Mature dendritic cells use endocytic receptors to capture and present antigens.
ABSTRACT: In response to inflammatory stimuli, dendritic cells (DCs) trigger the process of maturation, a terminal differentiation program required to initiate T-lymphocyte responses. A hallmark of maturation is down-regulation of endocytosis, which is widely assumed to restrict the ability of mature DCs to capture and present antigens encountered after the initial stimulus. We found that mature DCs continue to accumulate antigens, especially by receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis. Internalized antigens are transported normally to late endosomes and lysosomes, loaded onto MHC class II molecules (MHCII), and then presented efficiently to T cells. This occurs despite the fact that maturation results in the general depletion of MHCII from late endocytic compartments, with MHCII enrichment being typically thought to be a required feature of antigen processing and peptide loading compartments. Internalized antigens can also be cross-presented on MHC class I molecules, without any reduction in efficiency relative to immature DCs. Thus, although mature DCs markedly down-regulate their capacity for macropinocytosis, they continue to capture, process, and present antigens internalized via endocytic receptors, suggesting that they may continuously initiate responses to newly encountered antigens during the course of an infection.
Project description:When dendritic cells (DCs) encounter signals associated with infection or inflammation, they become activated and undergo maturation. Mature DCs are very efficient at presenting antigens captured in association with their activating signal but fail to present subsequently encountered antigens, at least in vitro. Such impairment of MHC class II (MHC II) antigen presentation has generally been thought to be a consequence of down-regulation of endocytosis, so it might be expected that antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves (for instance, viral antigens) would still be presented by mature DCs. Here, we show that DCs matured in vivo could still capture and process soluble antigens, but were unable to present peptides derived from these antigens. Furthermore, presentation of viral antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves was also severely impaired. Indeed, i.v. injection of pathogen mimics, which caused systemic DC activation in vivo, impaired the induction of CD4 T cell responses against subsequently encountered protein antigens. This immunosuppressed state could be reversed by adoptive transfer of DCs loaded exogenously with antigens, demonstrating that impairment of CD4 T cell responses was due to lack of antigen presentation rather than to overt suppression of T cell activation. The biochemical mechanism underlying this phenomenon was the down-regulation of MHC II-peptide complex formation that accompanied DC maturation. These observations have important implications for the design of prophylactic and therapeutic DC vaccines and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms causing immunosuppression during systemic blood infections.
Project description:Induction of optimal HIV-1-specific T-cell responses, which can contribute to controlling viral infection in vivo, depends on antigen processing and presentation processes occurring in DCs. Opsonization can influence the routing of antigen processing and pathways used for presentation. We studied antigen proteolysis and the role of endocytic receptors in MHC class I (MHCI) and II (MHCII) presentation of antigens derived from HIV-1 in human monocyte-derived immature DCs (IDCs) and mature DCs, comparing free and complement opsonized HIV-1 particles. Opsonization of virions promoted MHCI presentation by DCs, indicating that complement opsonization routes more virions toward the MHCI presentation pathway. Blockade of macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and ?7-integrin enhanced MHCI and MHCII presentation by IDCs and mature DCs, whereas the block of complement receptor 3 decreased MHCI and MHCII presentation. In addition, we found that IDC and MDC proteolytic activities were modulated by HIV-1 exposure; complement-opsonized HIV-1 induced an increased proteasome activity in IDCs. Taken together, these findings indicate that endocytic receptors such as MMR, complement receptor 3, and ?7-integrin can promote or disfavor antigen presentation probably by routing HIV-1 into different endosomal compartments with distinct efficiencies for degradation of viral antigens and MHCI and MHCII presentation, and that HIV-1 affects the antigen-processing machinery.
Project description:Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is critical for the regulation of T cell responses. The downregulation of endocytosis on maturation is considered a key adaptation that dissociates prior Ag capture by DCs from subsequent T cell engagement. To study the dynamics of Ag capture and presentation in situ, we studied the capacity for Ag uptake by DCs matured in their natural tissue environment. We found that after maturation in vivo, mouse DCs retained a robust capacity to capture soluble Ags. Furthermore, Ags internalized by mature DCs were efficiently presented on MHC class II and cross-presented on MHC class I. These results suggest that under inflammatory conditions, mature DCs may contribute to T cell stimulation without exclusively relying on prior exposure to Ags as immature DC precursors.
