Rapid and specific method for evaluating Streptomyces competitive dynamics in complex soil communities.
ABSTRACT: Quantifying target microbial populations in complex communities remains a barrier to studying species interactions in soil environments. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed for quantifying pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and antibiotic-producing Streptomyces lavendulae strains in complex soil communities. This assay will be useful for evaluating the competitive dynamics of streptomycetes in soil.
Project description:Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are soil microorganisms with a saprophytic life cycle. Previous studies have revealed that the phytopathogenic agent S. scabiei undergoes metabolic and morphological modifications in the presence of suberin, a complex plant polymer. This paper investigates morphological changes induced by the presence of potato suberin in five species of the genus Streptomyces, with emphasis on S. scabiei. Streptomyces scabiei, S. acidiscabies, S. avermitilis, S. coelicolor and S. melanosporofaciens were grown both in the presence and absence of suberin. In all species tested, the presence of the plant polymer induced the production of aerial hyphae and enhanced resistance to mechanical lysis. The presence of suberin in liquid minimal medium also induced the synthesis of typical secondary metabolites in S. scabiei and S. acidiscabies (thaxtomin A), S. coelicolor (actinorhodin) and S. melanosporofaciens (geldanamycin). In S. scabiei, the presence of suberin modified the fatty acid composition of the bacterial membrane, which translated into higher membrane fluidity. Moreover, suberin also induced thickening of the bacterial cell wall. The present data indicate that suberin hastens cellular differentiation and triggers the onset of secondary metabolism in the genus Streptomyces.
Project description:Streptomyces lavendulae subsp. lavendulae CCM 3239 produces the angucycline antibiotic auricin and was thought to be the type strain of Streptomyces aureofaciens We report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a linear chromosome and the linear plasmid pSA3239, and demonstrate it to be S. lavendulae subsp. lavendulae.
Project description:Streptomycetes are sessile bacteria that produce metabolites that impact the behavior of microbial communities. Emerging studies have demonstrated that Streptomyces spores are distributed through various mechanisms, but it remains unclear how spores are transported to their preferred microenvironments, such as plant roots. Here, we show that Streptomyces spores are capable of utilizing the motility machinery of other soil bacteria. Motility assays and microscopy studies reveal that Streptomyces spores are transported to plant tissues by interacting directly with the flagella of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Genetics experiments demonstrate that this form of motility is facilitated by structural proteins on the spore coat. These results demonstrate that nonmotile bacteria are capable of utilizing the motility machinery of other microbes to complete necessary stages of their lifecycle.
Project description:<i>Streptomyces</i> spp. are saprophytic soil bacteria that produce secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential. This announcement describes the isolation and genome annotation of <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. strain Mg1 siphophage Shady. Learning more about Shady's novel 45-kb genome, containing 76 predicted protein-coding genes, could be industrially advantageous when using streptomycetes for their products.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Production of antibiotics to inhibit competitors affects soil microbial community composition and contributes to disease suppression. In this work, we characterized whether Streptomyces bacteria, prolific antibiotics producers, inhibit a soil borne human pathogenic microorganism, Streptomyces sudanensis. S. sudanensis represents the major causal agent of actinomycetoma - a largely under-studied and dreadful subcutaneous disease of humans in the tropics and subtropics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro S. sudanensis inhibitory potential of soil streptomycetes isolated from different sites in Sudan, including areas with frequent (mycetoma belt) and rare actinomycetoma cases of illness.<h4>Results</h4>Using selective media, 173 Streptomyces isolates were recovered from 17 sites representing three ecoregions and different vegetation and ecological subdivisions in Sudan. In total, 115 strains of the 173 (66.5%) displayed antagonism against S. sudanensis with different levels of inhibition. Strains isolated from the South Saharan steppe and woodlands ecoregion (Northern Sudan) exhibited higher inhibitory potential than those strains isolated from the East Sudanian savanna ecoregion located in the south and southeastern Sudan, or the strains isolated from the Sahelian Acacia savanna ecoregion located in central and western Sudan. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, isolates were predominantly related to Streptomyces werraensis, S. enissocaesilis, S. griseostramineus and S. prasinosporus. Three clusters of isolates were related to strains that have previously been isolated from human and animal actinomycetoma cases: SD524 (Streptomyces sp. subclade 6), SD528 (Streptomyces griseostramineus) and SD552 (Streptomyces werraensis).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The in vitro inhibitory potential against S. sudanensis was proven for more than half of the soil streptomycetes isolates in this study and this potential may contribute to suppressing the abundance and virulence of S. sudanensis. The streptomycetes isolated from the mycetoma free South Saharan steppe ecoregion show the highest average inhibitory potential. Further analyses suggest that mainly soil properties and rainfall modulate the structure and function of Streptomyces species, including their antagonistic activity against S. sudanensis.
