Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of an exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase from Trichoderma reesei.
ABSTRACT: Chitosan is degraded to glucosamine (GlcN) by chitosanase and exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (GlcNase). GlcNase from Trichoderma reesei (Gls93) is a 93 kDa extracellular protein composed of 892 amino acids. The enzyme liberates GlcN from the nonreducing end of the chitosan chain in an exo-type manner and belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 2. For crystallographic investigations, Gls93 was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris cells. The recombinant Gls93 had two molecular forms of approximately 105 kDa (Gls93-F1) and approximately 100 kDa (Gls93-F2), with the difference between them being caused by N-glycosylation. Both forms were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of Gls93-F1 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 98.27, b = 98.42, c = 108.28 A, and diffracted to 1.8 A resolution. Crystals of Gls93-F2 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 67.84, b = 81.62, c = 183.14 A, and diffracted to 2.4 A resolution. Both crystal forms were suitable for X-ray structure analysis at high resolution.
Project description:Extracellular exo-inulinase has been isolated from a solid-phase culture of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori var. 2250. The apparent molecular mass of the monomer enzyme was 69 +/- kDa, with a pI of 4.4 and a pH optimum of 4.5. The enzyme hydrolysed the beta-(2-->1)-fructan (inulin) and beta-(2-->6)-fructan (levan) via exo-cleavage, releasing fructose. The values for the Michaelis constants K(m) and V(max) in the hydrolysis of inulin were 0.003 +/- 0.0001 mM and 175 +/- 5 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1). The same parameters in the hydrolysis of levan were 2.08 +/- 0.04 mg/ml and 1.2 +/- 0.02 micromol/min per mg, respectively. The gene and cDNA encoding the A. awamori exo-inulinase were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence indicated that the protein belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 32. A surprisingly high similarity was found to fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus foetidus (90.7% on the level of the amino acid sequence), despite the fact that the latter enzyme is unable to hydrolyse inulin and levan. Crystals of the native exo-inulinase were obtained and found to belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with cell parameters a=64.726 A (1A=0.1 nm), b=82.041 A and c=136.075 A. Crystals diffracted beyond 1.54 A, and useful X-ray data were collected to a resolution of 1.73 A.
Project description:The deactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by chemical modification is one of the major sources of bacterial resistance to this family of therapeutic compounds, which includes the clinically relevant drugs streptomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin. The aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) form one such family of enzymes responsible for this resistance. The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2''-phosphotransferase-IVa [APH(2'')-IVa] from Enterococcus casseliflavus, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 306 amino-acid residues) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The enzyme was crystallized in three substrate-free forms. Two of the crystal forms belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with similar unit-cell parameters, although one of the crystal forms had a unit-cell volume that was approximately 13% smaller than the other and a very low solvent content of around 38%. The third crystal form belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1) and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was consistent with the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The orthorhombic crystal forms of apo APH(2'')-IVa both diffracted to 2.2 A resolution and the monoclinic crystal form diffracted to 2.4 A resolution; synchrotron diffraction data were collected from these crystals at SSRL (Stanford, California, USA). Structure determination by molecular replacement using the structure of the related enzyme APH(2'')-IIa is proceeding.
Project description:Full-length GroEL1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned, overexpressed and purified. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method and contained a 23 kDa GroEL1 fragment. A complete native data set was collected from a single frozen crystal that belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.47, b = 78.67, c = 34.89 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees , and diffracted to 2.2 A resolution on a home X-ray source.
Project description:Marine bacteria secrete specific glycoside hydrolases such as agarases to access polysaccharides from algal cell walls as a carbon and energy source. In an attempt to identify agarases with variable degradation patterns, a novel family GH16 beta-agarase from the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans was expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified enzyme crystallized in two distinct forms that were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. Hexagonal crystals belonging to space group P3(1)21 diffracted to 2.2 A resolution, whereas orthorhombic crystals belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) diffracted to 1.5 A resolution.
Project description:A putative ribosomal RNA-processing factor consisting of two KH domains from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PH1566; 25 kDa) was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3000 as the precipitant. The crystals diffracted X-rays to beyond 2.0 A resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The space group of the crystals was determined as primitive orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 45.9, b = 47.4, c = 95.7 A. The crystals contain one molecule in the asymmetric unit (VM = 2.5 A3 Da(-1)) and have a solvent content of 50%.
Project description:The class IV adenylyl cyclase from Yersinia pestis has been cloned and crystallized in both a triclinic and an orthorhombic form. An amino-terminal His-tagged construct, from which the tag was removed by thrombin, crystallized in a triclinic form diffracting to 1.9 A, with one dimer per asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 33.5, b = 35.5, c = 71.8 A, alpha = 88.7, beta = 82.5, gamma = 65.5 degrees. Several mutants of this construct crystallized but diffracted poorly. A non-His-tagged native construct (179 amino acids, MW = 20.5 kDa) was purified by conventional chromatography and crystallized in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). These crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 56.8, b = 118.6, c = 144.5 A, diffract to 3 A and probably have two dimers per asymmetric unit and VM = 3.0 A3 Da(-1). Both crystal forms appear to require pH below 5, complicating attempts to incorporate nucleotide ligands into the structure. The native construct has been produced as a selenomethionine derivative and crystallized for phasing and structure determination.
Project description:L-Methionine gamma-lyase (MGL) is considered to be an attractive target for rational drug development because the enzyme is absent in mammalian hosts. To enable structure-based design of drugs targeting MGL, one of the two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL2) was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.89, b = 102.68, c = 169.87 A. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 A. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 x 43.1 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.2 A(3) Da(-1). The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.
Project description:Heat-resistant RNA-dependent ATPase (Hera) from Thermus thermophilus is a DEAD-box RNA helicase. Two constructs encompassing the second RecA-like domain and the C-terminal domain of Hera were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Single crystals of both Hera constructs were obtained in three crystal forms. A tetragonal crystal form belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, c = 153.0 A, and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. Two orthorhombic forms belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 62.8, b = 70.9, c = 102.3 A (form I) and a = 41.6, b = 67.6, c = 183.5 A (form II). Both orthorhombic forms contained two molecules per asymmetric unit. All crystals diffracted X-rays to beyond 3 A resolution, but the tetragonal data sets displayed high Wilson B values and high mean |E(2) - 1| values, indicating potential disorder and anisotropy. The tetragonal crystal was phased by MAD using a single selenium site.
Project description:In adult Ascaris suum (roundworm) mitochondrial membrane-bound complex II acts as a rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase, which is the reverse reaction to that of mammalian complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase). The adult A. suum rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase was crystallized in the presence of octaethyleneglycol monododecyl ether and n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside in a 3:2 weight ratio. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 123.75, b = 129.08, c = 221.12 A, and diffracted to 2.8 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (120 kDa x 2) gives a crystal volume per protein mass (V(M)) of 3.6 A(3) Da(-1).
Project description:Catechol oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to the corresponding o-quinones. It is a copper-containing enzyme with a binuclear copper active site. Here, the crystallization and multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion data collection of catechol oxidase from the mould fungus Aspergillus oryzae are described. During the purification, three forms of the enzyme (39.3, 40.5 and 44.3?kDa) were obtained. A mixture of these three forms was initially crystallized and gave crystals that diffracted to 2.5?Å resolution and belonged to space group P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 118.9, c = 84.5?Å, ? = ? = 90, ? = 120°. A preparation containing only the shorter form (39.3?kDa) produced crystals that diffracted to 2.9?Å resolution and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 51.8, b = 95.3, c = 139.5?Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°.