Quality of graphite target for biological/biomedical/environmental applications of 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: Catalytic graphitization for (14)C-accelerator mass spectrometry ((14)C-AMS) produced various forms of elemental carbon. Our high-throughput Zn reduction method (C/Fe = 1:5, 500 degrees C, 3 h) produced the AMS target of graphite-coated iron powder (GCIP), a mix of nongraphitic carbon and Fe(3)C. Crystallinity of the AMS targets of GCIP (nongraphitic carbon) was increased to turbostratic carbon by raising the C/Fe ratio from 1:5 to 1:1 and the graphitization temperature from 500 to 585 degrees C. The AMS target of GCIP containing turbostratic carbon had a large isotopic fractionation and a low AMS ion current. The AMS target of GCIP containing turbostratic carbon also yielded less accurate/precise (14)C-AMS measurements because of the lower graphitization yield and lower thermal conductivity that were caused by the higher C/Fe ratio of 1:1. On the other hand, the AMS target of GCIP containing nongraphitic carbon had higher graphitization yield and better thermal conductivity over the AMS target of GCIP containing turbostratic carbon due to optimal surface area provided by the iron powder. Finally, graphitization yield and thermal conductivity were stronger determinants (over graphite crystallinity) for accurate/precise/high-throughput biological, biomedical, and environmental (14)C-AMS applications such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination (ADME), and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) of nutrients, drugs, phytochemicals, and environmental chemicals.
Project description:The number of biological/biomedical applications that require AMS to achieve their goals is increasing, and so is the need for a better understanding of the physical, morphological, and structural traits of high quality of AMS targets. The metrics of quality included color, hardness/texture, and appearance (photo and SEM), along with FT-IR, Raman, and powder X-ray diffraction spectra that correlate positively with reliable and intense ion currents and accuracy, precision, and sensitivity of fraction modern ( F m). Our previous method produced AMS targets of gray-colored iron-carbon materials (ICM) 20% of the time and of graphite-coated iron (GCI) 80% of the time. The ICM was hard, its FT-IR spectra lacked the sp (2) bond, its Raman spectra had no detectable G' band at 2700 cm (-1), and it had more iron carbide (Fe 3C) crystal than nanocrystalline graphite or graphitizable carbon (g-C). ICM produced low and variable ion current whereas the opposite was true for the graphitic GCI. Our optimized method produced AMS targets of graphite-coated iron powder (GCIP) 100% of the time. The GCIP shared some of the same properties as GCI in that both were black in color, both produced robust ion current consistently, their FT-IR spectra had the sp (2) bond, their Raman spectra had matching D, G, G', D +G, and D '' bands, and their XRD spectra showed matching crystal size. GCIP was a powder that was easy to tamp into AMS target holders that also facilitated high throughput. We concluded that AMS targets of GCIP were a mix of graphitizable carbon and Fe 3C crystal, because none of their spectra, FT-IR, Raman, or XRD, matched exactly those of the graphite standard. Nevertheless, AMS targets of GCIP consistently produced the strong, reliable, and reproducible ion currents for high-throughput AMS analysis (270 targets per skilled analyst/day) along with accurate and precise F m values.