Project description:SHA is an l-rhamnose- and d-galactose-binding lectin that agglutinates human group B erythrocytes and was first purified almost 50 years ago. Although the original SHA-producing <i>Streptomyces</i> strain was lost, the primary structure of SHA was more recently solved by mass spectrometry of the archived protein, which matched it to a similar sequence in the Streptomyces lavendulae genome. Using genomic and protein biochemical analyses, this study aimed to identify SHA-secreting <i>Streptomyces</i> strains to further investigate the expression and binding activities of these putative proteins. Of 67 strains genetically related to <i>S. lavendulae</i>, 17 secreted pro-SHAs in culture. Seven SHA homologues were purified to homogeneity and then subjected to liquid chromatography-high-resolution multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and hemagglutination (HA) assays. Processing of pro-SHAs occurred during and after purification, indicating that associated proteases converted pro-SHAs into mature SHAs with molecular masses and HA activities similar to that of the archived SHA. Previously, the SHA monomer was shown to have two carbohydrate binding sites. The present study, however, found no HA activity in pro-SHAs, suggesting that pro-SHAs have only one binding site. Genetically, the SHA gene resides in conserved syntenic regions. The published genomes of 1,234 <i>Streptomyces</i> strains were analyzed, revealing 18 strains with SHA genes, 16 of which localized to a unique syntenic region. The SHA syntenic region consists of ∼17 open reading frames (ORFs) and is specific to <i>S. lavendulae</i>-related strains. Notably, a lipoprotein gene excludes SHA from the synteny in some strains, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer events during the course of evolution shaped the distribution of SHA genes. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Lectins are extremely useful molecules for the study of glycans and carbohydrates. Here, we show that homologous genes encoding the l-rhamnose- and d-galactose-binding lectins, SHAs, are present in multiple bacterial strains, genetically related to Streptomyces lavendulae. SHA genes are expressed as precursor pro-SHA proteins that are truncated and mature into fully active lectins with two carbohydrate binding sites, which exhibit hemagglutination activity for type B red blood cells. The SHA gene is located within a conserved syntenic region, hinting at specific but yet-to-be-discovered biological roles of this carbohydrate-binding protein for its soil-dwelling microbial producer.
Project description:Streptomycetes are soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacteria that are best known as the major producers of antibiotics used in the pharmaceutical industry. The evolution of exceptionally powerful transporter systems in streptomycetes has enabled their adaptation to the complex soil environment.Our comparative genomic analyses revealed that each of the eleven Streptomyces species examined possesses a rich repertoire of from 761-1258 transport proteins, accounting for 10.2 to 13.7 % of each respective proteome. These transporters can be divided into seven functional classes and 171 transporter families. Among them, the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily and the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) represent more than 40 % of all the transport proteins in Streptomyces. They play important roles in both nutrient uptake and substrate secretion, especially in the efflux of drugs and toxicants. The evolutionary flexibility across eleven Streptomyces species is seen in the lineage-specific distribution of transport proteins in two major protein translocation pathways: the general secretory (Sec) pathway and the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway.Our results present a catalog of transport systems in eleven Streptomyces species. These expansive transport systems are important mediators of the complex processes including nutrient uptake, concentration balance of elements, efflux of drugs and toxins, and the timely and orderly secretion of proteins. A better understanding of transport systems will allow enhanced optimization of production processes for both pharmaceutical and industrial applications of Streptomyces, which are widely used in antibiotic production and heterologous expression of recombinant proteins.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Streptomycetes from the rhizospheric soils are a rich resource of novel secondary metabolites with various biological activities. However, there is still little information related to the isolation, antimicrobial activity and biosynthetic potential for polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide discovery associated with the rhizospheric streptomycetes of Panax notoginseng. Thus, the aims of the present study are to (i) identify culturable streptomycetes from the rhizospheric soil of P. notoginseng by 16S rRNA gene, (ii) evaluate the antimicrobial activities of isolates and analyze the biosynthetic gene encoding polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) of isolates, (iii) detect the bioactive secondary metabolites from selected streptomycetes, (iv) study the influence of the selected isolate on the growth of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field. This study would provide a preliminary basis for the further discovery of the secondary metabolites from streptomycetes isolated from the rhizospheric soil of P. notoginseng and their further utilization for biocontrol of plants. RESULTS:A total of 42 strains representing 42 species of the genus Streptomyces were isolated from 12 rhizospheric soil samples in the cultivation field of P. notoginseng and were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, 40 crude cell extracts out of 42 under two culture conditions showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also, the presence of biosynthesis genes encoding type I and II polyketide synthase (PKS I and PKS II) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) in 