Role of calcium-independent phospholipase A2beta in high glucose-induced activation of RhoA, Rho kinase, and CPI-17 in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular smooth muscle hypercontractility in diabetic animals.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that high glucose-induced RhoA/Rho kinase/CPI-17 activation is involved in diabetes-associated vascular smooth muscle hypercontractility. However, the upstream signaling that links high glucose and RhoA/Rho kinase/CPI-17 activation is unknown. Here we report that calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)beta (iPLA(2)beta) is required for high glucose-induced RhoA/Rho kinase/CPI-17 activation and thereby contributes to diabetes-associated vascular smooth muscle hypercontractility. We demonstrate that high glucose increases iPLA(2)beta mRNA, protein, and iPLA(2) activity in a time-dependent manner. Protein kinase C is involved in high glucose-induced iPLA(2)beta protein up-regulation. Inhibiting iPLA(2)beta activity with bromoenol lactone or preventing its expression by genetic deletion abolishes high glucose-induced RhoA/Rho kinase/CPI-17 activation, and restoring expression of iPLA(2)beta in iPLA(2)beta-deficient cells also restores high glucose-induced CPI-17 phosphorylation. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenases has effects on high glucose-induced CPI-17 phosphorylation similar to iPLA(2)beta inhibition. Moreover, increases in iPLA(2) activity and iPLA(2)beta protein expression are also observed in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic vasculature. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of iPLA(2)beta, but not iPLA(2)gamma, diminishes diabetes-associated vascular smooth muscle hypercontractility. In summary, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which high glucose-induced, protein kinase C-mediated iPLA(2)beta up-regulation activates the RhoA/Rho kinase/CPI-17 via 12/15-lipoxygenases and thereby contributes to diabetes-associated vascular smooth muscle hypercontractility.
Project description:The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta contributes to the reduced contractile responses of gut smooth muscle observed in both animal colitis models and human inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. The effects of IL-1beta on the signaling targets mediating acetylcholine (ACh)-induced initial and sustained contraction were examined using rabbit colonic circular muscle strips and cultured muscle cells. The contraction was assessed through cell length decrease, myosin light chain (MLC(20)) phosphorylation, and activation of PLC-beta and Rho kinase. Expression levels of the signaling targets were determined by Western blot analysis and real-time RT-PCR. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4) were used to silence endogenous RGS4 in muscle strips or cultured muscle cells. IL-1beta treatment of muscle strips inhibited both initial and sustained contraction and MLC(20) phosphorylation in isolated muscle cells. IL-1beta treatment increased RGS4 expression but had no effect on muscarinic receptor binding or Galpha(q) expression. In contrast, IL-1beta decreased the expression and phosphorylation of CPI-17 but had no effect on RhoA expression or ACh-induced Rho kinase activity. Upregulation of RGS4 and downregulation of CPI-17 by IL-1beta in muscle strips were corroborated in cultured muscle cells. Knockdown of RGS4 by siRNA in both muscle strips and cultured muscle cells blocked the inhibitory effect of IL-1beta on initial contraction and PLC-beta activation, whereas overexpression of RGS4 inhibited PLC-beta activation. These data suggest that IL-1beta upregulates RGS4 expression, resulting in the inhibition of initial contraction and downregulation of CPI-17 expression during sustained contraction in colonic smooth muscle.
