Lipid-dependent cytotoxicity by the lipase PLRP2 and by PLRP2-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs).
ABSTRACT: IL-4 induces a lipase, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2), in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Because PLRP2 in semen can mediate lipid-dependent toxicity to sperm, we questioned whether CTL-derived PLRP2 could support similar cytotoxicity toward tumor cells. Recombinant PLRP2 was toxic to P815 tumor cells in 48 h when lipid and another protein, colipase, were present. However, PLRP2-positive CTLs (induced with many lots of IL-4) were unable to mediate lipid-dependent cytotoxicity. Notably, CTLs induced with only one lot of IL-4 had lipid-dependent cytotoxicity. The exceptional lot of IL-4 was effective in multiple experiments at inducing lipid-dependent cytotoxicity. The lipid-dependent cytotoxicity it induced was determined to be perforin-independent. CTLs induced with IL-4 that was unable to induce lipid-dependent cytotoxicity had mRNA for PLRP2 but not mRNA for colipase. Therefore, we added exogenous colipase to the CTL assays but still cytotoxicity was unchanged. We conclude (1) that lipid-dependent cytotoxicity, promoted by the lipase PLRP2 and colipase, will kill tumor cells and (2) that more than PLRP2 alone is required for lipid-dependent cytotoxicity mediated by CTLs.
Project description:Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) is induced by IL-4 in vitro in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones and CTLs from immunized wild-type (WT) PLRP2(+/+) are more cytotoxic than PLRP2(-/-) CTLs, suggesting to previous investigators that the lipase PLRP2 might support CTL functions. Here, we further evaluate PLRP2 in CTLs. We found that PLRP2 was optimally induced in splenocytes by 3.5 x 10(-8) M IL-4 by day 6 after activation and was restricted to CD8(+) T cells. PLRP2 mRNA was detected inconsistently (and at low levels) after activation in the presence of IL-2. Cytotoxicity in 4 h (51)Cr assays of WT CTLs was approximately 3-fold the activity of PLRP2(-/-) CTLs cultured with IL-4 and, with IL-2, was unexpectedly approximately 2 fold the activity of PLRP2(-/-) CTLs. Thus, PLRP2 gene ablation affected short-term (perforin-dependent) cytotoxicity, even under the IL-2 conditions. Other variables failed to account for the reduced cytotoxicity. Granzyme B levels, activation markers, and CD8(+) T cell frequencies were similar for WT vs. PLRP2(-/-) CTLs (with either cytokine). Addition of rPLRP2 to IL-4 induced PLRP2(-/-) CTLs (or to cytotoxic granule extracts) failed to increase lysis, suggesting that the missing mediator is more than released PLRP2. Cytotoxicity of WT and PLRP2(-/-) CTLs was similar in 2-day tumor survival assays with IL-4, which can be mediated by perforin-independent mechanisms. We conclude that extracellular PLRP2 lipase is unable to directly augment the cytotoxicity that was lost by PLRP2 ablation and that after reevaluation, the question of what is PLRP2's role in CD8 T cells is still unanswered.
Project description:Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a major subset of NKT cells that recognize foreign and endogenous lipid antigens presented by CD1d. Although iNKT cells are characteristically autoreactive to self-antigens, the role of iNKT cells in the regulation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) has been elucidated using ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer), a strong synthetic glycolipid that is presented by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells. Despite the well-known effects of ?-GalCer and dendritic cells on lipid antigen presentation, the physiological role of endogenous antigens presented by CTLs during crosstalk with iNKT cells has not yet been addressed. In this study, we found that antigen-primed CTLs with transient CD1d upregulation could present lipid self-antigens to activate the iNKT cell production of IFN-?. CTL-mediated iNKT cell activation in turn enhanced IFN-? production and the proliferation and cytotoxicity of CTLs. We also found that the direct interaction of iNKT cells and CTLs enhanced the antitumor immune responses of CTLs. This partially explains the functional role of iNKT cells in CTL-mediated antitumor immunity. Our findings suggest that in the absence of exogenous iNKT cell ligands, iNKT cells enhanced the CTL production of IFN-? and CTL proliferation and cytotoxicity via direct interaction with CD1d expressed on T cells without interacting with APCs.
Project description:An effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against intracellular pathogens is generally accomplished by immense CTL expansion and activation, which can destroy infected cells. Vigorous immune responses can lead to activation of bystander CD8+ T cells, but the contribution from antigen-specific CTLs is not well understood. We found that CTLs secrete extracellular vesicles following antigen stimulation. These CTL-derived vesicles contain CTL proteins and exhibit markers and size profiles consistent with exosomes. Interestingly, further stimulation of CTLs with IL-12 impacts exosome size and leads to selective enrichment of certain exosomal proteins. More important, exosomes from IL-12-stimulated CTLs directly activated bystander naïve CD8+ T cells to produce interferon-? (IFN?) and granzyme B (GZB) in the absence of antigens, whereas control exosomes derived from antigen-stimulated CTLs did not. In addition, IL-12 induced exosomes are able to strengthen the effects of weak antigen stimulation on CTLs. Proteomic analysis demonstrates that IL-12 stimulation alters catalytic and binding activities of proteins in CTL exosomes. Our findings indicate that the biological function and morphology of exosomes secreted by CTLs can be influenced by the type of stimulation CTLs receive. Thus, a fully functional, ongoing, antigen-specific CTL response may influence bystander CD8+ T cells through secretion of exosomes.
