Association analysis of MAPT H1 haplotype and subhaplotypes in Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT: An inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb on chromosome 17q21, which includes the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene defines two haplotype clades, H1 and H2. Several small case-control studies have observed a marginally significant excess of the H1/H1 diplotype among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and one reported refining the association to a region spanning exons 1 to 4 of MAPT. We sought to replicate these findings.We genotyped 1,762 PD patients and 2,010 control subjects for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that differentiates the H1 and H2 clades. We also analyzed four SNPs that define subhaplotypes within H1 previously reported to associate with PD or other neurodegenerative disorders.After adjusting for age, sex, and site, we observed a robust association between the H1/H1 diplotype and PD risk (odds ratio for H1/H1 vs H1/H2 and H2/H2, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.69; p = 8 x 10(-7)). The effect was evident in both familial and sporadic subgroups, men and women, and early- and late-onset disease. Within H1/H1 individuals, there was no significant difference between cases and control subjects in the overall frequency distribution of H1 subhaplotypes.Our data provide strong evidence that the H1 clade, which contains MAPT and several other genes, is a risk factor for PD. However, attributing this finding to variants within a specific region of MAPT is premature. Thorough fine-mapping of the H1 clade in large numbers of individuals is now needed to identify the underlying functional variant(s) that alter susceptibility for PD.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which environmental factors influence disease risk and may act via an epigenetic mechanism. The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a susceptibility gene for idiopathic PD. Methylation levels were determined by pyrosequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA in a leukocyte cohort (358 PD patients and 1084 controls) and in two brain cohorts (Brain1, comprising 69 cerebellum controls; and Brain2, comprising 3 brain regions from 28 PD patients and 12 controls). In vitro assays involved the transfection of methylated promoter-luciferase constructs or treatment with an exogenous micronutrient. In normal leukocytes, the MAPT H1/H2 diplotype and sex were predictors of MAPT methylation. Haplotype-specific pyrosequencing confirmed that the H1 haplotype had higher methylation than the H2 haplotype in normal leukocytes and brain tissues. MAPT methylation was negatively associated with MAPT expression in the Brain1 cohort and in transfected cells. Methylation levels differed between three normal brain regions (Brain2 cohort, putamen?<?cerebellum?<?anterior cingulate cortex). In PD samples, age at onset was positively associated with MAPT methylation in leukocytes. Moreover, there was hypermethylation in the cerebellum and hypomethylation in the putamen of PD patients compared with controls (Brain2 cohort). Finally, leukocyte methylation status was positively associated with blood vitamin E levels, and the effect was more significant in H2 haplotype carriers; this result was confirmed in cells that were exposed to 100 ?M vitamin E. The significant effects of sex, diplotype, and brain region suggest that hypermethylation of the MAPT gene is neuroprotective by reducing MAPT expression. The effect of vitamin E on MAPT represents a possible gene-environment interaction.
Project description:The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with four-repeat (4R) tauopathies, including progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and argyrophilic grain disease. More controversial is that the same haplotype has been associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Using H1-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we demonstrate that MAPT H1 is a misnomer and consists of a family of recombining H1 alleles. Population genetics, linkage disequilibrium, and association analyses have shown that specific MAPT H1 subhaplotypes are preferentially associated with Parkinson disease. Using a sliding scale of MAPT H1-specific haplotypes--in age/sex-matched PD cases and controls from central Norway--we have refined the disease association to within an approximately 90-kb interval of the 5' end of the MAPT locus.
Project description:Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a neuronal protein involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's Disease (PD). Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3B) catalyzes phosphorylation in multiple sites of tau protein. However, whether or not there is any association between the GSK3B gene alteration, MAPT haplotype and PD remains unexplored in Chinese population, especially in central Chinese population.Here, we aimed at studying the effect of MAPT rs242562 and GSK3B rs334558 on the risk of PD by performing a case-control association study in central China. Our data showed that all PD patients and controls were of MAPT H1/H1 diplotype in our study, thus confirming that the distribution of the MAPT H1 haplotype is common in China. GG genotype of MAPT rs242562 serves protection effect on PD risk in central Chinese population, while genotype of GSK3B rs334558 showed no difference between PD patients and controls.We conclude that the MAPT rs242562 is associated with PD in central China in the background of MAPT H1/H1 diplotype. The GG genotype of rs242562 displays protection against PD in subgroup with GSK3B rs334558 T carrier.