Project description:Signalling via m3 and m2 receptors in smooth muscles involved activation of two G-protein-dependent pathways by each receptor. m2 receptors were coupled via Gbetagammai3 with activation of phospholipase C-beta3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Cdc42/Rac1 (where Cdc stands for cell division cycle) and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Each step was inhibited by methoctramine and pertussis toxin. PAK1 activity was abolished in cells expressing both Cdc42-DN (where DN stands for dominant negative) and Rac1-DN. MLCK phosphorylation was inhibited by PAK1 antibody, and in cells expressing Cdc42-DN and Rac1-DN. m3 receptors were coupled via Galpha(q/11) with activation of phospholipase C-beta1 and via RhoA with activation of Rho-associated kinase (Rho kinase), phospholipase D and protein kinase C (PKC). Rho kinase and phospholipase D activities were inhibited by C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. PKC activity was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide, and in cells expressing RhoA-DN; PKC activity was also inhibited partly by Y27632 (44+/-5%). PKC-induced phosphorylation of PKC-activated 17 kDa inhibitor protein of type 1 phosphatase (CPI-17) at Thr38 was abolished by bisindolylmaleimide and inhibited partly by Y27632 (28+/-3%). Rho-kinase-induced phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and was abolished by Y27632. Sustained phosphorylation of 20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) and contraction were abolished by bisindolylmaleimide Y27632 and C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. The results suggest that Rho-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and PKC-dependent phosphorylation and enhancement of CPI-17 binding to the catalytic subunit of MLC phosphatase (MLCP) act co-operatively to inhibit MLCP activity, leading to sustained stimulation of MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction. Because Y27632 inhibited both Rho kinase and PKC activities, it could not be used to ascertain the contribution of MYPT1 to inhibition of MLCP activity. m2-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of MLCK precluded its involvement in sustained MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction.
Project description:The signal transduction pathway whereby the TxA2 (thromboxane A2) mimetic U-46619 activates vascular smooth muscle contraction was investigated in de-endothelialized rat caudal artery. U-46619-evoked contraction was inhibited by the TP receptor (TxA2 receptor) antagonist SQ-29548, the ROK (Rho-associated kinase) inhibitors Y-27632 and H-1152, the MLCK (myosin light-chain kinase) inhibitors ML-7, ML-9 and wortmannin, the voltagegated Ca2+-channel blocker nicardipine, and removal of extracellular Ca2+; the protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203x had no effect. U-46619 elicited Ca2+ sensitization in a-toxin-permeabilized tissue. U-46619 induced activation of the small GTPase RhoA, consistent with the involvement of ROK. Two downstream targets of ROK were investigated: CPI-17 [protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for PP1 (protein phosphatase type 1) of 17 kDa], a myosin light-chain phosphatase inhibitor, was not phosphorylated at the functional site (Thr-38); phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light-chain phosphatase) was significantly increased at Thr-855, but not Thr-697. U-46619-evoked contraction correlated with phosphorylation of the 20 kDa light chains of myosin. We conclude that: (i) U-46619 induces contraction via activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin/MLCK pathway and of the RhoA/ROK pathway; (ii) Thr-855 of MYPT1 is phosphorylated by ROK at rest and in response to U-46619 stimulation; (iii) Thr-697 of MYPT1 is phosphorylated by a kinase other than ROK under resting conditions, and is not increased in response to U-46619 treatment; and (iv) neither ROK nor protein kinase C phosphorylates CPI-17 in this vascular smooth muscle in response to U-46619.
Project description:Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This is in part attributed to the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In diabetic animal models, hyperglycemia results in hypercontractility of vascular smooth muscle possibly due to increased activation of Rho-kinase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of contractile smooth muscle markers by glucose and to determine the signaling pathways that are activated by hyperglycemia in smooth muscle cells. Microarray, quantitative PCR, and Western blot analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein expression of contractile smooth muscle markers were increased in isolated smooth muscle cells cultured under high compared with low glucose conditions. This effect was also observed in hyperglycemic Akita mice and in diabetic patients. Elevated glucose activated the protein kinase C and Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathways and stimulated actin polymerization. Glucose-induced expression of contractile smooth muscle markers in cultured cells could be partially or completely repressed by inhibitors of advanced glycation end products, L-type calcium channels, protein kinase C, Rho-kinase, actin polymerization, and myocardin-related transcription factors. Furthermore, genetic ablation of the miR-143/145 cluster prevented the effects of glucose on smooth muscle marker expression. In conclusion, these data demonstrate a possible link between hyperglycemia and vascular disease states associated with smooth muscle contractility.
