Deletion and point mutations of PTHLH cause brachydactyly type E.
ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant brachydactyly type E (BDE) is a congenital limb malformation characterized by small hands and feet predominantly as a result of shortened metacarpals and metatarsals. In a large pedigree with BDE, short stature, and learning disabilities, we detected a microdeletion of approximately 900 kb encompassing PTHLH, the gene coding for parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHRP). PTHRP is known to regulate the balance between chondrocyte proliferation and the onset of hypertrophic differentiation during endochondral bone development. Inactivation of Pthrp in mice results in short-limbed dwarfism because of premature differentiation of chondrocyte. On the basis of our initial finding, we tested further individuals with BDE and short stature for mutations in PTHLH. We identified two missense (L44P and L60P), a nonstop (X178WextX( *)54), and a nonsense (K120X) mutation. The missense mutation L60P was tested in chicken micromass culture with the replication-competent avian sarcoma leukosis virus retroviral expression system and was shown to result in a loss of function. Thus, loss-of-function mutations in PTHLH cause BDE with short stature.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Brachydactyly, a developmental disorder, refers to shortening of hands/feet due to small or missing metacarpals/metatarsals and/or phalanges. Isolated brachydactyly type E (BDE), characterized by shortened metacarpals and/or metatarsals, consists in a small proportion of patients with Homeobox D13 (HOXD13) or parathyroid-hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) mutations. BDE is often accompanied by other anomalies that are parts of many congenital syndromes. In this study, we investigated a Chinese family presented with BDE combined with pectus carinatum and short stature. METHODS:A four-generation Chinese family was recruited in June 2016. After informed consent was obtained, venous blood was collected, and genomic DNA was extracted by standard procedures. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to screen pathogenic mutation, array comparative genomic hybridization (Array-CGH) analysis was used to analyze copy number variations, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), stride over breakpoint PCR (gap-PCR), and Sanger sequencing were performed to confirm the candidate variation. RESULTS:A 3.06-Mb deletion (chr12:25473650-28536747) was identified and segregated with the phenotype in this family. The deletion region encompasses 23 annotated genes, one of which is PTHLH which has been reported to be causative to the BDE. PTHLH is an important regulator of endochondral bone development. The affected individuals showed bilateral, severe, and generalized brachydactyly with short stature, pectus carinatum, and prematurely fusion of epiphyses. The feature of pectus carinatum has not been described in the PTHLH-related BDE patients previously. CONCLUSIONS:The haploinsufficiency of PTHLH might be responsible for the disease in this family. This study has expanded the knowledge on the phenotypic presentation of PTHLH variation.
Project description:Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH, MIM 168470) plays an important role in endochondral bone development and prevents chondrocytes from differentiating. Disease-causing variants and haploinsufficiency of PTHLH are known to cause brachydactyly type E and short stature. So far, three large duplications encompassing several genes including PTHLH associating with enchondromatas and acro-osteolysis have been described in the literature. Here, we report on a three-generation pedigree with short humerus, curved radius, and a specific type of severe brachydactyly with features of types E and A1 but without the enchondromatas and the acro-osteolysis. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) revealed a 70-kb duplication on chromosome 12p11.22 encompassing only PTHLH. Our data extend the phenotypic spectrum associated with copy number variations of PTHLH, and this family is to our knowledge the first description harboring a microduplication encompassing only PTHLH.
Project description:Brachydactyly (BD) refers to the shortening of the hands, feet or both. There are different types of BD; among them, type E (BDE) is a rare type that can present as an isolated feature or as part of more complex syndromes, such as: pseudohypopthyroidism (PHP), hypertension with BD or Bilginturan BD (HTNB), BD with mental retardation (BDMR) or BDE with short stature, PTHLH type. Each syndrome has characteristic patterns of skeletal involvement. However, brachydactyly is not a constant feature and shows a high degree of phenotypic variability. In addition, there are other syndromes that can be misdiagnosed as brachydactyly type E, some of which will also be discussed. The objective of this review is to describe some of the syndromes in which BDE is present, focusing on clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics as features of differential diagnoses, with the aim of establishing an algorithm for their differential diagnosis. As in our experience many of these patients are recruited at Endocrinology and/or Pediatric Endocrinology Services due to their short stature, we have focused the algorithm in those steps that could mainly help these professionals.
