Histone chaperone Chz1p regulates H2B ubiquitination and subtelomeric anti-silencing.
ABSTRACT: Chz1p is a histone chaperone that interacts physically and functionally with the histone variant Htz1p, which has been implicated in establishing and maintaining boundaries between transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin and active euchromatin. To investigate the role of Chz1p in chromatin organization, we performed genome-wide expression arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitations of SIR complex components and modified histones in a CHZ1 deletion strain. Deletion of CHZ1 led to reduced ubiquitination of subtelomere-associated H2B, reduced subtelomeric H3K79 di-methylation, and increased binding of Sir3p, and Sir4p at telomere-distal euchromatin regions, correlating with decreased gene expression in subtelomeric regions. This anti-silencing defect appears to be mediated by enhanced association of de-ubiquitinase Ubp10p with subtelomeric DNA, as detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. In support of this, we show that deletion of UBP10 can antagonize the subtelomeric silencing phenotype of Deltachz1. Taken together, the results demonstrate a novel role for Chz1p in epigenetic regulation, through H2B de-ubiquitination by Ubp10p.
Project description:Histone variant Htz1 substitution for H2A plays important roles in diverse DNA transactions. Histone chaperones Chz1 and Nap1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1) are important for the deposition Htz1 into nucleosomes. In literatures, it was suggested that Chz1 is a Htz1-H2B-specific chaperone, and it is relatively unstructured in solution but it becomes structured in complex with the Htz1-H2B histone dimer. Nap1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1) can bind (H3-H4)2 tetramers, H2A-H2B dimers and Htz1-H2B dimers. Nap1 can bind H2A-H2B dimer in the cytoplasm and shuttles the dimer into the nucleus. Moreover, Nap1 functions in nucleosome assembly by competitively interacting with non-nucleosomal histone-DNA. However, the exact roles of these chaperones in assembling Htz1-containing nucleosome remain largely unknown. In this paper, we revealed that Chz1 does not show a physical interaction with chromatin. In contrast, Nap1 binds exactly at the genomic DNA that contains Htz1. Nap1 and Htz1 show a preferential interaction with AG-rich DNA sequences. Deletion of chz1 results in a significantly decreased binding of Htz1 in chromatin, whereas deletion of nap1 dramatically increases the association of Htz1 with chromatin. Furthermore, genome-wide nucleosome-mapping analysis revealed that nucleosome occupancy for Htz1p-bound genes decreases upon deleting htz1 or chz1, suggesting that Htz1 is required for nucleosome structure at the specific genome loci. All together, these results define the distinct roles for histone chaperones Chz1 and Nap1 to regulate Htz1 incorporation into chromatin.
Project description:Embedded in the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) not only regulate nuclear transport but also interface with transcriptionally active euchromatin, largely silenced heterochromatin, as well as the boundaries between these regions. It is unclear what functional role NPCs play in establishing or maintaining these distinct chromatin domains. We report that the yeast NPC protein Nup170p interacts with regions of the genome that contain ribosomal protein and subtelomeric genes, where it functions in nucleosome positioning and as a repressor of transcription. We show that the role of Nup170p in subtelomeric gene silencing is linked to its association with the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex and the silencing factor Sir4p, and that the binding of Nup170p and Sir4p to subtelomeric chromatin is cooperative and necessary for the association of telomeres with the nuclear envelope. Our results establish the NPC as an active participant in silencing and the formation of peripheral heterochromatin.
Project description:Heterochromatin plays a key role in protection of chromosome integrity by suppressing homologous recombination. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p are structural components of heterochromatin found at telomeres and the silent mating-type loci. Here we have investigated whether incorporation of Sir proteins into minichromosomes regulates early steps of recombinational repair in vitro. We find that addition of Sir3p to a nucleosomal substrate is sufficient to eliminate yRad51p-catalyzed formation of joints, and that this repression is enhanced by Sir2p/Sir4p. Importantly, Sir-mediated repression requires histone residues that are critical for silencing in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzyme facilitates joint formation by evicting Sir3p, thereby promoting subsequent Rad54p-dependent formation of a strand invasion product. These results suggest that recombinational repair in the context of heterochromatin presents additional constraints that can be overcome by ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes.