Project description:Red seabream digestive lipase (RsDL) was purified from fresh pyloric caeca. Pure RsDL has an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. The RsDL is more active on short-chain triacylglycerols (TC4), and enzymatic activity decreases when medium (TC8) or long-chain (olive oil) triacylglycerols were used as substrates. The specific activities of RsDL are very weak as compared to those obtained with classical pancreatic lipases. No colipase was detected in the red seabream pyloric caeca. Furthermore, the RsDL was not activated by a mammal colipase. Similar results were reported for annular seabream lipase. In order to explain structurally the discrepancies between sparidae and mammal lipases, genes encoding mature RsDL and five other lipases from sparidae fish species were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic studies indicated the closest homology of sparidae lipases to bird pancreatic ones. Structural models were built for annular seabream and RsDL under their closed and open forms using mammal pancreatic lipases as templates. Several differences were noticed when analyzing the amino acids corresponding to those involved in HPL binding to colipase. This is likely to prevent interaction between the fish lipase and the mammalian colipase and may explain the fact that mammalian colipase is not effective in activating sparidae lipases. In addition, several hydrophobic residues, playing a key role in anchoring pancreatic lipase onto the lipid interface, are replaced by polar residues in fish lipases. This might explain the reason why the latter enzymes display weak activity levels when compared to mammalian pancreatic lipases.
Project description:The induction of functional memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a major goal of vaccination against intracellular pathogens. Interleukin (IL)-12 is critical for the generation of memory CTLs, and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin can effectively enhance the memory CTL response. Yet, the role of IL-12 in mTOR's regulation of memory CTL is unknown. Here we hypothesized that the immunostimulatory effects of mTOR on memory CTLs requires IL-12 signaling. Our results revealed that rapamycin increased the generation of memory CTLs in vaccinia virus infection, and this enhancement was dependent upon the IL-12 signal. Furthermore, IL-12 receptor deficiency diminished the secondary expansion of rapamycin-regulated memory and resultant secondary memory CTLs were abolished. Rapamycin enhanced IL-12 signaling by upregulating IL-12 receptor ?2 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 4 phosphorylation in CTLs during early infection. In addition, rapamycin continually suppressed T-bet expression in both wild-type and IL-12 receptor knockout CTLs. These results indicate an essential role for IL-12 in the regulation of memory CTLs by mTOR and highlight the importance of considering the interplay between cytokines and adjuvants during vaccine design.
Project description:This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol uptake by intestinal cells is dependent on the structure and composition of the lipid carriers in the extracellular milieu. In in vivo experiments with female C57BL/6 mice, cholesterol absorption from phospholipid/triacylglycerol emulsions was significantly reduced by administration of tetrahydrolipstatin, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. This inhibitor had no effect on the absorption of cholesterol from phospholipid vesicles. The importance of pancreatic-lipase-mediated triacylglycerol hydrolysis for cholesterol transport from emulsions to intestinal cells was confirmed by in vitro experiments with rat IEC-6 intestinal cells. Cellular uptake of cholesterol from emulsions with a phospholipid/triacylglycerol molar ratio of <0.3 could be stimulated by pancreatic lipase/colipase hydrolysis of the core neutral lipids. However, pancreatic lipase/colipase was ineffective in hydrolysing triacylglycerols in emulsions with a phospholipid/triacylglycerol molar ratio of >0.3. Phospholipase A2-mediated hydrolysis of the surface phospholipids was necessary prior to triacylglycerol hydrolysis in these phospholipid-rich emulsions and to the stimulation of cholesterol transport from these particles to IEC-6 cells. The data also revealed that minimal triacylglycerol hydrolysis was sufficient to significantly increase cholesterol transport from lipid emulsions to the intestinal cells. Thus the products of triacylglycerol hydrolysis, namely monoacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids, are key determinants in mediating cholesterol transport from lipid emulsions to intestinal cells. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that remodelling of the surface and core components of lipid carriers is necessary prior to absorption of dietary cholesterol from the gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:A full-length cDNA encoding digestive lipase (SmDL) was cloned from the pancreas of the smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus). The obtained cDNA was 1350?bp long encoding 451 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence has high similarity with known pancreatic lipases. Catalytic triad and disulphide bond positions are also conserved. According to the established phylogeny, the SmDL was grouped with those of tuna and Sparidae lipases into one fish digestive lipase cluster. The recently purified enzyme shows no dependence for bile salts and colipase. For this, the residue-level interactions between lipase-colipase are yet to be clearly understood. The structural model of the SmDL was built, and several dissimilarities were noticed when analyzing the SmDL amino acids corresponding to those involved in HPL binding to colipase. Interestingly, the C-terminal domain of SmDL which holds the colipase shows a significant role for colipase interaction. This is apt to prevent the interaction between fish lipase and the pancreatic colipase which and can provide more explanation on the fact that the classical colipase is unable to activate the SmDL.
