Translationally controlled tumor protein acts as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor on the translation elongation factor eEF1A.
ABSTRACT: Recently, we demonstrated that the expression levels of the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) were strongly down-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels during tumor reversion/suppression and by the activation of p53 and Siah-1. To better characterize the function of TCTP, a yeast two-hybrid hunt was performed. Subsequent analysis identified the translation elongation factor, eEF1A, and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eEF1Bbeta, as TCTP-interacting partners. In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that TCTP bound specifically eEF1Bbeta and eEF1A. Additionally, MS analysis also identified eEF1A as a TCTP interactor. Because eEF1A is a GTPase, we investigated the role of TCTP on the nucleotide exchange reaction of eEF1A. Our results show that TCTP preferentially stabilized the GDP form of eEF1A, and, furthermore, impaired the GDP exchange reaction promoted by eEF1Bbeta. These data suggest that TCTP has guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor activity, and, moreover, implicate TCTP in the elongation step of protein synthesis.
Project description:Most G-proteins require a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) to regulate a variety of critical cellular processes. Interestingly, a small number of G-proteins switch between the active and inactive forms without a GEF. Translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) normally requires the GEF eEF1Balpha to accelerate nucleotide dissociation. However, several mutant forms of eEF1A are functional independent of this essential regulator in vivo. GEF-independent eEF1A mutations localize close to the G-protein motifs that are crucial for nucleotide binding. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that reduced GDP affinity correlates with wild type growth and high translation activities of GEF-independent mutants. Furthermore, the mutant forms show an 11-22-fold increase in rates of GDP dissociation from eEF1A compared with the wild type protein. All mutant forms have dramatically enhanced stability at elevated temperatures. This, coupled with data demonstrating that eEF1A is also more stable in the presence of nucleotides, suggests that both the GEF and nucleotide have stabilizing effects on eEF1A. The biochemical properties of these eEF1A mutants provide insight into the mechanism behind GEF-independent G-protein function.
Project description:Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) both shuttles aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) to the ribosome and binds and bundles actin. A single domain of eEF1A is proposed to bind actin, aa-tRNA and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eEF1Balpha. We show that eEF1Balpha has the ability to disrupt eEF1A-induced actin organization. Mutational analysis of eEF1Balpha F163, which binds in this domain, demonstrates effects on growth, eEF1A binding, nucleotide exchange activity, and cell morphology. These phenotypes can be partially restored by an intragenic W130A mutation. Furthermore, the combination of F163A with the lethal K205A mutation restores viability by drastically reducing eEF1Balpha affinity for eEF1A. This also results in a consistent increase in actin bundling and partially corrected morphology. The consequences of the overlapping functions in this eEF1A domain and its unique differences from the bacterial homologs provide a novel function for eEF1Balpha to balance the dual roles in actin bundling and protein synthesis.
Project description:Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb), a small GTPase, positively regulates the mTORC1 pathway. The GDP-GTP exchange of Rheb has been suggested to be facilitated by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). Here we demonstrate that human TCTP (hTCTP) interacts with human Rheb (hRheb) and accelerates its GDP release in vitro and that hTCTP activates the mTORC1 pathway in vivo. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we built structure models of GDP- and GTP-bound hRheb in complexes with hTCTP and performed molecular dynamics simulations of the models, which predict key residues involved in the interactions and region of hRheb undergoing conformational change during the GDP-GTP exchange. These results are verified with site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro biochemical and in vivo cell biological analyses. Furthermore, a crystal structure of the E12V mutant hTCTP, which lacks the guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, shows that the deficiency appears to be caused by loss of a salt-bridging interaction with Lys-45 of hRheb. These data collectively provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of how hTCTP interacts with hRheb and activates the mTORC1 pathway.
Project description:Eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A transits between the GTP- and GDP-bound conformations during the ribosomal polypeptide chain elongation. eEF1A*GTP establishes a complex with the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site of the 80S ribosome. Correct codon-anticodon recognition triggers GTP hydrolysis, with subsequent dissociation of eEF1A*GDP from the ribosome. The structures of both the 'GTP'- and 'GDP'-bound conformations of eEF1A are unknown. Thus, the eEF1A-related ribosomal mechanisms were anticipated only by analogy with the bacterial homolog EF-Tu. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the mammalian eEF1A2*GDP complex which indicates major differences in the organization of the nucleotide-binding domain and intramolecular movements of eEF1A compared to EF-Tu. Our results explain the nucleotide exchange mechanism in the mammalian eEF1A and suggest that the first step of eEF1A*GDP dissociation from the 80S ribosome is the rotation of the nucleotide-binding domain observed after GTP hydrolysis.
