AMP-activated protein kinase signaling activation by resveratrol modulates amyloid-beta peptide metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide deposition into cerebral amyloid plaques. The natural polyphenol resveratrol promotes anti-aging pathways via the activation of several metabolic sensors, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Resveratrol also lowers Abeta levels in cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. Moreover, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the brain remains uncertain. Here we show that AMPK signaling controls Abeta metabolism and mediates the anti-amyloidogenic effect of resveratrol in non-neuronal and neuronal cells, including in mouse primary neurons. Resveratrol increased cytosolic calcium levels and promoted AMPK activation by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta. Direct pharmacological and genetic activation of AMPK lowered extracellular Abeta accumulation, whereas AMPK inhibition reduced the effect of resveratrol on Abeta levels. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the AMPK target mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) to trigger autophagy and lysosomal degradation of Abeta. Finally, orally administered resveratrol in mice was detected in the brain where it activated AMPK and reduced cerebral Abeta levels and deposition in the cortex. These data suggest that resveratrol and pharmacological activation of AMPK have therapeutic potential against Alzheimer disease.
Project description:To examine interactions of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype with age and with in vivo measures of preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) in cognitively normal aging.Two hundred forty-one cognitively normal individuals, aged 45-88 years, had cerebral amyloid imaging studies with Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB). Of the 241 individuals, 168 (70%) also had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays of amyloid-beta(42) (Abeta(42)), tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau(181)). All individuals were genotyped for APOE.The frequency of individuals with elevated mean cortical binding potential (MCBP) for PIB rose in an age-dependent manner from 0% at ages 45-49 years to 30.3% at 80-88 years. Reduced levels of CSF Abeta(42) appeared to begin earlier (18.2% of those aged 45-49 years) and increase with age in higher frequencies (50% at age 80-88 years) than elevations of MCBP. There was a gene dose effect for the APOE4 genotype, with greater MCBP increases and greater reductions in CSF Abeta(42) with increased numbers of APOE4 alleles. Individuals with an APOE2 allele had no increase in MCBP with age and had higher CSF Abeta(42) levels than individuals without an APOE2 allele. There was no APOE4 or APOE2 effect on CSF tau or ptau(181).Increasing cerebral Abeta deposition with age is the pathobiological phenotype of APOE4. The biomarker sequence that detects Abeta deposition may first be lowered CSF Abeta(42), followed by elevated MCBP for PIB. A substantial proportion of cognitively normal individuals have presumptive preclinical AD.
Project description:Cerebral deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease. Intramembranous proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein by a multiprotein gamma-secretase complex generates Abeta. Previously, it was reported that CD147, a glycoprotein that stimulates production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is a subunit of gamma-secretase and that the levels of secreted Abeta inversely correlate with CD147 expression. Here, we show that the levels and localization of CD147 in fibroblasts, as well as postnatal expression and distribution in brain, are distinct from those of integral gamma-secretase subunits. Notably, we show that although depletion of CD147 increased extracellular Abeta levels in intact cells, membranes isolated from CD147-depleted cells failed to elevate Abeta production in an in vitro gamma-secretase assay. Consistent with an extracellular source that modulates Abeta metabolism, synthetic Abeta was degraded more rapidly in the conditioned medium of cells overexpressing CD147. Moreover, modulation of CD147 expression had no effect on epsilon-site cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and Notch1 receptor. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CD147 modulates Abeta levels not by regulating gamma-secretase activity, but by stimulating extracellular degradation of Abeta. In view of the known function of CD147 in MMP production, we postulate that CD147 expression influences Abeta levels by an indirect mechanism involving MMPs that can degrade extracellular Abeta.
