The relationship of DSM-IV personality disorders to nicotine dependence-results from a national survey.
ABSTRACT: This study examined the prevalence of nicotine dependence (ND) and its associations with DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) among current smokers (n=7078), controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid Axis I and II disorders. Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. Although all PDs were significantly associated with ND when sociodemographic factors were controlled, only schizotypal, borderline, narcissistic and obsessive-compulsive PDs were associated with ND after adding controls for Axis I and other Axis II disorders. These associations remained significant after controlling for degree of smoking exposure. The results suggest that both shared and PD-specific pathogenetic factors underlie these PD-ND associations. Implications are also discussed in terms of the relationship between personality features of schizotypal, borderline, narcissistic and obsessive-compulsive PDs and the self-medication hypothesis and the role of neurotransmission.
Project description:Although associations between personality disorders and psychiatric disorders are well established in general population studies, their association with liability dimensions for externalizing and internalizing disorders has not been fully assessed. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between personality disorders (PDs) and lifetime externalizing and internalizing Axis I disorders.Data were obtained from the total sample of 34,653 respondents from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drawing on the literature, a 3-factor exploratory structural equation model was selected to simultaneously assess the measurement relations among DSM-IV Axis I substance use and mood and anxiety disorders and the structural relations between the latent internalizing-externalizing dimensions and DSM-IV PDs, adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, and marital status.Antisocial, histrionic, and borderline PDs were strong predictors for the externalizing factor, while schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PDs had significantly larger effects on the internalizing fear factor when compared to the internalizing misery factor. Paranoid, schizoid, narcissistic, and dependent PDs provided limited discrimination between and among the three factors. An overarching latent factor representing general personality dysfunction was significantly greater on the internalizing fear factor followed by the externalizing factor, and weakest for the internalizing misery factor.Personality disorders offer important opportunities for studies on the externalizing-internalizing spectrum of common psychiatric disorders. Future studies based on panic, anxiety, and depressive symptoms may elucidate PD associations with the internalizing spectrum of disorders.
Project description:The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54-65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive-compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive-compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and borderline PP continue to exhibit a relatively strong association with risk for AD in later middle age.
Project description:Personality disorder symptomatology (PD-Sx) can result in personal distress and impaired interpersonal functioning, even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis, and is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders such as substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders; however, they often remain untreated, and are not taken into account in clinical studies. To investigate brain morphological correlates of PD-Sx, we measured subcortical volume and shape, and cortical thickness/surface area, based on structural magnetic resonance images. We investigated 37 subjects who reported PD-Sx exceeding DSM-IV Axis-II screening thresholds, and 35 age, sex, and smoking status-matched control subjects. Subjects reporting PD-Sx were then grouped into symptom-based clusters: N = 20 into Cluster B (reporting Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, or Narcissistic PD-Sx) and N = 28 into Cluster C (reporting Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant, or Dependent PD-Sx); N = 11 subjects reported PD-Sx from both clusters, and none reported Cluster A (Paranoid, Schizoid, or Schizotypal) PD-Sx. Compared to control, Cluster C PD-Sx was associated with greater striatal surface area localized to the caudate tail, smaller ventral striatum volumes, and greater cortical thickness in right prefrontal cortex. Both Cluster B and C PD-Sx groups also showed trends toward greater posterior caudate volumes and orbitofrontal surface area anomalies, but these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. The results point to morphological abnormalities that could contribute to Cluster C PD-Sx. In addition, the observations parallel those in substance use disorders, pointing to the importance of considering PD-Sx when interpreting findings in often-comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Project description:We examined the relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal problems in a sample of 825 clinical and community participants. Sixteen psychiatric diagnoses and five transdiagnostic dimensions were examined in relation to self-reported interpersonal problems. The structural summary method was used with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales to examine interpersonal problem profiles for each diagnosis and dimension. We built a structural model of mental disorders including factors corresponding to detachment (avoidant personality, social phobia, major depression), internalizing (dependent personality, borderline personality, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress, major depression), disinhibition (antisocial personality, drug dependence, alcohol dependence, borderline personality), dominance (histrionic personality, narcissistic personality, paranoid personality), and compulsivity (obsessive-compulsive personality). All dimensions showed good interpersonal prototypicality (e.g., detachment was defined by a socially avoidant/nonassertive interpersonal profile) except for internalizing, which was diffusely associated with elevated interpersonal distress. The findings for individual disorders were largely consistent with the dimension that each disorder loaded on, with the exception of the internalizing and dominance disorders, which were interpersonally heterogeneous. These results replicate previous findings and provide novel insights into social dysfunction in psychopathology by wedding the power of hierarchical (i.e., dimensional) modeling and interpersonal circumplex assessment.