Project description:The contractile and relaxation characteristics of trabecular meshwork (TM) are presumed to influence aqueous humor (AH) drainage and intraocular pressure. The mechanisms underlying regulation of TM cell contractile properties, however, are not well understood. This study investigates the role of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)), which controls eicosanoid synthesis, in regulation of TM cell contraction and AH outflow using mechanism-based isoform specific inhibitors (R)-bromoenol lactone (R-BEL, iPLA(2)? specific) and (S)-bromoenol lactone (S-BEL, iPLA(2)? specific). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed intense staining for both iPLA(2)? and ? isoforms throughout the TM, juxtacanalicular tissue, and Schlemm's canal of human eye. Inhibition of iPLA(2)? by R-BEL or small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of iPLA(2)? expression induced dramatic changes in TM cell morphology, and decreased actin stress fibers, focal adhesions, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. AH outflow facility increased progressively and significantly in enucleated porcine eyes perfused with R-BEL. This response was associated with a significant decrease in TM tissue MLC phosphorylation and alterations in the morphology of aqueous plexi in R-BEL-perfused eyes. In contrast, S-BEL did not affect either of these parameters. Additionally, R-BEL-induced cellular relaxation of the TM was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of active Rho GTPase, phospho-MLC phosphatase, phospho-CPI-17, and arachidonic acid. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that iPLA(2)? plays a significant and isoform-specific role in regulation of AH outflow facility by altering the contractile characteristics of the TM. The effects of iPLA(2)? on TM contractile status appear to involve arachidonic acid and Rho GTPase signaling pathways.
Project description:Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase α-isoform (PI3K-C2α) is involved in regulating KCl-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. The current study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane (SEVO) and isoflurane (ISO) on KCl-elicited PI3KC2α mediated vasoconstriction in rat aortic smooth muscle.Isometric force, in the absence or presence of SEVO or ISO (1 ~ 3 minimum alveolar concentration, MAC), PI3K inhibitor LY294002, Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, and membrane translocation of PI3K-p85, PI3K-C2α, Rho kinase (Rock II), or phosphorylation of MYPT1/Thr853, MYPT1/Thr696, CPI-17/Thr38 and MLC in response to KCl (60 mM) was measured by using isometric force transducer and western blotting analysis, respectively.KCl elicited a rapid and sustained contraction of rat aortic smooth muscle that was inhibited by both SEVO and ISO in a concentration-dependent manner, and also suppressed by LY294002 (1 mM) and Y27632 (1 uM). LY294002 (1 mM) and Y27632 (1 uM) also inhibited KCl-induced MLC phosphorylation. LY294002 (1 mM) inhibited KCl-induced PI3K-p85, PI3K-C2α membrane translocation in response to KCl (p <0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Not only Y27632 (1 uM), but also LY294002 (1 mM), inhibited KCl-induced Rock-II membrane translocation (p < 0.01). SEVO and ISO inhibited KCl-stimulated MLC phosphorylation, PI3K-C2α and Rock-II,not PI3K p85 membrane translocation in a concentration-dependent manner in rat aorta. Both SEVO and ISO suppressed the MYPT1/Thr853, not MYPT1/Thr696 and CPI-17/Thr38, MLC phosphorylation in response to KCl.PI3K-C2α mediates part of SEVO and ISO-mediated vasodilation in rat aorta. The cellular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of volatile anesthetics might be mediated by KCl/PI3K-C2α/Rho kinase/MYPT1/MLC pathway.