Project description:Transgenic mice that overexpress mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) exhibit one hallmark of Alzheimer's disease pathology, namely the extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques. Here, we describe significant deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) in the cerebral vasculature [cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)] in aging APP23 mice that had striking similarities to that observed in human aging and Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid deposition occurred preferentially in arterioles and capillaries and within individual vessels showed a wide heterogeneity (ranging from a thin ring of amyloid in the vessel wall to large plaque-like extrusions into the neuropil). CAA was associated with local neuron loss, synaptic abnormalities, microglial activation, and microhemorrhage. Although several factors may contribute to CAA in humans, the neuronal origin of transgenic APP, high levels of Abeta in cerebrospinal fluid, and regional localization of CAA in APP23 mice suggest transport and drainage pathways rather than local production or blood uptake of Abeta as a primary mechanism underlying cerebrovascular amyloid formation. APP23 mice on an App-null background developed a similar degree of both plaques and CAA, providing further evidence that a neuronal source of APP/Abeta is sufficient to induce cerebrovascular amyloid and associated neurodegeneration.
Project description:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor involved in intracellular energy metabolism through the control of several homeostatic mechanisms, which include autophagy and protein degradation. Recently, we reported that AMPK activation by resveratrol promotes autophagy-dependent degradation of the amyloid-? (A?) peptides, the core components of the cerebral senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. To identify more potent enhancers of A? degradation, we screened a library of synthetic small molecules selected for their structural similarities with resveratrol. Here, we report the identification of a series of structurally related molecules, the RSVA series, which inhibited A? accumulation in cell lines nearly 40 times more potently than did resveratrol. Two of these molecules, RSVA314 and RSVA405, were further characterized and were found to facilitate CaMKK?-dependent activation of AMPK, to inhibit mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), and to promote autophagy to increase A? degradation by the lysosomal system (apparent EC(50) ? 1 ?M). This work identifies the RSVA compounds as promising lead molecules for the development of a new class of AMPK activating drugs controlling mTOR signaling, autophagy, and A? clearance.
Project description:Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides in leptomeningeal and cortical blood vessels, affects the majority of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence suggests that vascular amyloid deposits may result from impaired clearance of neuronal Abeta along perivascular spaces. We investigated the role of perivascular macrophages in regulating CAA severity in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD. Depletion of perivascular macrophages significantly increased the number of thioflavin S-positive cortical blood vessels. ELISA confirmed that this increase was underscored by elevations in total vascular Abeta(42) levels. Conversely, stimulation of perivascular macrophage turnover reduced cerebral CAA load, an effect that was not mediated through clearance by microglia or astrocytes. These results highlight a function for the physiological role of perivascular macrophages in the regulation of CAA and suggest that selective targeting of perivascular macrophage activation might constitute a therapeutic strategy to clear vascular amyloid.
Project description:Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence suggests a link between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin modulates metabolism of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurons, decreasing the intracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides, which are pivotal in AD pathogenesis. The present study investigates whether the widely prescribed insulin-sensitizing drug, metformin (Glucophage(R)), affects APP metabolism and Abeta generation in various cell models. We demonstrate that metformin, at doses that lead to activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), significantly increases the generation of both intracellular and extracellular Abeta species. Furthermore, the effect of metformin on Abeta generation is mediated by transcriptional up-regulation of beta-secretase (BACE1), which results in an elevated protein level and increased enzymatic activity. Unlike insulin, metformin exerts no effect on Abeta degradation. In addition, we found that glucose deprivation and various tyrphostins, known inhibitors of insulin-like growth factors/insulin receptor tyrosine kinases, do not modulate the effect of metformin on Abeta. Finally, inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by the pharmacological inhibitor Compound C largely suppresses metformin's effect on Abeta generation and BACE1 transcription, suggesting an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Although insulin and metformin display opposing effects on Abeta generation, in combined use, metformin enhances insulin's effect in reducing Abeta levels. Our findings suggest a potentially harmful consequence of this widely prescribed antidiabetic drug when used as a monotherapy in elderly diabetic patients.
