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Sequence analysis of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteriophage Phi1-A4 isolated from an industrial vegetable fermentation.


ABSTRACT: Vegetable fermentations rely on the proper succession of a variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Leuconostoc mesenteroides initiates fermentation. As fermentation proceeds, L. mesenteroides dies off and other LAB complete the fermentation. Phages infecting L. mesenteroides may significantly influence the die-off of L. mesenteroides. However, no L. mesenteroides phages have been previously genetically characterized. Knowledge of more phage genome sequences may provide new insights into phage genomics, phage evolution, and phage-host interactions. We have determined the complete genome sequence of L. mesenteroides phage Phi1-A4, isolated from an industrial sauerkraut fermentation. The phage possesses a linear, double-stranded DNA genome consisting of 29,508 bp with a G+C content of 36%. Fifty open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted. Putative functions were assigned to 26 ORFs (52%), including 5 ORFs of structural proteins. The phage genome was modularly organized, containing DNA replication, DNA-packaging, head and tail morphogenesis, cell lysis, and DNA regulation/modification modules. In silico analyses showed that Phi1-A4 is a unique lytic phage with a large-scale genome inversion ( approximately 30% of the genome). The genome inversion encompassed the lysis module, part of the structural protein module, and a cos site. The endolysin gene was flanked by two holin genes. The tail morphogenesis module was interspersed with cell lysis genes and other genes with unknown functions. The predicted amino acid sequences of the phage proteins showed little similarity to other phages, but functional analyses showed that Phi1-A4 clusters with several Lactococcus phages. To our knowledge, Phi1-A4 is the first genetically characterized L. mesenteroides phage.

SUBMITTER: Lu Z 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC2838018 | BioStudies | 2010-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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