Project description:<b>Objective: </b>To determine whether distinct microtubule-associated protein tau MAPT H1 subhaplotypes are associated with clinical and demographic features in Parkinson's disease.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>A retrospective cohort study included 855 unrelated Caucasian patients with Parkinson's disease who were seen by Movement Disorder specialists at the Mayo Clinic Florida between 1998 and 2016. The primary outcome measures were specific demographic and clinical features of Parkinson's disease, including age at onset, disease progression, survival, motor signs, dementia, dystonia, dyskinesia, autonomic dysfunction, impulse control disorder, psychiatric features, REM sleep behavior disorder, restless legs syndrome, and Parkinson's disease subtype. Specific clinical features were measured at the initial visit and most recent visit. These outcomes were assessed for association with MAPT H1 subhaplotypes, which were defined by six haplotype tagging variants.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Median onset age was 64 years (range: 22-94 years); 548 (64%) of patients were male. Significant associations (P < 0.0029) were observed between MAPT H1b and orthostatic hypotension (OR = 1.72, P = 0.001); between H1j and rest tremor (OR = 0.15; P < 0.001) as well as REM sleep behavior disorder (OR = 3.87, P < 0.001); between H1r and bradykinesia (OR = 0.11; P < 0.001); and between H1v and restless legs syndrome (OR = 4.02, P = 0.002).<br><br><b>Interpretation: </b>Four MAPT H1 subhaplotypes, but not the H2 haplotype, were significantly associated with specific clinical features in Parkinson's disease. MAPT haplotypic structure may explain some of the phenotypic variability in disease. Replication of our findings will be critical to fully resolve the Parkinson's disease risk association signal at Chr17q21.
Project description:Importance:The association between the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) H1 haplotype and the risk of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) has been well documented. However, the specific H1 subhaplotypes that drive the association have not been evaluated in large studies, nor have they been studied in relation to neuropathologic severity of disease. Objective:To comprehensively evaluate the associations of MAPT haplotypes with the risk of PSP and the severity of tau pathology using a large series of neuropathologically confirmed PSP cases. Design, Setting, and Participants:A case-control study was used to investigate the associations between MAPT haplotypes and the risk of PSP, and a case series was conducted for examination of associations of MAPT haplotypes with the severity of tau pathology. All 802 neuropathologically confirmed PSP cases were obtained from a neurodegenerative disorders brain bank between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2013, and 1312 clinical controls were obtained from the neurology department of the Mayo Clinic. Statistical analysis was performed from February 17 to December 12, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Presence of PSP in case-control analysis and semiquantitative tau pathology scores for neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, tufted astrocytes, and oligodendroglial coiled bodies in PSP cases. Results:For 802 patients with PSP (376 women and 426 men), the median age at death was 75 years (range, 52-98 years). For 1312 controls (701 women and 611 men), the median age at blood collection was 69 years (range, 45-92 years). After adjustment for multiple testing, known associations with risk of PSP were observed for the H2 and H1c haplotypes. Novel associations with PSP were observed for 3 H1 subhaplotypes, including H1d (odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.43-2.42; P?=?2?×?10-6), H1g (odds ratio, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.04-6.50; P?=?2?×?10-6), and H1o (odds ratio, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.63-4.16; P?=?2?×?10-5). Although not significant after multiple testing adjustment, 3 of these PSP risk haplotypes (H2, H1c, and H1d) were also nominally associated with measures of severity of tau pathology in PSP cases. Nominally significant associations with severity of tau pathology were also noted for the H1e and H1q haplotypes. Conclusions and Relevance:This study has identified novel associations with risk of PSP for 3 MAPT H1 subhaplotypes. In addition, potential weaker associations between several haplotypes (including several PSP risk haplotypes) and severity of tau pathology were observed. These findings expand the current understanding of the role of MAPT haplotypic variation in susceptibility to and neuropathologic severity of PSP.