Project description:Biological and biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) use isotope ratio mass spectrometry to quantify minute amounts of long-lived radioisotopes such as (14)C. AMS target preparation involves first the oxidation of carbon (in sample of interest) to CO 2 and second the reduction of CO 2 to filamentous, fluffy, fuzzy, or firm graphite-like substances that coat a -400-mesh spherical iron powder (-400MSIP) catalyst. Until now, the quality of AMS targets has been variable; consequently, they often failed to produce robust ion currents that are required for reliable, accurate, precise, and high-throughput AMS for biological/biomedical applications. Therefore, we described our optimized method for reduction of CO 2 to high-quality uniform AMS targets whose morphology we visualized using scanning electron microscope pictures. Key features of our optimized method were to reduce CO 2 (from a sample of interest that provided 1 mg of C) using 100 +/- 1.3 mg of Zn dust, 5 +/- 0.4 mg of -400MSIP, and a reduction temperature of 500 degrees C for 3 h. The thermodynamics of our optimized method were more favorable for production of graphite-coated iron powders (GCIP) than those of previous methods. All AMS targets from our optimized method were of 100% GCIP, the graphitization yield exceeded 90%, and delta (13)C was -17.9 +/- 0.3 per thousand. The GCIP reliably produced strong (12)C (-) currents and accurate and precise F m values. The observed F m value for oxalic acid II NIST SRM deviated from its accepted F m value of 1.3407 by only 0.0003 +/- 0.0027 (mean +/- SE, n = 32), limit of detection of (14)C was 0.04 amol, and limit of quantification was 0.07 amol, and a skilled analyst can prepare as many as 270 AMS targets per day. More information on the physical (hardness/color), morphological (SEMs), and structural (FT-IR, Raman, XRD spectra) characteristics of our AMS targets that determine accurate, precise, and high-hroughput AMS measurement are in the companion paper.
Project description:Melt-mixed composites based on polypropylene (PP) with various carbon-based fillers were investigated with regard to their thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity. The composites were filled with up to three fillers by selecting combinations of graphite nanoplatelets (GNP), carbon fibers (CF), carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon black (CB), and graphite (G) at a constant filler content of 7.5 vol%. The thermal conductivity of PP (0.26 W/(m·K)) improved most using graphite nanoplatelets, whereas electrical resistivity was the lowest when using multiwalled CNT. Synergistic effects could be observed for different filler combinations. The PP composite, which contains a mixture of GNP, CNT, and highly structured CB, simultaneously had high thermal conductivity (0.5 W/(m·K)) and the lowest electrical volume resistivity (4 Ohm·cm).
Project description:This study reports a mechanical stress-based technique that involves scratching or imprinting to write textured graphite conducting wires/patterns in an insulating amorphous carbon matrix for potential use as interconnects in future carbonaceous circuits. With low-energy post-annealing below the temperature that is required for the thermal graphitization of amorphous carbon, the amorphous carbon phase only in the mechanically stressed regions transforms into a well aligned crystalline graphite structure with a low electrical resistivity of 420???-cm, while the surrounding amorphous carbon matrix remains insulating. Micro-Raman spectra with obvious graphitic peaks and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic observations of clear graphitic lattice verified the localized phase transformation of amorphous carbon into textured graphite exactly in the stressed regions. The stress-induced reconstruction of carbon bonds to generate oriented graphitic nuclei is believed to assist in the pseudo-self-formation of textured graphite during low-temperature post annealing.
Project description:Direct formation of ultra-small nanoparticles on carbon supports by rapid high temperature synthesis method offers new opportunities for scalable nanomanufacturing and the synthesis of stable multi-elemental nanoparticles. However, the underlying mechanisms affecting the dispersion and stability of nanoparticles on the supports during high temperature processing remain enigmatic. In this work, we report the observation of metallic nanoparticles formation and stabilization on carbon supports through in situ Joule heating method. We find that the formation of metallic nanoparticles is associated with the simultaneous phase transition of amorphous carbon to a highly defective turbostratic graphite (T-graphite). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations suggest that the defective T-graphite provide numerous nucleation sites for the nanoparticles to form. Furthermore, the nanoparticles partially intercalate and take root on edge planes, leading to high binding energy on support. This interaction between nanoparticles and T-graphite substrate strengthens the anchoring and provides excellent thermal stability to the nanoparticles. These findings provide mechanistic understanding of rapid high temperature synthesis of metal nanoparticles on carbon supports and the origin of their stability.
