Functional evolution of the trace amine associated receptors in mammals and the loss of TAAR1 in dogs.
ABSTRACT: The trace amine associated receptor family is a diverse array of GPCRs that arose before the first vertebrates walked on land. Trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a wide spectrum aminergic receptor that acts as a modulator in brain monoaminergic systems. Other trace amine associated receptors appear to relate to environmental perception and show a birth-and-death pattern in mammals similar to olfactory receptors.Across mammals, avians, and amphibians, the TAAR1 gene is intact and appears to be under strong purifying selection based on rates of amino acid fixation compared to neutral mutations. We have found that in dogs it has become a pseudogene. Our analyses using a comparative genetics approach revealed that the pseudogenization event predated the emergence of the Canini tribe rather than being coincident with canine domestication. By assessing the effects of the TAAR1 agonist beta-phenylethylamine on [3H]dopamine uptake in canine striatal synaptosomes and comparing the degree and pattern of uptake inhibition to that seen in other mammals, including TAAR1 knockout mice, wild type mice and rhesus monkey, we found that the TAAR1 pseudogenization event resulted in an uncompensated loss of function.The gene family has seen expansions among certain mammals, notably rodents, and reductions in others, including primates. By placing the trace amine associated receptors in an evolutionary context we can better understand their function and their potential associations with behavior and neurological disease.
Project description:The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), activated by endogenous metabolites of amino acids like the trace amines p-tyramine and ?-phenylethylamine, has proven to be an important modulator of the dopaminergic system and is considered a promising target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. To decipher the brain functions of TAAR1, a selective TAAR1 agonist, RO5166017, was engineered. RO5166017 showed high affinity and potent functional activity at mouse, rat, cynomolgus monkey, and human TAAR1 stably expressed in HEK293 cells as well as high selectivity vs. other targets. In mouse brain slices, RO5166017 inhibited the firing frequency of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in regions where Taar1 is expressed (i.e., the ventral tegmental area and dorsal raphe nucleus, respectively). In contrast, RO5166017 did not change the firing frequency of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus, an area devoid of Taar1 expression. Furthermore, modulation of TAAR1 activity altered the desensitization rate and agonist potency at 5-HT(1A) receptors in the dorsal raphe, suggesting that TAAR1 modulates not only dopaminergic but also serotonergic neurotransmission. In WT but not Taar1(-/-) mice, RO5166017 prevented stress-induced hyperthermia and blocked dopamine-dependent hyperlocomotion in cocaine-treated and dopamine transporter knockout mice as well as hyperactivity induced by an NMDA antagonist. These results tie TAAR1 to the control of monoamine-driven behaviors and suggest anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like properties for agonists such as RO5166017, opening treatment opportunities for psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) are rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). TAAR are involved in modulation of neuronal, cardiac and vascular functions and they are potentially linked with neurological disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Subtype TAAR1, the best characterized TAAR so far, is promiscuous for a wide set of ligands and is activated by trace amines tyramine (TYR), phenylethylamine (PEA), octopamine (OA), but also by thyronamines, dopamine, and psycho-active drugs. Unfortunately, effects of trace amines on signaling of the two homologous ?-adrenergic receptors 1 (ADRB1) and 2 (ADRB2) have not been clarified yet in detail. We, therefore, tested TAAR1 agonists TYR, PEA and OA regarding their effects on ADRB1/2 signaling by co-stimulation studies. Surprisingly, trace amines TYR and PEA are partial allosteric antagonists at ADRB1/2, whereas OA is a partial orthosteric ADRB2-antagonist and ADRB1-agonist. To specify molecular reasons for TAAR1 ligand promiscuity and for observed differences in signaling effects on particular aminergic receptors we compared TAAR, tyramine (TAR) octopamine (OAR), ADRB1/2 and dopamine receptors at the structural level. We found especially for TAAR1 that the remarkable ligand promiscuity is likely based on high amino acid similarity in the ligand-binding region compared with further aminergic receptors. On the other hand few TAAR specific properties in the ligand-binding site might determine differences in ligand-induced effects compared to ADRB1/2. Taken together, this study points to molecular details of TAAR1-ligand promiscuity and identified specific trace amines as allosteric or orthosteric ligands of particular ?-adrenergic receptor subtypes.