Project description:Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is an abundant protein that is highly conserved in eukaryotes. However, its primary function is still not clear. Human TCTP interacts with the metazoan-specific eukaryotic elongation factor 1B? (eEF1B?) and inhibits its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity, but the structural mechanism remains unknown. The interaction between TCTP and eEF1B? was investigated by NMR titration, structure determination, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, site-directed mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and HADDOCK docking. We first demonstrated that the catalytic GEF domain of eEF1B? is not responsible for binding to TCTP but rather a previously unnoticed central acidic region (CAR) domain in eEF1B?. The mutagenesis data and the structural model of the TCTP-eEF1B? CAR domain complex revealed the key binding residues. These residues are highly conserved in eukaryotic TCTPs and in eEF1B GEFs, including the eukaryotically conserved eEF1B?, implying the interaction may be conserved in all eukaryotes. Interactions were confirmed between TCTP and the eEF1B? CAR domain for human, fission yeast, and unicellular photosynthetic microalgal proteins, suggesting that involvement in protein translation through the conserved interaction with eEF1B represents a primary function of TCTP.
Project description:Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is a guanine-nucleotide binding protein, which transports aminoacylated tRNA to the ribosomal A site during protein synthesis. In a yeast two-hybrid screening of a human skeletal muscle cDNA library, a novel eEF1A binding protein, immunoglobulin-like and fibronectin type III domain containing 1 (IGFN1), was discovered, and its interaction with eEF1A was confirmed in vitro. IGFN1 is specifically expressed in skeletal muscle and presents immunoglobulin I and fibronectin III sets of domains characteristic of sarcomeric proteins. IGFN1 shows sequence and structural homology to myosin binding protein-C fast and slow-type skeletal muscle isoforms. IGFN1 is substantially upregulated during muscle denervation. We propose a model in which this increased expression of IGFN1 serves to down-regulate protein synthesis via interaction with eEF1A during denervation.
Project description:Eukaryotic genomes encode a zinc finger protein (ZPR1) with tandem ZPR1 domains. In response to growth stimuli, ZPR1 assembles into complexes with eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) and the survival motor neurons protein. To gain insight into the structural mechanisms underlying the essential function of ZPR1 in diverse organisms, we determined the crystal structure of a ZPR1 domain tandem and characterized the interaction with eEF1A. The ZPR1 domain consists of an elongation initiation factor 2-like zinc finger and a double-stranded beta helix with a helical hairpin insertion. ZPR1 binds preferentially to GDP-bound eEF1A but does not directly influence the kinetics of nucleotide exchange or GTP hydrolysis. However, ZPR1 efficiently displaces the exchange factor eEF1Balpha from preformed nucleotide-free complexes, suggesting that it may function as a negative regulator of eEF1A activation. Structure-based mutational and complementation analyses reveal a conserved binding epitope for eEF1A that is required for normal cell growth, proliferation, and cell cycle progression. Structural differences between the ZPR1 domains contribute to the observed functional divergence and provide evidence for distinct modalities of interaction with eEF1A and survival motor neuron complexes.
Project description:Selenocysteine is the only proteinogenic amino acid encoded by a recoded in-frame UGA codon that does not operate as the canonical opal stop codon. A specialized translation elongation factor, eEFSec in eukaryotes and SelB in prokaryotes, promotes selenocysteine incorporation into selenoproteins by a still poorly understood mechanism. Our structural and biochemical results reveal that four domains of human eEFSec fold into a chalice-like structure that has similar binding affinities for GDP, GTP and other guanine nucleotides. Surprisingly, unlike in eEF1A and EF-Tu, the guanine nucleotide exchange does not cause a major conformational change in domain 1 of eEFSec, but instead induces a swing of domain 4. We propose that eEFSec employs a non-canonical mechanism involving the distinct C-terminal domain 4 for the release of the selenocysteinyl-tRNA during decoding on the ribosome.
Project description:Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is one of the most abundant protein synthesis factors. eEF1A is responsible for the delivery of all aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome, aside from initiator and selenocysteine tRNAs. In addition to its roles in polypeptide chain elongation, unique cellular and viral activities have been attributed to eEF1A in eukaryotes from yeast to plants and mammals. From preliminary, speculative associations to well characterized biochemical and biological interactions, it is clear that eEF1A, of all the translation factors, has been ascribed the most functions outside of protein synthesis. A mechanistic understanding of these non-canonical functions of eEF1A will shed light on many important biological questions, including viral-host interaction, subcellular organization, and the integration of key cellular pathways.
Project description:During early postnatal development, a switch occurs between eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha and eEF1A-2/S1, homologous peptide elongation factors, in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle; eEF1A-2/S1 becomes the major form expressed in maturity. By immunofluorescent labeling, we detected both homologues in the developing brains of wild-type and wasted mutant mice, carrying a deletion in the eEF1A-2/S1 gene; we found that brain expression of eEF1A-2/S1 protein is restricted to mature, terminally differentiated neurons, and coincides with the disappearance of eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha 20 days after birth. Furthermore, no elongation factor 1A is present in wasted mutant mice neurons following the developmental switch, indicating that the genetic regulation silencing eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha is still functional.