Oncolytic rat parvovirus H-1PV, a candidate for the treatment of human lymphoma: In vitro and in vivo studies.
ABSTRACT: The incidence of lymphomas developing in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients continues to steadily increase worldwide. Current chemotherapy and immunotherapy approaches have several limitations, such as severe side toxicity and selection of resistant cell variants. Autonomous parvoviruses (PVs), in particular the rat parvovirus H-1PV, have emerged as promising anticancer agents. Although it is apathogenic in humans, H-1PV has been shown to infect and suppress various rat and human tumors in animal models. In this study, we demonstrate the capacity of H-1PV for efficiently killing, through necrosis, cell cultures originating from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), while sparing normal B lymphocytes. The cytotoxic effect was generally accompanied by a productive H-1PV infection. Remarkably, parvovirus-based monotherapy efficiently suppressed established BL at an advanced stage in a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of the disease. The data show for the first time that an oncolytic parvovirus deserves further consideration as a potential tool for the treatment of some non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, including those resistant to apoptosis induction by rituximab.
Project description:The oncotropism of Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp) is partially related to the stimulation of an antiviral response mediated by type-I interferons (IFNs) in normal but not in transformed mouse cells. The present work was undertaken to assess whether the oncotropism displayed against human cells by MVMp and its rat homolog H-1PV also depends on antiviral mechanisms and to identify the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) involved. Despite their low proliferation rate which represents a drawback for parvovirus multiplication, we used human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) as normal model specifically because all known PRRs are functional in this mixed cell population and moreover because some of its subsets are among the main IFN producers upon infections in mammals. Human transformed models consisted in lines and tumor cells more or less permissive to both parvoviruses. Our results show that irrespective of their permissiveness, transformed cells do not produce IFNs nor develop an antiviral response upon parvovirus infection. However, MVMp- or H-1PV-infected hPBMCs trigger such defense mechanisms despite an absence of parvovirus replication and protein expression, pointing to the viral genome as the activating element. Substantial reduction of an inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotide (iODN) of the latter IFN production identified TLR-9 as a potential PRR for parvoviruses in hPBMCs. However, neither the iODN treatment nor an antibody-induced neutralization of the IFN-triggered effects restored parvovirus multiplication in these cells as expected by their weak proliferation in culture. Finally, given that a TLR-9 activation could also not be observed in parvovirus-infected human lines reported to be endowed with a functional TLR-9 pathway (Namalwa, Raji, and HEK293-TLR9(+/+)), our data suggest that transformed human cells do not sense MVMp or H-1PV either because of an absence of PRR expression or an intrinsic, or virus-driven defect in the endosomal sensing of the parvovirus genomes by TLR-9.
Project description:The rat parvovirus H-1PV has oncolytic and tumour-suppressive properties potentially exploitable in cancer therapy. This possibility is being explored and results are encouraging, but it is necessary to improve the oncotoxicity of the virus. Here we show that this can be achieved by co-treating cancer cells with H-1PV and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) such as valproic acid (VPA). We demonstrate that these agents act synergistically to kill a range of human cervical carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines by inducing oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. Strikingly, in rat and mouse xenograft models, H-1PV/VPA co-treatment strongly inhibits tumour growth promoting complete tumour remission in all co-treated animals. At the molecular level, we found acetylation of the parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 at residues K85 and K257 to modulate NS1-mediated transcription and cytotoxicity, both of which are enhanced by VPA treatment. These results warrant clinical evaluation of H-1PV/VPA co-treatment against cervical and pancreatic ductal carcinomas.
Project description:The rat parvovirus H-1PV is a promising anticancer agent given its oncosuppressive properties and the absence of known side effects in humans. H-1PV replicates preferentially in transformed cells, but the virus can enter both normal and cancer cells. Uptake by normal cells sequesters a significant portion of the administered viral dose away from the tumor target. Hence, targeting H-1PV entry specifically to tumor cells is important to increase the efficacy of parvovirus-based treatments. In this study, we first found that sialic acid plays a key role in H-1PV entry. We then genetically engineered the H-1PV capsid to improve its affinity for human tumor cells. By analogy with the resolved crystal structure of the closely related parvovirus minute virus of mice, we developed an in silico three-dimensional (3D) model of the H-1PV wild-type capsid. Based on this model, we identified putative amino acids involved in cell membrane recognition and virus entry at the level of the 2-fold axis of symmetry of the capsid, within the so-called dimple region. In situ mutagenesis of these residues significantly reduced the binding and entry of H-1PV into permissive cells. We then engineered an entry-deficient viral capsid and inserted a cyclic RGD-4C peptide at the level of its 3-fold axis spike. This peptide binds ?(v)?(3) and ?(v)?(5) integrins, which are overexpressed in cancer cells and growing blood vessels. The insertion of the peptide rescued viral infectivity toward cells overexpressing ?(v)?(5) integrins, resulting in the efficient killing of these cells by the reengineered virus. This work demonstrates that H-1PV can be genetically retargeted through the modification of its capsid, showing great promise for a more efficient use of this virus in cancer therapy.