Project description:We previously discovered that the ubiquitin protease Ubp10/Dot4p is important for telomeric silencing through its interaction with Sir4p. However, the mechanism of Ubp10p action was unknown. We now provide evidence that Ubp10p removes ubiquitin from histone H2B; cells with UBP10 deleted have increased steady-state levels of H2B ubiquitination. As a consequence, ubp10delta cells also have increased steady-state levels of histone H3 Lys4 and Lys79 methylation. Consistent with its role in silencing, Ubp10p is preferentially localized to silent chromatin where its ubiquitin protease activity maintains low levels of H3 Lys4 and Lys79 methylation to allow optimal Sir protein binding to telomeres and global telomeric silencing. The ubiquitin protease Ubp8p has also been shown to remove ubiquitin from H2B, and ubp8delta cells have increased steady-state levels of H2B ubiquitination similar to those in ubp10delta cells. Unlike ubp10delta cells, however, ubp8delta cells do not have increased steady-state levels of H3 Lys4 and Lys79 methylation, nor is telomeric silencing affected. Despite their separate functions in silencing and SAGA-mediated transcription, respectively, deletion of both UBP10 and UBP8 results in a synergistic increase in the steady-state levels of H2B ubiquitination and in the number of genes with altered expression, indicating that Ubp10p and Ubp8p likely overlap in some of their target chromatin regions. We propose that Ubp10p and Ubp8p are the only ubiquitin proteases that normally remove monoubiquitin from histone H2B and, while there are regions of the genome to which each is specifically targeted, both combine to regulate the global balance of H2B ubiquitination.
Project description:Chz1 is a specific chaperone for the histone variant H2A.Z in budding yeast. The ternary complex formed by Chz1 and H2A.Z-H2B dimer is the major in vivo substrate of Swi2/snif2-related 1 (SWR1), the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme that deposits H2A.Z into chromatin. However, the structural basis for the binding preference of Chz1 for H2A.Z over H2A and the mechanism by which Chz1 modulates the histone replacement remain elusive. Here, we show that Chz1 utilizes 2 distinct structural domains to engage the H2A.Z-H2B dimer for optimal and specific recognition of H2A.Z. The middle region of Chz1 (Chz1-M) directly interacts with 2 highly conserved H2A.Z-specific residues (Gly98 and Ala57) and dictates a modest preference for H2A.Z-H2B. In addition, structural and biochemical analysis show that the C-terminal region of Chz1 (Chz1-C) harbors a conserved DEF/Y motif, which reflects the consecutive D/E residues followed by a single aromatic residue, to engage an arginine finger and a hydrophobic pocket in H2A.Z-H2B, enhancing the binding preference for H2A.Z-H2B. Furthermore, Chz1 facilitates SWR1-mediated H2A.Z deposition by alleviating inhibition caused by aggregation of excess free histones, providing insights into how Chz1 controls the bioavailability of H2A.Z to assist SWR1 in promoter-specific installation of a histone mark. Our study elucidates a novel H2A.Z-recognition mechanism and uncovers a molecular rationale for binding of free histone by specialized histone chaperones in vivo.
Project description:The N-terminal domain of the largest subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae origin recognition complex (Orc1p) functions in transcriptional silencing and contains a bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain found in some chromatin-associated proteins including Sir3p. The 2.2 A crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Orc1p revealed a BAH core and a non-conserved helical sub-domain. Mutational analyses demonstrated that the helical sub-domain was necessary and sufficient to bind Sir1p, and critical for targeting Sir1p primarily to the cis-acting E silencers at the HMR and HML silent chromatin domains. In the absence of the BAH domain, approximately 14-20% of cells in a population were silenced at the HML locus. Moreover, the distributions of the Sir2p, Sir3p and Sir4p proteins, while normal, were at levels lower than found in wild-type cells. Thus, in the absence of the Orc1p BAH domain, HML resembled silencing of genes adjacent to telomeres. These data are consistent with the view that the Orc1p-Sir1p interaction at the E silencers ensures stable inheritance of pre-established Sir2p, Sir3p and Sir4p complexes at the silent mating type loci.