Project description:Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the mammalian brain and known to influence subcortical monoaminergic transmission. Monoamines, such as dopamine, also play an important role within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuitry, which is critically involved in high-o5rder cognitive processes. TAAR1-selective ligands have shown potential antipsychotic, antidepressant, and pro-cognitive effects in experimental animal models; however, it remains unclear whether TAAR1 can affect PFC-related processes and functions. In this study, we document a distinct pattern of expression of TAAR1 in the PFC, as well as altered subunit composition and deficient functionality of the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pyramidal neurons of layer V of PFC in mice lacking TAAR1. The dysregulated cortical glutamate transmission in TAAR1-KO mice was associated with aberrant behaviors in several tests, indicating a perseverative and impulsive phenotype of mutants. Conversely, pharmacological activation of TAAR1 with selective agonists reduced premature impulsive responses observed in the fixed-interval conditioning schedule in normal mice. Our study indicates that TAAR1 plays an important role in the modulation of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission in the PFC and related functions. Furthermore, these data suggest that the development of TAAR1-based drugs could provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of disorders related to aberrant cortical functions.
Project description:The trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed in the monoaminergic regions of the brain, and represents a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neurological disorders. While selective agonists for TAAR1 have been successfully identified, only one high affinity TAAR1 antagonist has been described thus far. We previously identified four potential low potency TAAR1 antagonists through an in silico screen on a TAAR1 homology model. One of the identified antagonists (compound 22) was predicted to have favorable physicochemical properties, which would allow the drug to cross the blood brain barrier. In vivo studies were therefore carried out and showed that compound 22 potentiates amphetamine- and cocaine-mediated locomotor activity. Furthermore, electrophysiology experiments demonstrated that compound 22 increased firing of dopamine neurons similar to EPPTB, the only known TAAR1 antagonist. In order to assess whether the effects of compound 22 were mediated through TAAR1, experiments were carried out on TAAR1-KO mice. The results showed that compound 22 is able to enhance amphetamine- and cocaine-mediated locomotor activity, even in TAAR1-KO mice, suggesting that the in vivo effects of this compound are not mediated by TAAR1. In collaboration with Psychoactive Drug Screening Program, we attempted to determine the targets for compound 22. Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP) results suggested several potential targets for compound 22 including, the dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin transporters; as well as sigma 1 and 2 receptors. Our follow-up studies using heterologous cell systems showed that the dopamine transporter is not a target of compound 22. Therefore, the biological target of compound 22 mediating its psychoactive effects still remains unknown.
Project description:The novel transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), represents a potential, direct target for drugs of abuse and monoaminergic compounds, including amphetamines. For the first time, our studies have illustrated that there is an induction of TAAR1 mRNA expression in resting T lymphocytes in response to methamphetamine. Methamphetamine treatment for 6 h significantly increased TAAR1 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and protein expression (P < 0.01) at 24 h. With the use of TAAR1 gene silencing, we demonstrate that methamphetamine-induced cAMP, a classic response to methamphetamine stimulation, is regulated via TAAR1. We also show by TAAR1 knockdown that the down-regulation of IL-2 in T cells by methamphetamine, which we reported earlier, is indeed regulated by TAAR1. Our results also show the presence of TAAR1 in human lymph nodes from HIV-1-infected patients, with or without a history of methamphetamine abuse. TAAR1 expression on lymphocytes was largely in the paracortical lymphoid area of the lymph nodes with enhanced expression in lymph nodes of HIV-1-infected methamphetamine abusers rather than infected-only subjects. In vitro analysis of HIV-1 infection of human PBMCs revealed increased TAAR1 expression in the presence of methamphetamine. In summary, the ability of methamphetamine to activate trace TAAR1 in vitro and to regulate important T cell functions, such as cAMP activation and IL-2 production; the expression of TAAR1 in T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes; and our in vitro HIV-1 infection model in PBMCs suggests that TAAR1 may play an important role in methamphetamine -mediated immune-modulatory responses.