Project description:Axis I comorbidity complicates diagnosing axis II personality disorders (PDs). PDs might influence Axis I outcome. No research has examined psychotherapy effects on PDs of treating Axis I comorbidity. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial examined PD diagnostic stability after brief psychotherapy of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Patients with chronic PTSD were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure, interpersonal psychotherapy, or relaxation therapy. Assessments included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Patient Version (SCID-P) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) at baseline, week 14, and for treatment responders (?30% clinician-administered PTSD scale improvement, defined a priori) at week 26 follow-up. We hypothesized patients whose PTSD improved would retain fewer baseline PD diagnoses posttreatment, particularly with personality traits PTSD mimics, e.g. paranoid and avoidant.Forty-seven (47%) of 99 SCID-II patients evaluated at baseline received a SCID-II diagnosis: paranoid (28%), obsessive-compulsive (27%), and avoidant (23%) PDs were most prevalent. Among 78 patients who repeated SCID-II evaluations posttreatment, 45% (N = 35) had baseline PD diagnoses, of which 43% (N = 15/35) lost at week 14. Three (7%) patients without baseline PDs acquired diagnoses at week 14; 10 others shifted diagnoses. Treatment modality and PTSD response were unrelated to PD improvement. Of treatment responders reevaluated at follow-up (N = 44), 56% with any baseline Axis II diagnosis had none at week 26.This first evaluation of Axis I psychotherapy effects on personality disorder stability found that acutely treating a chronic state decreased apparent trait-across most PDs observed. These exploratory findings suggest personality diagnoses may have limited prognostic meaning in treating chronic PTSD.
Project description:This study aimed to explore the differences in pathogenic beliefs (PBs) between patients with schizotypal personality disorder (PD) and those with other PDs or without any PD. The study was conducted among 212 patients treated with psychotherapy at the Psychotherapy and Personality Disorder Clinic, Chiang Mai University between 2007 and 2019. Collected data included sociodemographic information, psychiatric disorders and personality disorder as determined by the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, and the Pathogenic Belief Scale (PBS). An analysis was conducted to compare three groups, i.e., patients with schizotypal PD, patients with other PDs and patients without any PD. The PBS score was compared by two outcomes: a total score and a categorical score of individual items. The entire sample was predominantly female (62.3%) with a mean age of 31.41 years. Most participants had a bachelor's degree (76.9%), lived alone (72.6%) and received diagnoses of major depressive disorder (45.8%). No significant differences were found in participants' characteristics regarding age, sex, educational level, marital status and psychiatric clinical diagnosis among the three groups. The mean PBS total score was highest for schizotypal PD (mean = 58.74, SD = 11.54), compared with non-schizotypal PD (mean = 46.14, SD = 13.15) and non-PD (mean = 46.07, SD = 11.17). Twenty of 27 items were significantly higher in the schizotypal PD group than in other groups, after adjusting for type I error. The number of PBs was significantly prominent for schizotypal PD. Possible explanations were provided.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To present findings on the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and partial PTSD in a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Face-to-face interviews with 9,463 adults age 60 years and older in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. MEASUREMENTS:Sociodemographic correlates; worst stressful experiences; comorbid lifetime mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders; psychosocial functioning; and suicide attempts. RESULTS:Lifetime prevalences ± standard errors of PTSD and partial PTSD were 4.5% ± 0.25 and 5.5% ± 0.27, respectively. Rates were higher in women (5.7% ± 0.37 and 6.5% ± 0.39) than in men (3.1% ± 0.31 and 4.3% ± 0.37). Older adults with PTSD most frequently identified unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and their own serious or life-threatening illness as their worst stressful events. Older adults exposed to trauma but without full or partial PTSD and respondents with partial PTSD most often identified unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and indirect experience of 9/11 as their worst events. PTSD was associated with elevated odds of lifetime mood, anxiety, drug use, and borderline and narcissistic personality disorders and decreased psychosocial functioning. Partial PTSD was associated with elevated odds of mood, anxiety, and narcissistic and schizotypal personality disorders and poorer psychosocial functioning relative to older adults exposed to trauma but without full or partial PTSD. CONCLUSIONS:PTSD among older adults in the United States is slightly more prevalent than previously reported and is associated with considerable psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. Partial PTSD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly with mood and other anxiety disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grandiose narcissism has been associated with poor ability to understand one's own mental states and the mental states of others. In particular, two manifestations of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) can be explained by poor mindreading abilities: absence of symptomatic subjective distress and lack of empathy. METHODS:We conducted two studies to investigate the relationships between mindreading capacity, symptomatic subjective distress and narcissistic personality. In the first study (N = 246), we compared mindreading capacities and symptomatic distress in three outpatient samples: narcissistic patients (NPD); patients with other Personality Disorders (PD); patients without PD. In the second study (N = 1357), we explored the relationships between symptomatic distress, mindreading and specific NPD criteria. RESULTS:In the first study, the NPD patients showed poorer mindreading than the patients without PD and comparable to patients with other PDs. Symptomatic subjective distress in the narcissistic group was less severe than in the other PDs group and comparable to the group without PDs. However, no relationship emerged between mindreading and symptomatic subjective distress. In the second study, taking the clinical sample as a whole, symptomatic distress appeared negatively linked to grandiosity traits, while mindreading scores were negatively linked to empathy. CONCLUSIONS:NPD showed specific mindreading impairments. However, mindreading capacity did not appear to be directly connected with subjective distress, but did appear to be connected with specific aspects of narcissistic pathology.