Project description:Oncolytic viruses with their capacity to specifically replicate in and kill tumor cells emerged as a novel class of cancer therapeutics. Rat oncolytic parvovirus (H-1PV) was used to treat different types of cancer in preclinical settings and was lately successfully combined with standard gemcitabine chemotherapy in treating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in rats. Our previous work showed that the immune system and particularly the release of interferon-gamma (IFN?) seem to mediate the anticancer effect of H-1PV in that model. Therefore, we reasoned that the therapeutic properties of H-1PV can be boosted with IFN? for the treatment of late incurable stages of PDAC like peritoneal carcinomatosis. Rats bearing established orthotopic pancreatic carcinomas with peritoneal metastases were treated with a single intratumoral (i.t.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5 x 10? plaque forming units of H-1PV with or without concomitant IFN? application. Intratumoral injection proved to be more effective than the intraperitoneal route in controlling the growth of both the primary pancreatic tumors and peritoneal carcinomatosis, accompanied by migration of virus from primary to metastatic deposits. Concomitant i.p. treatment of H-1PV with recIFN? resulted in improved therapeutic effect yielding an extended animal survival, compared with i.p. treatment with H-1PV alone. IFN? application enhanced the H-1PV-induced peritoneal macrophage and splenocyte responses against tumor cells while causing a significant reduction in the titers of H1-PV-neutralising antibodies in ascitic fluid. Thus, IFN? co-application together with H-1PV might be considered as a novel therapeutic option to improve the survival of PDAC patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Project description:The structure of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) packaging H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV), which is being developed as an antitumor gene delivery vector, has been determined for wild-type (wt) virions and noninfectious (empty) capsids to 2.7- and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The capsid viral protein (VP) structure consists of an ?-helix and an eight-stranded anti-parallel ?-barrel with large loop regions between the strands. The ?-barrel and loops form the capsid core and surface, respectively. In the wt structure, 600 nucleotides are ordered in an interior DNA binding pocket of the capsid. This accounts for ?12% of the H-1PV genome. The wt structure is identical to the empty capsid structure, except for side chain conformation variations at the nucleotide binding pocket. Comparison of the H-1PV nucleotides to those observed in canine parvovirus and minute virus of mice, two members of the genus Parvovirus, showed both similarity in structure and analogous interactions. This observation suggests a functional role, such as in capsid stability and/or ssDNA genome recognition for encapsulation. The VP structure differs from those of other parvoviruses in surface loop regions that control receptor binding, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and antibody recognition, including VP sequences reported to determine tumor cell tropism for oncotropic rodent parvoviruses. These structures of H-1PV provide insight into structural features that dictate capsid stabilization following genome packaging and three-dimensional information applicable for rational design of tumor-targeted recombinant gene delivery vectors.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and leukemia are among the most common cancers worldwide. While the treatment of NHL/leukemia of B-cell origin has much progressed with the introduction of targeted therapies, few treatment standards have been established for T-NHL/leukemia. As presentation in both B- and T-NHL/leukemia patients is often aggressive and as prognosis for relapsed disease is especially dismal, this cancer entity poses major challenges and requires innovative therapeutic approaches. In clinical trials, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been used against refractory multiple myeloma (MM). In preclinical settings, a number of OVs have demonstrated a remarkable ability to suppress various types of hematological cancers. Most studies dealing with this approach have used MM or B- or myeloid-cell-derived malignancies as models. Only a few describe susceptibility of T-cell lymphoma/leukemia to OV infection and killing. The rat H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV) is an OV with considerable promise as a novel therapeutic agent against both solid tumors (pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma) and hematological malignancies. The present perspective article builds on previous reports of H-1PV-driven regression of Burkitt's lymphoma xenografts and on unpublished observations demonstrating effective killing by H-1PV of cells from CHOP-resistant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. On the basis of these studies, H-1PV is proposed for use as an adjuvant to (chemo)therapeutic regimens. Furthermore, in the light of a recently completed first parvovirus clinical trial in glioblastoma patients, the advantages of H-1PV for systemic application are discussed.