Project description:Effective major histocompatibility complex-II (MHC-II) antigen presentation from phagocytosed particles requires phagosome-intrinsic Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, but the molecular mechanisms underlying TLR delivery to phagosomes and how signaling regulates antigen presentation are incompletely understood. We show a requirement in dendritic cells (DCs) for adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) in efficient TLR recruitment to phagosomes and MHC-II presentation of antigens internalized by phagocytosis but not receptor-mediated endocytosis. DCs from AP-3-deficient pearl mice elicited impaired CD4(+) T cell activation and Th1 effector cell function to particulate antigen in vitro and to recombinant Listeria monocytogenes infection in vivo. Whereas phagolysosome maturation and peptide:MHC-II complex assembly proceeded normally in pearl DCs, peptide:MHC-II export to the cell surface was impeded. This correlated with reduced TLR4 recruitment and proinflammatory signaling from phagosomes by particulate TLR ligands. We propose that AP-3-dependent TLR delivery from endosomes to phagosomes and subsequent signaling mobilize peptide:MHC-II export from intracellular stores.
Project description:Antigen processing for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules requires the latter to travel through the endocytic pathway together with its chaperons: the invariant chain (Ii) and DM. Nevertheless, the nature of the compartments where MHCII molecules travel to acquire peptides lacks definition regarding molecules involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, such as Rab small GTPases. We aimed to define which Rab proteins are present during the intracellular transport of MHCII, DM, and Ii through the endocytic pathway on their route to the cell surface during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. We examined, by means of three-color confocal microscopy, the association of MHCII, DM, and Ii with Rab5, Rab7, Rab9, and Rab11 during the maturation of bone marrow-derived or spleen DC in response to LPS as an inflammatory stimulus. Prior to the stage of immature DC, MHCII migrated from diffuse small cytoplasmic vesicles, predominantly Rab5+Rab7- and Rab5+Rab7+ into a pericentriolar Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ cluster, with Rab11+ areas. As DC reached the mature phenotype, MHCII left the pericentriolar endocytic compartments toward the cell surface in Rab11+ and Rab9+Rab11+ vesicles. The invariant chain and MHCII transport pathways were not identical. DM and MHCII appeared to arrive to pericentriolar endocytic compartments of immature DC through partially different routes. The association of MHCII molecules with distinct Rab GTPases during DC maturation suggests that after leaving the biosynthetic pathway, MHCII sequentially traffic from typical early endosomes to multivesicular late endosomes to finally arrive at the cell surface in Rab11+ recycling-type endosomes. In immature DCs, DM encounters transiently MHCII in the Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ compartments, to remain there in mature DC.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DC) present lipid and peptide antigens to T cells on CD1 and MHC Class II (MHCII), respectively. The relative contribution of these systems during the initiation of adaptive immunity after microbial infection is not characterized. MHCII molecules normally acquire antigen and rapidly traffic from phagolysosomes to the plasma membrane as part of DC maturation, whereas CD1 molecules instead continually recycle between these sites before, during, and after DC maturation. We find that in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected DCs, CD1 presents antigens quickly. Surprisingly, rapid DC maturation results in early failure and delay in MHCII presentation. Whereas both CD1b and MHCII localize to bacterial phagosomes early after phagocytosis, MHCII traffics from the phagosome to the plasma membrane with a rapid kinetic that can precede antigen availability and loading. Thus, rather than facilitating antigen presentation, a lack of coordination in timing may allow organisms to use DC maturation as a mechanism of immune evasion. In contrast, CD1 antigen presentation occurs in the face of Mtb infection and rapid DC maturation because a pool of CD1 molecules remains available on the phagolysosome membrane that is able to acquire lipid antigens and deliver them to the plasma membrane.