Project description:Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is an important chondrogenic regulator; however, the gene has not been directly linked to human disease. We studied a family with autosomal-dominant Brachydactyly Type E (BDE) and identified a t(8;12)(q13;p11.2) translocation with breakpoints (BPs) upstream of PTHLH on chromosome 12p11.2 and a disrupted KCNB2 on 8q13. We sequenced the BPs and identified a highly conserved Activator protein 1 (AP-1) motif on 12p11.2, together with a C-ets-1 motif translocated from 8q13. AP-1 and C-ets-1 bound in vitro and in vivo at the derivative chromosome 8 breakpoint [der(8) BP], but were differently enriched between the wild-type and BP allele. We differentiated fibroblasts from BDE patients into chondrogenic cells and found that PTHLH and its targets, ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 were downregulated along with impaired chondrogenic differentiation. We next used human and murine chondrocytes and observed that the AP-1 motif stimulated, whereas der(8) BP or C-ets-1 decreased, PTHLH promoter activity. These results are the first to identify a cis-directed PTHLH downregulation as primary cause of human chondrodysplasia.
Project description:Translocations are chromosomal rearrangements that are frequently associated with a variety of disease states and developmental disorders. We identified 2 families with brachydactyly type E (BDE) resulting from different translocations affecting chromosome 12p. Both translocations caused downregulation of the parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) gene by disrupting the cis-regulatory landscape. Using chromosome conformation capturing, we identified a regulator on chromosome 12q that interacts in cis with PTHLH over a 24.4-megabase distance and in trans with the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) gene on chromosome 17q. The element also harbored a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Silencing of the lncRNA, PTHLH, or SOX9 revealed a feedback mechanism involving an expression-dependent network in humans. In the BDE patients, the human lncRNA was upregulated by the disrupted chromosomal association. Moreover, the lncRNA occupancy at the PTHLH locus was reduced. Our results document what we believe to be a novel in cis- and in trans-acting DNA and lncRNA regulatory feedback element that is reciprocally regulated by coding genes. Furthermore, our findings provide a systematic and combinatorial view of how enhancers encoding lncRNAs may affect gene expression in normal development.
Project description:Susceptibly to the induction of rat tongue cancer (TC) by oral 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) exposure is a polygenic trait. Among several quantitative trait loci identified by crosses between TC-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and TC-resistant Wistar-Furth (WF) rats, we focused on tongue cancer susceptibility locus (Tcas3) of chromosome 4. We examined tongue carcinogenesis in the reciprocal congenic strains DA.WF-Tcas3 and WF.DA-Tcas3 and in their parental strains. The Tcas3DA allele, and not the Tcas3WF allele, significantly favored tumor latency, incidence and TC number/size. In genomic DNA of TCs induced in (DA x WF) F1 rats, the resistant Tcas3WF allele was frequently and selectively lost, particularly in larger tumors. Thus, we searched the possible candidate genes in the Tcas3 region using microarray analysis of TCs in F1 rats and revealed significant upregulation of 2 cancer-related genes, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) and Kras2. The relevance of the WF allele of Pthlh as a cancer modifier was indicated by 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to this strain. In contrast, no consistent strain-specific variations were found in Kras2. Moreover, the plasma Ca2+ level was consistently higher in DA rats when compared to the level in WF rats bearing TCs; moreover, the Pthlh-mRNA expression level was >30-fold higher in TCs when compared to this level in the normal tongue mucosa. Immunostaining experiments showed strong PTHrP protein expression in TCs of DA rats, and the signal was intensified in larger TCs. Kras2 was also upregulated in TCs, but to a lesser degree than PTHrP. Thus, Pthlh is a promising candidate modifier gene in the development and progression of rat TCs.