Project description:Novel therapies employing oncolytic viruses have emerged as promising anticancer modalities. The cure of particularly aggressive malignancies requires induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD), coupling oncolysis with immune responses via calreticulin, ATP, and high-mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1) release from dying tumor cells. The present study shows that in human pancreatic cancer cells (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [PDAC] cells n=4), oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) activated multiple interconnected death pathways but failed to induce calreticulin exposure or ATP release. In contrast, H-1PV elevated extracellular HMGB1 levels by 4.0±0.5 times (58%±9% of total content; up to 100 ng/ml) in all infected cultures, whether nondying, necrotic, or apoptotic. An alternative secretory route allowed H-1PV to overcome the failure of gemcitabine to trigger HMGB1 release, without impeding cytotoxicity or other ICD activities of the standard PDAC medication. Such broad resistance of H-1PV-induced HMGB1 release to apoptotic blockage coincided with but was uncoupled from an autocrine interleukin-1? (IL-1?) loop. That and the pattern of viral determinants maintained in gemcitabine-treated cells suggested the activation of an inflammasome/caspase 1 (CASP1) platform alongside DNA detachment and/or nuclear exclusion of HMGB1 during early stages of the viral life cycle. We concluded that H-1PV infection of PDAC cells is signaled through secretion of the alarmin HMGB1 and, besides its own oncolytic effect, might convert drug-induced apoptosis into an ICD process. A transient arrest of cells in the cyclin A1-rich S phase would suffice to support compatibility of proliferation-dependent H-1PV with cytotoxic regimens. These properties warrant incorporation of the oncolytic virus H-1PV, which is not pathogenic in humans, into multimodal anticancer treatments.The current therapeutic concepts targeting aggressive malignancies require an induction of immunogenic cell death characterized by exposure of calreticulin (CRT) as well as release of ATP and HMGB1 from dying cells. In pancreatic tumor cells (PDAC cells) infected with the oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV, only HMGB1 was released by all infected cells, whether nondying, necrotic, or succumbing to one of the programmed death pathways, including contraproductive apoptosis. Our data suggest that active secretion of HMGB1 from PDAC cells is a sentinel reaction emerging during early stages of the viral life cycle, irrespective of cell death, that is compatible with and complements cytotoxic regimens. Consistent induction of HMGB1 secretion raised the possibility that this reaction might be a general "alarming" phenomenon characteristic of H-1PV's interaction with the host cell; release of IL-1? points to the possible involvement of a danger-sensing inflammasome platform. Both provide a basis for further virus-oriented studies.
Project description:Oncolytic virotherapy may be a means of improving the dismal prognosis of malignant brain tumors. The rat H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV) suppresses tumors in preclinical glioma models, through both direct oncolysis and stimulation of anticancer immune responses. This was the basis of ParvOryx01, the first phase I/IIa clinical trial of an oncolytic parvovirus in recurrent glioblastoma patients. H-1PV (escalating dose) was administered via intratumoral or intravenous injection. Tumors were resected 9 days after treatment, and virus was re-administered around the resection cavity. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, virus distribution, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Progression-free and overall survival and levels of viral and immunological markers in the tumor and peripheral blood were also investigated. H-1PV treatment was safe and well tolerated, and no MTD was reached. The virus could cross the blood-brain/tumor barrier and spread widely through the tumor. It showed favorable pharmacokinetics, induced antibody formation in a dose-dependent manner, and triggered specific T cell responses. Markers of virus replication, microglia/macrophage activation, and cytotoxic T cell infiltration were detected in infected tumors, suggesting that H-1PV may trigger an immunogenic stimulus. Median survival was extended in comparison with recent meta-analyses. Altogether, ParvOryx01 results provide an impetus for further H-1PV clinical development.
Project description:The rat parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) attracts high attention as an anticancer agent, because it is not pathogenic for humans and has oncotropic and oncosuppressive properties. The viral nonstructural NS1 protein is thought to mediate H-1PV cytotoxicity, but its exact contribution to this process remains undefined. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the H-1PV NS1 protein on human cell proliferation and cell viability. We show that NS1 expression is sufficient to induce the accumulation of cells in G(2) phase, apoptosis via caspase 9 and 3 activation, and cell lysis. Similarly, cells infected with wild-type H-1PV arrest in G(2) phase and undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, we also show that both expression of NS1 and H-1PV infection lead to higher levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with DNA double-strand breaks. Antioxidant treatment reduces ROS levels and strongly decreases NS1- and virus-induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, indicating that NS1-induced ROS are important mediators of H-1PV cytotoxicity.
Project description:EBV-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified and their functions are being studied. The expression pattern of these miRNAs in clinical samples of EBV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is unknown. We analyzed five primary "endemic" pediatric Burkitt's lymphomas (BL), two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related type I latency BL lines, a type III latency line, three EBV(+) primary effusion lymphomas (PEL), and three AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) for expression of EBV-encoded miRNAs. A markedly elevated expression of miRNA BHRF1-3 in type III relative to its parental type I BL line was found. Primary unmanipulated type I BLs and EBV(+) PELs expressed high levels of BART2 miRNA, whereas DLBCLs expressed both BART2 and BHRF1-3 species. BHRF1-3 miRNA expression inversely correlated with levels of a putative cellular target, the IFN-inducible T-cell attracting chemokine CXCL-11/I-TAC, and suppression of this factor was reversed by transfection of an antisense oligo to the EBV miRNA BHRF1-3. EBV-encoded miRNAs are expressed in primary lymphomas classically linked to the virus and are associated with the viral latency status. Targeted suppression of CXCL-11/I-TAC by a viral-encoded miRNA may serve as an immunomodulatory mechanism in these tumors.