Enantioselective conjugate silyl additions to cyclic and acyclic unsaturated carbonyls catalyzed by Cu complexes of chiral N-heterocyclic carbenes.
ABSTRACT: An efficient Cu-catalyzed protocol for enantioselective addition of a dimethylphenylsilanyl group to a wide range of cyclic and acyclic unsaturated ketones, esters, acrylonitriles, and alpha,beta,gamma,delta-dienones is disclosed. Reactions are performed in the presence of 1-2 mol % of commercially available and inexpensive CuCl, a readily accessible monodentate imidazolinium salt, and commercially available (dimethylphenylsilyl)pinacolatoboron. Cu-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions proceed to completion within only 2 h to afford the desired silanes in 87-97% yield and 90:10-99:1 enantiomeric ratio (er). Use of a proton source (e.g., MeOH) is not required; accordingly, synthetically versatile alpha-silyl boron enolates can be obtained. The special utility of the present protocol, in comparison with the related catalytic enantioselective aldol and boronate conjugate additions, is discussed and illustrated through various functionalizations of the enantiomerically enriched beta-silylcarbonyls.
Project description:A Cu-catalyzed method for enantioselective boronate conjugate additions to trisubstituted alkenes of acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic esters, ketones, and thioesters is disclosed. All transformations are promoted by 5 mol % of a chiral monodentate NHC-Cu complex, derived from a readily available C(1)-symmetric imidazolinium salt, and in the presence of commercially available bis(pinacolato)diboron. Reactions are efficient (typically, 60% to >98% yield after purification) and deliver the desired beta-boryl carbonyls in up to >98:2 enantiomer ratio (er). Processes involving unsaturated thioesters proceed with higher enantioselectivity (vs carboxylic esters or ketones), and the resulting products can be functionalized by Ag-mediated or Pd-catalyzed reactions that furnish the derived carboxylic ester or various ketones. Routine oxidation affords beta-hydroxy ketones or carboxylic esters, ketone aldol products that cannot be otherwise prepared efficiently by an alternative catalytic enantioselective protocol.
Project description:A catalytic method for enantioselective synthesis of homoallylamides through Cu-catalyzed reactions of stable and easily accessible (pinacolato)allylborons with aryl-, heteroaryl-, alkyl-, or alkenyl-substituted N-phosphinoylimines is disclosed. Transformations are promoted by 1-5 mol % of readily accessible NHC-Cu complexes, derived from C(1)-symmetric imidazolinium salts, which can be prepared in multigram quantities in four steps from commercially available materials. Allyl additions deliver the desired products in up to quantitative yield and 98.5:1.5 enantiomeric ratio and are amenable to gram-scale operations. A mechanistic model accounting for the observed selectivity levels and trends is proposed.
Project description:A metal-free method for enantioselective conjugate addition of a dimethylphenylsilyl group to ?,?-unsaturated carbonyls is reported. Transformations are catalyzed by a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC), performed in an aqueous solution (3:1 mixture of water and tetrahydrofuran) and are operationally simpler to perform than the NHC-Cu-catalyzed variant. The chiral catalyst is generated from an enantiomerically pure imidazolinium salt (prepared in three steps) and a common organic amine base (dbu). NHC-catalyzed processes proceed with 5.0-12.5 mol % catalyst loading at 22 °C within 1-12 h, affording the desired ?-silyl carbonyls in 85:15 to >98:2 enantiomeric ratio and in 50% to >98% yield. Cyclic enones or lactones and acyclic ?,?-unsaturated ketones, esters, and aldehydes can be used as substrates.
Project description:Efficient and highly diastereo- and enantioselective conjugate additions of phenyldimethylsilyl units to acyclic and cyclic dienones and dienoates are disclosed. The C-Si bond forming reactions are catalyzed by 2.0-2.5 mol % of a copper complex of a chiral monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene; the requisite reagent, PhMe(2)Si-B(pin), is commercially available or can be easily prepared. Transformations generate allylsilanes in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio, and proceed with complete 1,4-selectivity, unless the dienone or dienoate carries a trisubstituted alkene conjugated to the carbonyl group; in the latter cases, 1,6-addition products are obtained exclusively and in up to >98% Z selectivity.