Project description:Cerebral accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) is characteristic of Alzheimer disease and of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. Here, we assessed the efficacy of CI-1011, an inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase, which is suitable for clinical use, in reducing amyloid pathology in both young (6.5 months old) and aged (16 months old) human APP transgenic mice. Treatment of young animals with CI-1011 decreased amyloid plaque load in the cortex and hippocampus and reduced the levels of insoluble Abeta40 and Abeta42 and C-terminal fragments of APP in brain extracts. In aged mice, CI-1011 specifically reduced diffuse amyloid plaques with a minor effect on thioflavin S-positive dense-core plaques. Reduced diffusible amyloid was accompanied by suppression of astrogliosis and enhanced microglial activation. Collectively, these data suggest that CI-1011 treatment reduces amyloid burden in human APP mice by limiting generation and increasing clearance of diffusible Abeta.
Project description:Radiolabeled Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) is a benzothiazole imaging agent that usually binds with high affinity, specificity, and stoichiometry to cerebral beta-amyloid (Abeta) in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Among a cohort of ten AD subjects examined postmortem, we describe a case of idiopathic, end-stage Alzheimer's disease with heavy Abeta deposition yet substantially diminished high-affinity binding of (3)H-PIB to cortical homogenates and unfixed cryosections. Cortical tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, ELISA, immunoblotting, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, in vitro (3)H-PIB binding and (3)H-PIB autoradiography. The PIB-refractory subject met the histopathological criteria for AD. However, cortical tissue from this case contained more vascular beta-amyloidosis, higher levels of insoluble Abeta40 and Abeta42, and a higher ratio of Abeta40:Abeta42 than did tissue from the nine comparison AD cases. Furthermore, cerebral Abeta from the PIB-refractory subject displayed an unusual distribution of low- and high-molecular weight Abeta oligomers, as well as a distinct pattern of N- and C-terminally truncated Abeta peptides in both the soluble and insoluble cortical extracts. Genetically, the patient was apolipoprotein-E3/4 heterozygous, and exhibited no known AD-associated mutations in the genes for the beta-amyloid precursor protein, presenilin1 or presenilin2. Our findings suggest that PIB may differentially recognize polymorphic forms of multimeric Abeta in humans with Alzheimer's disease. In addition, while the prevalence of PIB-refractory cases in the general AD population remains to be determined, the paucity of high-affinity binding sites in this AD case cautions that minimal PIB retention in positron-emission tomography scans of demented patients may not always rule out the presence of Alzheimer-type Abeta pathology.
Project description:The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), which accumulates abnormally in Alzheimer disease (AD), is degraded by a diverse set of proteolytic enzymes. Abeta-cleaving proteases, largely ignored until only recently, are now known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of cerebral Abeta levels and amyloid plaque formation in animal models, and accumulating evidence suggests that defective Abeta proteolysis may be operative in many AD cases. This review summarizes the growing body of evidence supporting the involvement of specific Abeta-cleaving proteases in the etiology and potential treatment of AD. Recognition of the importance of Abeta degradation to the overall economy of Abeta has revised our thinking about the mechanistic basis of AD pathogenesis and identified a novel class of enzymes that may serve as both therapeutic targets and therapeutic agents.
Project description:Misfolded proteins associated with diverse aggregation disorders assemble not only into a single toxic conformer but rather into a suite of aggregated conformers with unique biochemical properties and toxicities. To what extent small molecules can target and neutralize specific aggregated conformers is poorly understood. Therefore, we have investigated the capacity of resveratrol to recognize and remodel five conformers (monomers, soluble oligomers, non-toxic oligomers, fibrillar intermediates, and amyloid fibrils) of the Abeta1-42 peptide associated with Alzheimer disease. We find that resveratrol selectively remodels three of these conformers (soluble oligomers, fibrillar intermediates, and amyloid fibrils) into an alternative aggregated species that is non-toxic, high molecular weight, and unstructured. Surprisingly, resveratrol does not remodel non-toxic oligomers or accelerate Abeta monomer aggregation despite that both conformers possess random coil secondary structures indistinguishable from soluble oligomers and significantly different from their beta-sheet rich, fibrillar counterparts. We expect that resveratrol and other small molecules with similar conformational specificity will aid in illuminating the conformational epitopes responsible for Abeta-mediated toxicity.