Project description:KEY POINTS:Transforming growth-factor-? (TGF-?) and RhoA/Rho-kinase are independently implicated in the airway hyper-responsiveness associated with asthma, but how these proteins interact is not fully understood. We examined the effects of pre-treatment with TGF-? on expression and activity of RhoA, Rho-kinase and ARHGEF1, an activator of RhoA, as well as on bradykinin-induced contraction, in airway smooth muscle. TGF-? enhanced bradykinin-induced RhoA translocation, Rho-kinase-dependent phosphorylation and contraction, but partially suppressed bradykinin-induced RhoA activity (RhoA-GTP content). TGF-? enhanced the expression of ARHGEF1, while a small interfering RNA against ARHGEF1 and a RhoGEF inhibitor prevented the effects of TGF-? on RhoA and Rho-kinase activity and contraction, respectively. ARHGEF1 expression was also enhanced in airway smooth muscle from asthmatic patients and ovalbumin-sensitized mice. ARHGEF1 is a key TGF-? target gene, an important regulator of Rho-kinase activity and therefore a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of asthmatic airway hyper-responsiveness. ABSTRACT:Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), RhoA/Rho-kinase and Src-family kinases (SrcFK) have independently been implicated in airway hyper-responsiveness, but how they interact to regulate airway smooth muscle contractility is not fully understood. We found that TGF-? pre-treatment enhanced acute contractile responses to bradykinin (BK) in isolated rat bronchioles, and inhibitors of RhoGEFs (Y16) and Rho-kinase (Y27632), but not the SrcFK inhibitor PP2, prevented this enhancement. In cultured human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs), TGF-? pre-treatment enhanced the protein expression of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF1, MLC20 , MYPT-1 and the actin-severing protein cofilin, but not of RhoA, ROCK2 or c-Src. In hASMCs, acute treatment with BK triggered subcellular translocation of ARHGEF1 and RhoA and enhanced auto-phosphorylation of SrcFK and phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC20 , but induced de-phosphorylation of cofilin. TGF-? pre-treatment amplified the effects of BK on RhoA translocation and MYPT1/MLC20 phosphorylation, but suppressed the effects of BK on RhoA-GTP content, SrcFK auto-phosphorylation and cofilin de-phosphorylation. In hASMCs, an ARHGEF1 small interfering RNA suppressed the effects of BK and TGF-? on RhoA-GTP content, RhoA translocation and MYPT1 and MLC20 phosphorylation, but minimally influenced the effects of TGF-? on cofilin expression and phosphorylation. ARHGEF1 expression was also enhanced in ASMCs of asthmatic patients and in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Our data indicate that TGF-? enhances BK-induced contraction, RhoA translocation and Rho-kinase activity in airway smooth muscle largely via ARHGEF1, but independently of SrcFK and total RhoA-GTP content. A role for smooth muscle ARHGEF1 in asthmatic airway hyper-responsiveness is worthy of further investigation.
Project description:Sustained smooth-muscle contraction or its experimental counterpart, Ca2+ sensitization, by G(q/13)-coupled receptor agonists is mediated via RhoA-dependent inhibition of MLC (myosin light chain) phosphatase and MLC20 (20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II) phosphorylation by a Ca2+-independent MLCK (MLC kinase). The present study identified the corresponding pathways initiated by G(i)-coupled receptors. Somatostatin acting via G(i)1-coupled sstr3 receptor, DPDPE ([D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin; where Pen is penicillamine) acting via G(i)2-coupled delta-opioid receptors, and cyclopentyl adenosine acting via G(i)3-coupled adenosine A1 receptors preferentially activated PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and ILK (integrin-linked kinase), whereas ACh (acetylcholine) acting via G(i)3-coupled M2 receptors preferentially activated PI3K, Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42)/Rac1, PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Only agonists that activated ILK induced sustained CPI-17 (protein kinase C potentiated inhibitor 17 kDa protein) phosphorylation at Thr38, MLC20 phosphorylation at Ser19, and contraction, consistent with recent evidence that ILK can act as a Ca2+-independent MLCK capable of phosphorylating the MLC phosphatase inhibitor, CPI-17, at Thr38. ILK activity, and CPI-17 and MLC20 phosphorylation were inhibited by LY294002 and in muscle cells expressing ILK(R211A) or treated with siRNA (small interfering RNA) for ILK. ACh acting via M2 receptors activated ILK, and induced CPI-17 and MLC20 phosphorylation and muscle contraction, but only after inhibition of p38 MAPK; all these responses were inhibited in cells expressing ILK(R211A). Conversely, ACh activated PAK1, a step upstream of p38 MAPK, whereas the three other agonists did so only in cells transfected with ILK(R211A) or siRNA for ILK. The results demonstrate reciprocal inhibition between two pathways downstream of PI3K, with ILK inhibiting PAK1, and p38 MAPK inhibiting ILK. Sustained contraction via G(i)-coupled receptors is dependent on CPI-17 and MLC20 phosphorylation by ILK.