Project description:In mammals, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, alias PTH-like hormone (Pthlh)) acts as a paracrine hormone that regulates the patterning of cartilage, bone, teeth, pancreas, and thymus. Beyond mammals, however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms by which Pthlh regulates early development. To evaluate conserved pathways of craniofacial skeletogenesis, we isolated two Pthlh co-orthologs from the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and investigated their structural, phylogenetic, and syntenic relationships, expression, and function. Results showed that pthlh duplicates originated in the teleost genome duplication. Zebrafish pthlha and pthlhb were maternally expressed and showed overlapping and distinct zygotic expression patterns during skeletal development that mirrored mammalian expression domains. To explore the regulation of duplicated pthlh genes, we studied their expression patterns in mutants and found that both sox9a and sox9b are upstream of pthlha in arch and fin bud cartilages, but only sox9b is upstream of pthlha in the pancreas. Morpholino antisense knockdown showed that pthlha regulates both sox9a and sox9b in the pharyngeal arches but not in the brain or otic vesicles and that pthlhb does not regulate either sox9 gene, which is likely related to its highly degraded nuclear localization signal. Knockdown of pthlha but not pthlhb caused runx2b overexpression in craniofacial cartilages and premature bone mineralization. We conclude that in normal cartilage development, sox9 upregulates pthlh, which downregulates runx2, and that the duplicated nature of all three of these genes in zebrafish creates a network of regulation by different co-orthologs in different tissues.
Project description:Brachydactyly type E, which can be an isolated finding or part of a syndrome in combination with other clinical anomalies, involves metacarpals and metatarsals with or without short phalanges. Herein we report two unrelated Turkish females who presented with brachydactyly type E and vitamin D deficiency in the absence of marked alterations in serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone. After excluding disease-causing variants in two candidate genes, PTHLH and PDE4D, we identified different pathogenic variants in TRPS1, the gene mutated in patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS). In one of the patients, who displayed severe brachydactyly and short stature, we identified a novel heterozygous missense pathogenic variant in exon 6 (c.2783A>G, p.Tyr928Cys), located within the GATA DNA-binding domain. The second patient, who had relatively milder brachydactyly and was of normal height, carried a heterozygous nonsense pathogenic variant in exon 4 (c. 1870C>T, p.Arg624Ter), which has been previously described. Both pathogenic variants segregated in affected family members. The patients additionally showed sparse hair and a bulbous nose, consistent with the clinical features of TRPS. Our findings, in addition to identifying the genetic cause of brachydactyly in two unrelated kindreds, emphasize the role of pathogenic TRPS1 variants in the development of brachydactyly type E and highlight the GATA DNA-binding region of TRPS1 protein with respect to phenotype-genotype correlation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autosomal-dominant brachydactyly type E is a congenital abnormality characterized by small hands and feet, which is a consequence of shortened metacarpals and metatarsals. We recently encountered a young gentleman exhibiting shortening of 4th and 5th fingers and toes. Initially, we suspected him having pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) because of normal biochemical parameters, including electrolyte, Ca, P, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels; however, his mother and maternal grandmother had the same conditions in their hands and feet. Furthermore, his mother showed normal biochemical parameters. To the best of our knowledge, PPHP is inherited via a mutated paternal allele, owing to the paternal imprinting of GNAS (guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating) in the renal proximal tubule. Therefore, we decided to further analyze the genetic background in this family. METHODS:Whole exome sequencing was performed using genomic DNA from the affected mother, son, and the unaffected father as a negative control. RESULTS:We selected the intersection between 45,490 variants from the mother and 45,646 variants from the son and excluded 27,512 overlapping variants identified from the father. By excluding homogenous and compound heterozygous variants and removing all previously reported variants, 147 variants were identified to be shared by the mother and son. Variants that had least proximities among species were excluded and finally 23 variants remained. CONCLUSION:Among them, we identified a defect in parathyroid hormone like hormone (PTHLH), encoding the PTH-related protein, to be disease-causative. Herein, we report a family affected with brachydactyly type E2 caused by a novel PTHLH mutation, which was confused with PPHP with unclassical genetic penetrance.