Project description:The differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders can be difficult. In the current diagnostic criteria, basic concepts such as obsession and delusion overlap. This study examined lifetime schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology, including subtle schizotypal symptomatology and subjective anomalies such as self-disorders, in a sample diagnosed with OCD in a specialized setting. The study also examined the differential diagnostic potential of the classic psychopathological notions of true obsession ('with resistance') and pseudo-obsession. The study involved 42 outpatients diagnosed with OCD at two clinics specialized in the treatment of OCD. The patients underwent semi-structured, narrative interviews assessing a comprehensive battery of psychopathological instruments. The final lifetime research-diagnosis was based on a consensus between a senior clinical psychiatrist and an experienced research clinician. The study found that 29% of the patients fulfilled criteria of schizophrenia or another non-affective psychosis as main, lifetime DSM-5 research-diagnosis. Another 33% received a research-diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder, 10% a research-diagnosis of major depression and 29% a main research-diagnosis of OCD. Self-disorders aggregated in the schizophrenia-spectrum groups. True obsessions had a specificity of 93% and a sensitivity of 58% for a main diagnosis of OCD. In conclusion, a high proportion of clinically diagnosed OCD patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria of a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. The conspicuous obsessive-compulsive symptomatology may have resulted in a disregard of psychotic symptoms and other psychopathology. Furthermore, the differentiation of obsessions from related psychopathological phenomena is insufficient and a conceptual and empirical effort in this domain is required in the future.
Project description:Increasing evidence shows that personality pathology is common among patients at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Despite the important impact that this comorbidity might have on presenting high-risk psychopathology, psychological functioning, and transition to full psychotic disorders, the relationship between personality syndromes and CHR state has received relatively little empirical attention. The present meta-analytic review aimed at 1) estimating the prevalence rates of personality disorders (PDs) in CHR individuals and 2) examining the potential role of PDs in predicting transition from CHR state to a full-blown psychotic disorder. The systematic search of the empirical literature identified 17 relevant studies, including a total of 1,868 CHR individuals. Three distinct meta-analyses were performed to provide prevalence estimates of PDs in the CHR population. The first and more comprehensive meta-analysis focused on any comorbid PD (at least one diagnosis), the second one focused on schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), and the last one focused on borderline personality disorder (BPD). Moreover, a narrative review was presented to define the predictive role of personality disorders in promoting more severe outcomes in CHR patients. The findings showed that the prevalence rate of personality disorders in CHR patients was 39.4% (95% CI [26.5%-52.3%]). More specifically, 13.4% (95% CI [8.2%-18.5%]) and 11.9% (95% CI [0.73%-16.6%]) of this clinical population presented with SPD and BPD, respectively. Finally, the studies examining the effects of baseline personality diagnoses on conversion to psychotic disorders showed contradictory and insufficient results concerning the potential significant impact of SPD. Conversely, no effect of BPD was found. This meta-analytic review indicated that the CHR population includes a large subgroup with serious personality pathology, that may present with attenuated psychotic symptoms conjointly with distinct and very heterogeneous personality features. These findings support the need for improved understanding of both core psychological characteristics of CHR patients and differentiating aspects of personality that could have relevant clinical implications in promoting individualized preventive interventions and enhancing treatment effectiveness.