Project description:Cross-presentation by MHC class I molecules (MHC-I) is critical for priming of cytotoxic T cells. Peptides derived from cross-presented antigens can be loaded on MHC-I in the endoplasmic reticulum and in endocytic or phagocytic compartments of murine DCs. However, the origin of MHC-I in the latter compartments is poorly understood. Recently, Rab22-dependent MHC-I recycling through a Rab11+ compartment has been suggested to be implicated in cross-presentation. We have examined the existence of MHC-I recycling and the role of Arf6, described to regulate recycling in nonprofessional antigen presenting cells, in murine DCs. We confirm folded MHC-I accumulation in a juxtanuclear Rab11+ compartment and partially localize Arf6 to this compartment. MHC-I undergo fast recycling, however, both folded and unfolded internalized MHC-I fail to recycle to the Rab11+Arf6+ compartment. Therefore, the source of MHC-I molecules in DC endocytic compartments remains to be identified. Functionally, depletion of Arf6 compromises cross-presentation of immune complexes but not of soluble, phagocytosed or mannose receptor-targeted antigen, suggesting a role of Fc receptor-regulated Arf6 trafficking in cross-presentation of immune complexes.
Project description:Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is a member of the Rho GTPase family and has pivotal functions in actin organization, cell migration and proliferation. Cdc42 has been shown to regulate antigen (Ag)-uptake in immature dendritic cells (DC) and controls their migration from tissues to lymph nodes. Previous reports demonstrated that Cdc42 is inactivated upon DC-maturation to avoid continued Ag-acquisition. To further study the molecular mechanisms of DC-control by Cdc42, we used bone marrow-derived DCs from Cdc42-deficient mice. We show that Cdc42-deficient DCs are phenotypically mature without additional maturation stimuli, as they upregulate CD86 from intracellular storages to the cell surface. They also accumulate invariant chain (Ii)-MHC class II complexes at the cell surface, which cannot efficiently present peptide Ag for priming of Ag-specific CD4 T cells. Lack of Cdc42 in immature DCs does not allow MHC class II maturation, as lysosomal Cathepsins are lost into the supernatant and Ii-MHC class II complexes cannot mature. Therefore Cdc42-deficient DCs are "pseudomature" and lose most functional hallmarks of antigen-presenting cells. Our results propose that Cdc42 keeps DCs in an immature state, while downregulation of Cdc42-activity during maturation facilitates generation of CD86+MHCII+ mature DCs.
Project description:Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules (MHC-II) function by binding antigenic peptides and displaying these peptides on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) for recognition by peptide-MHC-II (pMHC-II)-specific CD4 T cells. It is known that cell surface MHC-II can internalize, exchange antigenic peptides in endosomes, and rapidly recycle back to the plasma membrane; however, the molecular machinery and trafficking pathways utilized by internalizing/recycling MHC-II have not been identified. We now demonstrate that unlike newly synthesized invariant chain-associated MHC-II, mature cell surface pMHC-II complexes internalize following clathrin-, AP-2-, and dynamin-independent endocytosis pathways. Immunofluorescence microscopy of MHC-II expressing HeLa-CIITA cells, human B cells, and human DCs revealed that pMHC enters Arf6(+)Rab35(+)EHD1(+) tubular endosomes following endocytosis. These data contrast the internalization pathways followed by newly synthesized and peptide-loaded MHC-II molecules and demonstrates that cell surface pMHC-II internalize and rapidly recycle from early endocytic compartments in tubular endosomes.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms regulating noncanonical protein transport across cellular membranes are poorly understood. Cross-presentation of exogenous antigens on MHC I molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) generally requires antigen translocation from the endosomal compartment into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. In this study, we demonstrate that such translocation is controlled by the endocytic receptor and regulated by ubiquitination. Antigens internalized by the mannose receptor (MR), an endocytic receptor that targets its ligands specifically toward cross-presentation, were translocated into the cytosol only after attachment of a lysin48-linked polyubiquitin chain to the cytosolic region of the MR. Furthermore, we identify TSG101 as a central regulator of MR ubiquitination and antigen translocation. Importantly, we demonstrate that MR polyubiquitination mediates the recruitment of p97, a member of the ER-associated degradation machinery that provides the driving force for antigen translocation, toward the endosomal membrane, proving the central role of the endocytic receptor and its ubiquitination in antigen translocation.