Project description:We identified a locus on mouse chromosome 10 that accounts for 60% of the genetic variance in methamphetamine intake in mice selectively bred for high versus low methamphetamine consumption. We nominated the trace amine-associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, as the strongest candidate and identified regulation of the mu-opioid receptor 1 gene, Oprm1, as another contributor. This study exploited CRISPR-Cas9 to test the causal role of Taar1 in methamphetamine intake and a genetically-associated thermal response to methamphetamine. The methamphetamine-related traits were rescued, converting them to levels found in methamphetamine-avoiding animals. We used a family of recombinant inbred mouse strains for interval mapping and to examine independent and epistatic effects of Taar1 and Oprm1. Both methamphetamine intake and the thermal response mapped to Taar1 and the independent effect of Taar1 was dependent on genotype at Oprm1. Our findings encourage investigation of the contribution of Taar1 and Oprm1 variants to human methamphetamine addiction.
Project description:Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) belong to the class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and are evolutionary related to aminergic receptors. TAARs have been identified to mediate effects of trace amines. TAAR1 signaling is mainly mediated via activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase pathway. In addition to classical trace amines, TAAR1 can also be activated by the thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM). Pharmacological doses of 3-T1AM induced metabolic and anapyrexic effects, which might be centrally mediated in the hypothalamus in rodents. However, the observed anapyrexic effect of 3-T1AM persists in Taar1 knock-out mice which raises the question whether further GPCRs are potential targets for 3-T1AM and mediate the observed physiological effect. Anapyrexia has been observed to be related to action on aminergic receptors such as the serotonin receptor 1b (5-HT1b). This receptor primarily activates the Gi/o mediated pathway and PLC signaling through the G?? of Gi/o. Since the expression profiles of TAAR1 and 5-HT1b overlap, we questioned whether 3-T1AM may activate 5-HT1b. Finally, we also evaluated heteromerization between these two GPCRs and tested signaling under co-expressed conditions. In this study, we showed, that 3-T1AM can induce Gi/o signaling through 5-HT1b in a concentration of 10 ?M. Strikingly, at 5-HT1b the ligand 3-T1AM only activates the Gi/o mediated reduction of cAMP accumulation, but not PLC activation. Co-stimulation of 5-HT1b by both ligands did not lead to additive or synergistic signaling effects. In addition, we confirmed the capacity for heteromerization between TAAR1 and 5-HT1b. Under co-expression of TAAR1 and HTR1b, 3-T1AM action is only mediated via TAAR1 and activation of 5-HT1b is abrogated. In conclusion, we found evidence for 5-HT1b as a new receptor target for 3-T1AM, albeit with a different signaling effect than the endogenous ligand. Altogether, this indicates a complex interrelation of signaling effects between the investigated GPCRs and respective ligands.
