beta(3) integrin activity via decreased VEGFR2 signaling, thereby damaging the three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier, causing proteinuria and acute renal failure.
Project description:Alpha-adducin (Add1) is a critical component of the actin-spectrin network in erythrocytes, acting to cap the fast-growing, barbed ends of actin filaments, and recruiting spectrin to these junctions. Add1 is highly expressed in T cells, but its role in T-cell activation has not been examined. Using a conditional knockout model, we show that Add1 is necessary for complete activation of CD4+ T cells in response to low levels of antigen but is dispensable for CD8+ T cell activation and response to infection. Surprisingly, costimulatory signals through CD28 were completely abrogated in the absence of Add1. This study is the first to examine the role of actin-capping in T cells, and it reveals a previously unappreciated role for the actin cytoskeleton in regulating costimulation.
Project description:The basolateral Na pump drives renotubular reabsorption. In cultured renal cells, mutant adducins, as well as sub-nanomolar ouabain concentrations, stimulate the Na-K pump.To determine whether these factors interact and affect Na handling and blood pressure (BP) in vivo, we studied 155 untreated hypertensive patients subdivided on the basis of their plasma endogenous ouabain or alpha-adducin genotype (ADD1 Gly460Trp-rs4961).Under basal conditions, proximal tubular reabsorption and plasma Na were higher in patients with mutated Trp ADD1 or increased endogenous ouabain (P = 0.002 and 0.05, respectively). BPs were higher in the high plasma endogenous ouabain group (P = 0.001). Following volume loading, the increment in BP (7.73 vs. 4.81 mmHg) and the slopes of the relationship between BP and Na excretion were greater [0.017 +/- 0.002 vs. 0.009 +/- 0.003 mmHg/(muEq min)] in ADD1 Trp vs. ADD1 Gly carriers (P < 0.05). BP changes were similar, whereas the slopes of the relationship between BP and Na excretion were lower [0.016 +/- 0.003 vs. 0.008 +/- 0.002 mmHg/(muEq min)] in patients with low vs. high endogenous ouabain (P < 0.05). In patients with high endogenous ouabain, volume loading increased the BP in the ADD1 Trp group but not in the Gly group (P < 0.05). Thus, patients with ADD1 Trp alleles are sensitive to salt and tubular Na reabsorption remains elevated after volume expansion.With saline loading, BP changes are similar in high and low endogenous ouabain patients, whereas tubular Na reabsorption increases in the high endogenous ouabain group. Saline loading unmasks differences in renal Na handling in patients with mutant adducin or high endogenous ouabain and exposes an interaction of endogenous ouabain and Trp alleles on BP.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding the 3' untranslated region of mRNAs. To define their role in glomerular function, miRNA biogenesis was disrupted in mouse podocytes using a conditional Dicer allele. Mutant mice developed proteinuria by 3 wk after birth and progressed rapidly to end-stage kidney disease. Podocyte pathology included effacement, vacuolization, and hypertrophy with crescent formation. Despite normal expression of WT1, podocytes underwent dedifferentiation, exemplified by cytoskeletal disruption with early transcriptional downregulation of synaptopodin. These abnormalities differed from Cd2ap(-/-) mice, indicating they were not a general consequence of glomerular disease. Glomerular labeling of ezrin, moesin, and gelsolin was altered at 3 wk, but expression of nestin and alpha-actinin was unchanged. Abnormal cell proliferation or apoptosis was not responsible for the glomerular injury. Mutant podocytes were incapable of synthesizing mature miRNA, as revealed by their loss of miR-30a. In contrast, expression of glomerular endothelial and mesangial cell miRNAs (miR-126 and miR-145, respectively) was unchanged. These findings demonstrate a critical role for miRNA in glomerular function and suggest a pathway that may participate in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases of podocyte origin. The unique architecture of podocytes may make them especially susceptible to cytoskeletal alterations initiated by aberrant miRNA dynamics.
Project description:Glomerular injury leads to podocyte loss, a process directly underlying progressive glomerular scarring and decline of kidney function. The inherent repair process is limited by the inability of podocytes to regenerate. Cells of renin lineage residing alongside glomerular capillaries are reported to have progenitor capacity. We investigated whether cells of renin lineage can repopulate the glomerulus after podocyte injury and serve as glomerular epithelial cell progenitors. Kidney cells expressing renin were genetically fate-mapped in adult Ren1cCreER×Rs-tdTomato-R, Ren1cCre×Rs-ZsGreen-R, and Ren1dCre×Z/EG reporter mice. Podocyte depletion was induced in all three cell-specific reporter mice by cytotoxic anti-podocyte antibodies. After a decrease in podocyte number, a significant increase in the number of labeled cells of renin lineage was observed in glomeruli in a focal distribution along Bowman's capsule, within the glomerular tuft, or in both locations. A subset of cells lining Bowman's capsule activated expression of the glomerular parietal epithelial cell markers paired box protein PAX2 and claudin-1. A subset of labeled cells within the glomerular tuft expressed the podocyte markers Wilms tumor protein 1, nephrin, podocin, and synaptopodin. Neither renin mRNA nor renin protein was detected de novo in diseased glomeruli. These findings provide initial evidence that cells of renin lineage may enhance glomerular regeneration by serving as progenitors for glomerular epithelial cells in glomerular disease characterized by podocyte depletion.