Project description:The first broadly applicable metal-free enantioselective method for boron conjugate addition (BCA) to ?,?-unsaturated carbonyls is presented. The C-B bond forming reactions are promoted in the presence of 2.5-7.5 mol % of a readily accessible C(1)-symmetric chiral imidazolinium salt, which is converted, in situ, to the catalytically active diastereo- and enantiomerically pure N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) by the common organic base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (dbu). In addition to the commercially available bis(pinacolato)diboron [B(2)(pin)(2)], and in contrast to reactions with the less sterically demanding achiral NHCs, the presence of MeOH is required for high efficiency. Acyclic and cyclic ?,?-unsaturated ketones, as well as acyclic esters, Weinreb amides, and aldehydes, can serve as suitable substrates; the desired ?-boryl carbonyls are isolated in up to 94% yield and >98:2 enantiomer ratio (er). Transformations are often carried out at ambient temperature. In certain cases, such as when the relatively less reactive unsaturated amides are used, elevated temperatures are required (50-66 °C); nonetheless, reactions remain highly enantioselective. The utility of the NHC-catalyzed method is demonstrated through comparison with the alternative Cu-catalyzed protocols; in cases involving a polyfunctional substrate, unique profiles in chemoselectivity are exhibited by the metal-free approach (e.g., conjugate addition vs reaction with an alkyne, allene, or aldehyde).
Project description:Metal-free nucleophilic activation of a B-B bond has been exploited in the development of a highly efficient method for conjugate additions of commercially available bis(pinacolato)diboron to cyclic or acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls. The reactions are readily catalyzed by a simple N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) present at 2.5-10 mol %. A variety of cyclic and acyclic unsaturated ketones and esters can serve as substrates. The transformations deliver beta-boryl carbonyls bearing tertiary or quaternary B-substituted carbons in up to >98% yield. Preliminary studies indicate that although related Cu-NHC-catalyzed reactions are equally efficient, the metal-free variant is more functional-group-tolerant; in contrast to the Cu-catalyzed reactions, the metal-free processes proceed readily in the presence of a terminal alkyne and do not promote concomitant diboration of an aldehyde. Representative functionalization of the resulting boron enolates demonstrates the strong influence of the Lewis acidic B atom of the beta-boronate.
Project description:A set of second-generation DBFOX ligands possessing extended aryl or benzyl-type groups was synthesized. The requisite amino alcohols were either commercially available (DBFOX/Bn) or constructed via Sharpless asymmetric aminohydroxylation (DBFOX/Nap, DBFOX/ t-BuPh, DBFOX/Pip) or phase-transfer-catalyzed asymmetric alkylation (DBFOX/MeNap). Complexes of the ligands with Mg(NTf2)2 were evaluated as promoters of enantioselective radical conjugate additions to alpha,beta-unsaturated alpha-nitro amides and esters. Reactions employing the DBFOX/Nap ligand exhibited improved enantioselectivity relative to previously published additions mediated by DBFOX/Ph. However, the relatively modest increase in diastereomeric ratio suggests that our substrate-Lewis acid binding model, which was formulated based on results from DBFOX/Ph-promoted radical conjugate additions, is in need of revision.
Project description:The first examples of Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective boryl conjugate additions (BCAs) that generate products containing boron-substituted quaternary carbon stereogenic centers are disclosed. Reactions are performed in the presence of 1.0-5.0?mol% of a readily accessible chiral accessible N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and commercially available bis(pinacolato)diboron; cyclic or linear ?,?-unsaturated ketones can be used and rigorous exclusion of air or moisture is not necessary. The desired products are obtained in 63-95% yield and 91:9 to >99:1 enantiomeric ratio (e.r.). The special utility of the NHC-catalyzed approach is demonstrated in the context of an enantioselective synthesis of natural product antifungal (-)-crassinervic acid.
Project description:A Cu-catalyzed protocol for conversion of terminal alkynes to enantiomerically enriched diboronates is reported. In a single vessel, a site-selective hydroboration of an alkyne leads to the corresponding terminal vinylboronate, which undergoes a second site-selective and enantioselective hydroboration. Reactions proceed in the presence of 2 equiv of commercially available bis(pinacolato)diboron [B(2)(pin)(2)] and 5-7.5 mol % loading of a chiral bidentate imidazolinium salt, affording diboronates in 60-93% yield and up to 97.5:2.5 enantiomeric ratio (er). The enantiomerically enriched products can be functionalized to afford an assortment of versatile organic molecules. Enynes are converted to unsaturated diboronates with high chemo- (>98% reaction of alkyne; <2% at alkene) and enantioselectivity (e.g., 94.5:5.5 er).
Project description:Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates. Nonetheless, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic ?,?,?,?-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable because the resulting products could then be subjected to further modifications. However, such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine-copper catalyst (with an alkyl Grignard reagent, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminium compounds), a diene-iridium catalyst (with arylboroxines), or a bisphosphine-cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes). 1,6-Conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at the C4 position. It is unclear why certain catalysts favour bond formation at C6, and-although there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions-related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. Here we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenyl-boron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 per cent yield, >98:2 diastereomeric ratio (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. We elucidate the mechanistic details, including the origins of high site selectivity (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst structure and reaction type, by means of density functional theory calculations. The utility of the approach is highlighted by an application towards enantioselective synthesis of the anti-HIV agent (-)-equisetin.