Project description:Thyroid hormones play an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Their derivates, endogenous amines, act via binding to the trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR1). The aim of our study was to analyse the regulation of TAAR1, serine/threonine kinase (pGSK3?) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in placentas of healthy pregnancies, spontaneous (SM) and recurrent miscarriages (RM) and to investigate the influence of thyroid hormone derivates on TAAR1 expression in trophoblast model cells in vitro.Patients with SM (n?=?15) and RM (n?=?15) were compared with patients with healthy pregnancies (n?=?15) (pregnancy weeks 7-13 each). Immunohistochemistry was applied to analyse placental TAAR1, pGSK3? and ODC expression. Protein expression of the receptors after stimulation with T3, T1AM and RO5203548 in BeWo trophoblast model cells was determined via Western blot. Double-immunofluorescence was used to determine placental expression of TAAR1 and ODC.Levels of TAAR1, pGSK3? and ODC were higher in placentas of RM in comparison to healthy controls. Stimulation of BeWo cells with T3, T1AM and RO5203548 significantly increased TAAR1 expression. ODC expression in BeWo cells was upregulated through T3. Via double-immunofluorescence, TAAR1 and ODC-positive EVT could be detected.Upregulation of placental TAAR1 may indicate an increased decarboxylation of thyroid hormones in miscarriages. Patients with RM may have a lack of T3 through an enhanced transformation of T3 into T1AM induced by the ODC. Future investigations could be carried out to analyse what role a prophylactic T3 substitution plays for patients.
Project description:Objectives:A correlation exists between breast cancer and thyroid disorders, which are common in elderly women. Thyroid hormones are degraded into trace amines, which can bind to the G-protein-coupled receptor trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and thereby activate it. The transformation of thyroid hormones into trace amines is carried out by the ornithine decarboxylase. Previously, we showed that TAAR1 overexpression (IRS ≥6) was associated with a significantly longer OS in primary breast cancer patients during a long-term follow-up of up to 14 years. Aim of the present study was to analyze the regulation of TAAR1 in breast cancer cell lines and the influence of triiodothyronine (T3), thyronamines, and tetraiodothyroacetic acid (Tetrac) on the expression of TAAR1 in breast cancer cells. Methods:The effect of T3, thyronamines, and Tetrac on the expression of TAAR1 in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D was analyzed via PCR and Western blot. A MTT assay was performed to test the metabolic cell viability. A scratch assay was performed to analyze cell migration. Results:Stimulation of MCF-7 cells with 10 nM 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) significantly increased TAAR1 protein expression (P=0.008). In T47D cells, TAAR1 expression was significantly upregulated after the addition of 10 µg/mL estradiol to 10 nM T1AM (P=0.008). A significant (P=0.028) reduction in MCF-7 cell viability through the incubation with T1AM could be detected. Cell migration of MCF cells was significantly reduced through incubation with 10 nM T1AM. Conclusion:A significant upregulation of TAAR1 induced by stimulation with T1AM may be a sign for an increased decarboxylation of thyroid hormones in breast cancer cells. In addition, there seems to be an influence of estradiol for the T1AM-induced upregulation of TAAR1 in T47D cells. TAAR1-related cell transduction mechanisms seem to be an interesting target for endocrine treatment options of breast cancer patients.
Project description:Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is nonselectively activated by endogenous metabolites of amino acids. TAAR1 is considered a promising drug target for the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, no selective ligand to identify TAAR1-specific signaling mechanisms is available yet. Here we report a selective TAAR1 antagonist, EPPTB, and characterize its physiological effects at dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We show that EPPTB prevents the reduction of the firing frequency of DA neurons induced by p-tyramine (p-tyr), a nonselective TAAR1 agonist. When applied alone, EPPTB increases the firing frequency of DA neurons, suggesting that TAAR1 either exhibits constitutive activity or is tonically activated by ambient levels of endogenous agonist(s). We further show that EPPTB blocks the TAAR1-mediated activation of an inwardly rectifying K(+) current. When applied alone, EPPTB induces an apparent inward current, suggesting the closure of tonically activated K(+) channels. Importantly, these EPPTB effects were absent in Taar1 knockout mice, ruling out off-target effects. We additionally found that both the acute application of EPPTB and the constitutive genetic lack of TAAR1 increase the potency of DA at D2 receptors in DA neurons. In summary, our data support that TAAR1 tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of DA neurons in the VTA. We hypothesize that the EPPTB-induced increase in the potency of DA at D2 receptors is part of a homeostatic feedback mechanism compensating for the lack of inhibitory TAAR1 tone.