Project description:Copper helps to accelerate heat transfer during the braking process, allowing the brake materials to produce a stable coefficient of friction (COF), which in turn reduces wear loss and braking noise. However, its properties are also quite harmful to aquatic organisms. Finding a suitable replacement that fits all functions of copper for brake materials is not an easy feat. In this paper, six different carbonaceous components (coke, carbon black, carbon fiber, artificial graphite, natural graphite and expanded graphite) were substituted for copper in non-asbestos organic (NAO) friction materials. The hardness, thermal conductivity and tribological behaviors of these copper-free NAO friction materials were examined. Experimental results indicate that carbonaceous components improve lubrication and assist the friction composites with generating friction layers on the worn surface. Specimens containing coke, carbon black or carbon fiber exhibit broken friction layers, whereas specimens containing artificial graphite, natural graphite or expanded graphite exhibit quite adherent and smooth friction layers. Among all the copper-free carbon containing specimens, the specimen containing expanded graphite appears to be the best choice. It has the highest thermal conductivity, a relatively low wear loss and a relatively high and stable COF.
Project description:The physical properties of biocarbon vary widely with the biomass used, and the temperature and duration of pyrolysis. This study identifies the effects of feedstock characteristics and pyrolysis conditions on the production of biocarbon and the corresponding properties for industrial applications. For coffee chaff and soy hulls, ash content and carbon content increased with pyrolysis temperature and duration. Ash content increased thermal conductivity and specific heat, and decreased electrical conductivity. Change in surface area with pyrolysis conditions was dependent on type of feedstock. Increased surface area corresponded with increased thermal and electrical conductivity. Increased carbon content corresponded with increased graphitization and thermal stability and decreased surface functionality. Properties of soy hull biocarbons were found to be similar to the properties of other biocarbons with industrial applications such as incorporation into polymer composites.
Project description:High surface area electrode materials are of interest for a wide range of potential applications such as super-capacitors and electrochemical cells. This paper describes a fabrication method of three-dimensional (3D) graphene conformally coated on nanoporous insulating substrate with uniform nanopore size. 3D graphene films were formed by controlled graphitization of diamond-like amorphous carbon precursor films, deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Plasma-assisted graphitization was found to produce better quality graphene than a simple thermal graphitization process. The resulting 3D graphene/amorphous carbon/alumina structure has a very high surface area, good electrical conductivity and exhibits excellent chemically stability, providing a good material platform for electrochemical applications. Consequently very large electrochemical capacitance values, as high as 2.1?mF for a sample of 10?mm(3), were achieved. The electrochemical capacitance of the material exhibits a dependence on bias voltage, a phenomenon observed by other groups when studying graphene quantum capacitance. The plasma-assisted graphitization, which dominates the graphitization process, is analyzed and discussed in detail.
Project description:Technical lignin from pulping, an aromatic polymer with ~59% carbon content, was employed to develop novel lignin-based nano carbon thin film (LCF)-copper foil composite films for thermal management applications. A highly graphitized, nanoscale LCF (~80-100 nm in thickness) was successfully deposited on both sides of copper foil by spin coating followed by annealing treatment at 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. The conditions of annealing significantly impacted the morphology and graphitization of LCF and the thermal conductivity of LCF-copper foil composite films. The LCF-modified copper foil exhibited an enhanced thermal conductivity of 478 W m-1 K-1 at 333 K, which was 43% higher than the copper foil counterpart. The enhanced thermal conductivity of the composite films compared with that of the copper foil was characterized by thermal infrared imaging. The thermal properties of the copper foil enhanced by LCF reveals its potential applications in the thermal management of advanced electronic products and highlights the potential high-value utility of lignin, the waste of pulping.
Project description:Wood-derived porous graphitic biocarbons with hierarchical structures were obtained by high-temperature (2200?2400 °C) non-catalytic graphitization, and their mechanical, electrical and thermal properties are reported for the first time. Compared to amorphous biocarbon produced at 1000 °C, the graphitized biocarbon-2200 °C and biocarbon-2400 °C exhibited increased compressive strength by ~38% (~36 MPa), increased electrical conductivity by ~8 fold (~29 S/cm), and increased thermal conductivity by ~5 fold (~9.5 W/(m·K) at 25 °C). The increase of duration time at 2200 °C contributed to increased thermal conductivity by ~12%, while the increase of temperature from 2200 to 2400 °C did not change their thermal conductivity, indicating that 2200 °C is sufficient for non-catalytic graphitization of wood-derived biocarbon.