Project description:Heterochromatin is a specialized chromatin structure that is central to eukaryotic transcriptional regulation and genome stability. Despite its globally repressive role, heterochromatin must also be dynamic, allowing for its repair and replication. In budding yeast, heterochromatin formation requires silent information regulators (Sirs) Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, and these Sir proteins create specialized chromatin structures at telomeres and silent mating-type loci. Previously, we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme can catalyze the ATP-dependent eviction of Sir3p from recombinant nucleosomal arrays, and this activity enhances early steps of recombinational repair in vitro. Here, we show that the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, Swi2p/Snf2p, interacts with the heterochromatin structural protein Sir3p. Two interaction surfaces are defined, including an interaction between the ATPase domain of Swi2p and the nucleosome binding, Bromo-Adjacent-Homology domain of Sir3p. A SWI/SNF complex harboring a Swi2p subunit that lacks this Sir3p interaction surface is unable to evict Sir3p from nucleosomes, even though its ATPase and remodeling activities are intact. In addition, we find that the interaction between Swi2p and Sir3p is key for SWI/SNF to promote resistance to replication stress in vivo and for establishment of heterochromatin at telomeres.
Project description:H2A.Z is a histone H2A variant that contributes to transcriptional regulation, DNA damage response and limits heterochromatin spreading. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited by the SWR-C complex, which relies on several histone chaperones including Nap1 and Chz1 to deliver H2A.Z-H2B dimers to SWR-C. However, the mechanisms by which Nap1 and Chz1 cooperate to bind H2A.Z and their contribution to H2A.Z deposition in chromatin is not well understood. Using structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we identify a series of H2A.Z residues that form a chaperone-specific binding surface. Mutation of these residues revealed different surface requirements for Nap1 and Chz1 interaction with H2A.Z. Consistent with this result, we found that loss of Nap1 or Chz1 individually resulted in mild defects in H2A.Z deposition, but that deletion of both Nap1 and Chz1 resulted in a significant reduction of H2A.Z deposition at promoters and led to heterochromatin spreading. Together, our findings reveal unique H2A.Z surface dependences for Nap1 and Chz1 and a redundant role for these chaperones in H2A.Z deposition.
Project description:Histone modifiers are critical regulators of chromatin-based processes in eukaryotes. The histone methyltransferase Set1, a component of the Set1C/COMPASS complex, catalyzes the methylation at lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me), a hallmark of euchromatin. Here, we show that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set1 utilizes distinct domain modules to regulate disparate classes of repetitive elements associated with euchromatin and heterochromatin via H3K4me-dependent and -independent pathways. Set1 employs its RNA-binding RRM2 and catalytic SET domains to repress Tf2 retrotransposons and pericentromeric repeats while relying on its H3K4me function to maintain transcriptional repression at the silent mating type (mat) locus and subtelomeric regions. These repressive functions of Set1 correlate with the requirement of Set1C components to maintain repression at the mat locus and subtelomeres while dispensing Set1C in repressing Tf2s and pericentromeric repeats. We show that the contributions of several Set1C subunits to the states of H3K4me diverge considerably from those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs. Moreover, unlike S. cerevisiae, the regulation of Set1 protein level is not coupled to the status of H3K4me or histone H2B ubiquitination by the HULC complex. Intriguingly, we uncover a genome organization role for Set1C and H3K4me in mediating the clustering of Tf2s into Tf bodies by antagonizing the acetyltransferase Mst1-mediated H3K4 acetylation. Our study provides unexpected insights into the regulatory intricacies of a highly conserved chromatin-modifying complex with diverse roles in genome control.
Project description:Embedded in the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) not only regulate nuclear transport, but also interface with both transcriptionally active euchromatin and largely silenced heterochromatin, as well as the boundaries between these regions. It is unclear what functional role NPCs play in establishing or maintaining these distinct chromatin domains. Here we report that the yeast NPC protein Nup170p interacts with specific regions of the genome containing ribosomal protein and subtelomeric genes. At these locations, Nup170p functions to establish normal nucleosome positioning and as a repressor of transcription. We show that the function of Nup170p in subtelomeric gene silencing is linked to its association with the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex and the silencing factor Sir4p, and that the binding of Nup170p and Sir4p to subtelomeric chromatin is cooperative and necessary for the association of telomeres with the nuclear envelope. Our results establish the NPC as an active participant in the formation of peripheral heterochromatin. This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. Refer to individual Series