42 strains were established. Based on characteristic chemical profiles screening by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD), the secondary metabolite profiles of strain SYP-A7257 were evaluated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). Finally, four compounds actinomycin X2 (F1), fungichromin (F2), thailandin B (F7) and antifungalmycin (F8) were isolated from strain SYP-A7257 by using chromatography techniques, UV, HR-ESI-MS and NMR, and their antimicrobial activities against the test bacteria and fungus were also evaluated. In the farm experiments, Streptomyces sp. SYP-A7257 showed healthy growth promotion and survival rate improvement of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated the P. notoginseng rhizospheric soil-derived Streptomyces spp. distribution and diversity with respect to their metabolic potential for polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides, as well as the presence of biosynthesis genes PKS I, PKS II and NRPSs. Our results showed that cultivatable Streptomyces isolates from the rhizospheric soils of P. notoginseng have the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The farm experiments suggested that the rhizospheric soil Streptomyces sp. SYP-A7257 may be a potential biological control agent for healthy growth promotion and survival rate improvement of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field.
Project description:Streptomycetes are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria. They are best known as the producers of a great variety of natural products such as antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and anticancer agents and the decomposers of organic substances for carbon recycling. They are also model organisms for the studies of gene regulatory networks, morphological differentiation, and stress response. The availability of sets of genomes from closely related Streptomyces strains makes it possible to assess the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity and systems adaptation.We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of five Streptomyces species with distinct phenotypes. These streptomycetes have a pan-genome comprised of 17,362 orthologous families which includes 3,096 components in the core genome, 5,066 components in the dispensable genome, and 9,200 components that are uniquely present in only one species. The core genome makes up about 33%-45% of each genome repertoire. It contains important genes for Streptomyces biology including those involved in gene regulation, secretion, secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified, with 4%-11% of the whole genomes composed of lineage-specific expansions (LSEs), suggesting that frequent gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events play a role in shaping the genome diversification within this genus. Two patterns of expansion, single gene expansion and chromosome block expansion are observed, representing different scales of duplication.Our results provide a catalog of genome components and their potential functional roles in gene regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The core genome components reveal the minimum requirement for streptomycetes to sustain a successful lifecycle in the soil environment, reflecting the effects of both genome evolution and environmental stress acting upon the expressed phenotypes. A better understanding of the LSE gene families will, on the other hand, bring a wealth of new insights into the mechanisms underlying strain-specific phenotypes, such as the production of novel antibiotics, pathogenesis, and adaptive response to environmental challenges.
Project description:In streptomycetes, autoregulators are important signaling compounds that trigger secondary metabolism, and they are regarded as Streptomyces hormones based on their extremely low effective concentrations (nM) and the involvement of specific receptor proteins. Our previous distribution study revealed that butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, including avenolide, are a general class of signaling molecules in streptomycetes and that Streptomyces albus strain J1074 may produce butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Here, we describe metabolite profiling of a disruptant of the S. albusaco gene, which encodes a key biosynthetic enzyme for butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones, and identify four butenolide compounds from S. albus J1074 that show avenolide activity. The compounds structurally resemble avenolide and show different levels of avenolide activity. A dual-culture assay with imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis for in vivo metabolic profiling demonstrated that the butenolide compounds of S. albus J1074 stimulate avermectin production in another Streptomyces species, Streptomyces avermitilis, illustrating the complex chemical interactions through interspecies signals in streptomycetes.IMPORTANCE Microorganisms produce external and internal signaling molecules to control their complex physiological traits. In actinomycetes, Streptomyces hormones are low-molecular-weight signals that are key to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of Streptomyces secondary metabolism. This study reveals that acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase is a common and essential biosynthetic enzyme for butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones. Moreover, the diffusible butenolide compounds from a donor Streptomyces strain were recognized by the recipient Streptomyces strain of a different species, resulting in the initiation of secondary metabolism in the recipient. This is an interesting report on the chemical interaction between two different streptomycetes via Streptomyces hormones. Information on the metabolite network may provide useful hints not only to clarification of the regulatory mechanism of secondary metabolism, but also to understanding of the chemical communication among streptomycetes to control their physiological traits.