Project description:The density of NK cells in tumors correlates positively with prognosis in many types of cancers. The average number of infiltrating NK cells is, however, quite modest (approximately 30 NK cells/sq.mm), even in tumors deemed to have a "high" density of infiltrating NK cells. It is unclear how such low numbers of tumor-infiltrating NK cells can influence outcome. Here, we used ovalbumin-expressing tumor cell lines and TCR transgenic, OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (OT-I-CTLs) to determine whether the simultaneous attack by anti-tumor CTLs and IL-2-activated NK (A-NK) cells synergistically increases the overall tumor cell kill and whether upregulation of tumor MHC class-I by NK cell-derived interferon-gamma (IFN?) improves tumor-recognition and kill by anti-tumor CTLs. At equal E:T ratios, A-NK cells killed OVA-expressing tumor cells better than OT-I-CTLs. The cytotoxicity against OVA-expressing tumor cells increased by combining OT-I-CTLs and A-NK cells, but the increase was additive rather than synergistic. A-NK cells adenovirally-transduced to produce IL-12 (A-NKIL-12) produced high amounts of IFN?. The addition of a low number of A-NKIL-12 cells to OT-I-CTLs resulted in a synergistic, albeit modest, increase in overall cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment of tumor cells with NK cell-conditioned medium increased tumor MHC expression and sensitivity to CTL-mediated killing. Pre-treatment of CTLs with NK cell-conditioned medium had no effect on CTL cytotoxicity. In vivo, MHC class-I expression by OVA-expressing B16 melanoma lung metastases increased significantly within 24-48h after adoptive transfer of A-NKIL-12 cells. OT-I-CTLs and A-NKIL-12 cells localized selectively and equally well into OVA-expressing B16 lung metastases and treatment of mice bearing 7-days-old OVA-B16 lung metastases with both A-NKIL-12 cells and OT-I-CTLs lead to a significant prolongation of survival. Thus, an important function of tumor-infiltrating NK cells may be to increase tumor cell expression of MHC class-I through secretion of IFN?, to prepare them for recognition by tumor-specific CTLs.
Project description:CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have potent antitumor activity and therefore are leading candidates for use in tumor immunotherapy. The application of CTLs for clinical use has been limited by the susceptibility of ex vivo-expanded CTLs to become dysfunctional in response to immunosuppressive microenvironments. Here, we developed a microRNA-targeting (miRNA-targeting) approach that augments CTL cytotoxicity and preserves immunocompetence. Specifically, we screened for miRNAs that modulate cytotoxicity and identified miR-23a as a strong functional repressor of the transcription factor BLIMP-1, which promotes CTL cytotoxicity and effector cell differentiation. In a cohort of advanced lung cancer patients, miR-23a was upregulated in tumor-infiltrating CTLs, and expression correlated with impaired antitumor potential of patient CTLs. We determined that tumor-derived TGF-? directly suppresses CTL immune function by elevating miR-23a and downregulating BLIMP-1. Functional blocking of miR-23a in human CTLs enhanced granzyme B expression, and in mice with established tumors, immunotherapy with just a small number of tumor-specific CTLs in which miR-23a was inhibited robustly hindered tumor progression. Together, our findings provide a miRNA-based strategy that subverts the immunosuppression of CTLs that is often observed during adoptive cell transfer tumor immunotherapy and identify a TGF-?-mediated tumor immune-evasion pathway.
Project description:Acquisition of effector properties is a key step in the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we show that inflammatory signals regulate Dicer expression in CTL, and that deletion or depletion of Dicer in mouse or human activated CD8+ T cells causes upregulation of perforin, granzyme and effector cytokines. Genome-wide analysis of miRNA changes induced by exposure of differentiating CTLs to IL-2 and inflammatory signals identifies miR-139 and miR-150 as components of a miRNA network that controls perforin, eomesodermin (Eomes) and IL-2Ra expression in differentiating CTLs and whose activity is modulated by IL-2, inflammation and antigenic stimulation. Overall our data show that strong IL-2R and inflammatory signals act through Dicer and miRNAs to control the cytolytic program and other aspects of effector CTL differentiation. Comparison of control and Dicer knock-out CTLs differentiated in vitro; Comparison of wild type CTLs differentiated in vitro with or without inflammatory stimuli; Comparison of effector and memory precursor CTLs isolated from mice infected with LCMV-Armstrong