Project description:Ca(2+) ion is a universal intracellular messenger that regulates numerous biological functions. In smooth muscle, Ca(2+) with calmodulin activates myosin light chain (MLC) kinase to initiate a rapid MLC phosphorylation and contraction. To test the hypothesis that regulation of MLC phosphatase is involved in the rapid development of MLC phosphorylation and contraction during Ca(2+) transient, we compared Ca(2+) signal, MLC phosphorylation, and 2 modes of inhibition of MLC phosphatase, phosphorylation of CPI-17 Thr38 and MYPT1 Thr853, during alpha(1) agonist-induced contraction with/without various inhibitors in intact rabbit femoral artery. Phenylephrine rapidly induced CPI-17 phosphorylation from a negligible amount to a peak value of 0.38+/-0.04 mol of Pi/mol within 7 seconds following stimulation, similar to the rapid time course of Ca(2+) rise and MLC phosphorylation. This rapid CPI-17 phosphorylation was dramatically inhibited by either blocking Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum or by pretreatment with protein kinase C inhibitors, suggesting an involvement of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C. This was followed by a slow Ca(2+)-independent and Rho-kinase/protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of CPI-17. In contrast, MYPT1 phosphorylation had only a slow component that increased from 0.29+/-0.09 at rest to the peak of 0.68+/-0.14 mol of Pi/mol at 1 minute, similar to the time course of contraction. Thus, there are 2 components of the Ca(2+) sensitization through inhibition of MLC phosphatase. Our results support the hypothesis that the initial rapid Ca(2+) rise induces a rapid inhibition of MLC phosphatase coincident with the Ca(2+)-induced MLC kinase activation to synergistically initiate a rapid MLC phosphorylation and contraction in arteries with abundant CPI-17 content.
Project description:Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been implicated in Ca(2+)- independent contraction of smooth muscle via its ability to phosphorylate myosin. We investigated the possibility that this kinase might also phosphorylate and regulate the myosin light-chain phosphatase inhibitor proteins CPI-17 [protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa] and PHI-1 (phosphatase holoenzyme inhibitor-1), known substrates of PKC. Both phosphatase inhibitors were phosphorylated by ILK in an in-gel kinase assay and in solution. A Thr-->Ala mutation at Thr(38) of CPI-17 and Thr(57) of PHI-1 eliminated phosphorylation by ILK. Phosphopeptide mapping, phospho amino acid analysis and immunoblotting using phospho-specific antibodies indicated that ILK predominantly phosphorylated the site critical for potent inhibition, i.e. Thr(38) of CPI-17 or Thr(57) of PHI-1. CPI-17 and PHI-1 thiophosphorylated by ILK at Thr(38) or Thr(57) respectively inhibited myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity bound to myosin, whereas the site-specific mutants CPI-17-Thr(38)Ala and PHI-1-Thr(57)Ala, treated with ILK under identical conditions, like the untreated wild-type proteins had no effect on the phosphatase. Consistent with these effects, both thiophospho-CPI-17 and -PHI-1 induced Ca(2+) sensitization of contraction of Triton X-100-demembranated rat-tail arterial smooth muscle, whereas CPI-17-Thr(38)Ala and PHI-1-Thr(57)Ala treated with ILK in the presence of adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate failed to evoke a contractile response. We conclude that ILK may activate smooth-muscle contraction both directly, via phosphorylation of myosin, and indirectly, via phosphorylation and activation of CPI-17 and PHI-1, leading to inhibition of MLCP.