Project description:Whilst an association between the tau gene (MAPT)-containing H1 haplotype and supranuclear gaze palsy (PSP) has long been recognized, the effect of H1 on risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) has remained more contentious.Herein, we examined the association of H1 and PD in three Caucasian PD patient-control series from Ireland, Norway, and the US (combined: n = 2619), by genotyping two H1/H2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MAPT (rs1052553) and in the Saitohin gene (rs62063857) and one H1-specific SNP (rs242557).We identified a significant association between H1/H2 and risk of PD (rs1052553 OR: 1.43, CI: 1.23-1.64; rs62063857 OR: 1.45, CI: 1.27-1.67), but no effect of the H1-specific SNP rs242557 (OR: 0.92, CI: 0.82-1.03).Our findings show that the H1 haplotype is a significant risk factor for PD. However, one H1-specific SNP (rs242557) previously implicated in PSP did not alter the risk of PD, indicating that distinct H1 sub-haplotypes probably drive the associations with PD and PSP.
Project description:Genetic variation is associated with differences in the function of the brain as well as its susceptibility to disease. The common H1 haplotypic variant of the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) has been related to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, among PD patients, H1 homozygotes have an accelerated progression to dementia. We investigated the neurocognitive correlates of MAPT haplotypes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-seven nondemented patients with PD (19 H1/H1, 18 H2 carriers) and 40 age-matched controls (21 H1/H1, 19 H2 carriers) were scanned during performance of a picture memory encoding task. Behaviorally, H1 homozygosity was associated with impaired picture recognition memory in PD patients and control subjects. These impairments in the H1 homozygotes were accompanied by an altered blood-oxygen level-dependent response in the medial temporal lobe during successful memory encoding. Additional age-related differences in blood-oxygen level-dependent response were observed in the medial temporal lobes of H1 homozygotes with PD. These results suggest that common variation in MAPT is not only associated with the dementia of PD but also differences in the neural circuitry underlying aspects of cognition in normal aging.
Project description:The H1 haplotype of the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD) compared with the H2 haplotype, but its effect on Lewy body (LB) formation is unclear. In this study, we compared the MAPT haplotype frequency between pathologically confirmed PD patients (n = 71) and controls (n = 52). We analyzed Braak LB stage, Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage, and CERAD amyloid score by haplotype. We further tested the association between MAPT haplotype and semi-quantitative counts of LBs, NFTs, and neuritic plaques (NPs) in multiple neocortical regions. Consistent with previous reports, PD cases had an increased likelihood of carrying an H1/H1 genotype compared to controls (OR = 5.72, 95 % CI 1.80-18.21, p = 0.003). Braak LB, Braak NFT and CERAD scores did not differ by haplotype. However, H1/H1 carriers had higher LB counts in parietal cortex (p = 0.02) and in overall neocortical LBs (p = 0.03) compared to non-H1/H1 cases. Our analyses suggest that PD patients homozygous for the H1 haplotype have a higher burden of neocortical LB pathology.
Project description:The H1 haplotype of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) locus is genetically associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and affects gene expression and splicing. However, the functional impact on neurons of such expression differences has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we employ extended maturation phases during differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures to obtain cultures expressing all six adult tau protein isoforms. After 6 months of maturation, levels of exon 3+ and exon 10+ transcripts approach those of adult brain. Mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures display haplotype differences in expression, with H1 expressing 22% higher levels of MAPT transcripts than H2 and H2 expressing 2-fold greater exon 3+ transcripts than H1. Furthermore, knocking down adult tau protein variants alters axonal transport velocities in mature iPSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures. This work links haplotype-specific MAPT expression with a biologically functional outcome relevant for PD.
Project description:The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) region has been conceptualized as a model of the interaction between genetics and functional disease outcomes in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Indeed, haplotype-specific differences in expression and alternative splicing of MAPT transcripts affect cellular functions at different levels, increasing susceptibility to a range of neurodegenerative processes. In order to evaluate a possible link between MAPT variants, PD risk and PD motor phenotype, we analyzed the genetic architecture of MAPT in a cohort of PD patients. We observed a statistically significant association between the H1 haplotype and PD risk (79.5 vs 69.5%; ?(2) = 9.9; OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4; p = 0.002). The effect was more evident in non tremor dominant (TD) PD subjects (NTD-PD) (82 vs 69.5%; ?(2) = 13.6; OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.4-3; p = 0.0003), while no difference emerged between PD subgroup of tremor dominant patients (TD-PD) and control subjects. Examination of specific intra-H1 variations showed that the H1h subhaplotype was overrepresented in NTD-PD patients compared with controls (p = 0.007; OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3). Although we cannot exclude that MAPT variation may be associated with ethnicity, our results may support the hypothesis that MAPT H1 clade and a specific H1 subhaplotype influence the risk of PD and modulate the clinical expression of the disease, including motor phenotype.