Crystal structure of a replicative DNA polymerase bound to the oxidized guanine lesion guanidinohydantoin.
ABSTRACT: The oxidation of guanine generates one of the most common DNA lesions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). The further oxidation of 8-oxoG can produce either guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in duplex DNA or spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) in nucleosides and ssDNA. Although Gh can be a strong block for replicative DNA polymerases such as RB69 DNA polymerase, this lesion is also mutagenic: DNA polymerases bypass Gh by preferentially incorporating a purine with a slight preference for adenine, which results in G.C --> T.A or G.C --> C.G transversions. The 2.15 A crystal structure of the replicative RB69 DNA polymerase in complex with DNA containing Gh reveals that Gh is extrahelical and rotated toward the major groove. In this conformation Gh is no longer in position to serve as a templating base for the incorporation of an incoming nucleotide. This work also constitutes the first crystallographic structure of Gh, which is stabilized in the R configuration in the two polymerase/DNA complexes present in the crystal asymmetric unit. In contrast to 8-oxoG, Gh is found in a high syn conformation in the DNA duplex and therefore presents the same hydrogen bond donor and acceptor pattern as thymine, which explains the propensity of DNA polymerases to incorporate a purine opposite Gh when bypass occurs.
Project description:The fidelity of DNA replication is under constant threat from the formation of lesions within the genome. Oxidation of DNA bases leads to the formation of altered DNA bases such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, commonly called 8-oxoG, and 2-hydroxyadenine, or 2-OHA. In this work we have examined the incorporation kinetics opposite these two oxidatively derived lesions as well as an abasic site analogue by the replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage RB69. We compared the kinetic parameters for both wild type and the low fidelity L561A variant. While nucleotide incorporation rates (k(pol)) were generally higher for the variant, the presence of a lesion in the templating position reduced the ability of both the wild-type and variant DNA polymerases to form ternary enzyme-DNA-dNTP complexes. Thus, the L561A substitution does not significantly affect the ability of the RB69 DNA polymerase to recognize damaged DNA; instead, the mutation increases the probability that nucleotide incorporation will occur. We have also solved the crystal structure of the L561A variant forming an 8-oxoG.dATP mispair and show that the propensity for forming this mispair depends on an enlarged polymerase active site.
Project description:Changing a highly conserved amino acid in motif A of any of the four yeast family B DNA polymerases, DNA polymerase alpha, delta, epsilon or zeta, results in yeast strains with elevated mutation rates. In order to better understand this phenotype, we have performed structure-function studies of homologous mutants of RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69 pol), a structural model for family B members. When Leu415 in RB69 pol is replaced with phenylalanine or glycine, the mutant polymerases retain high-catalytic efficiency for correct nucleotide incorporation, yet have increased error rates due to increased misinsertion, increased mismatch extension and inefficient proofreading. The Leu415Phe mutant also has increased dNTP insertion efficiency opposite a template 8-oxoG and opposite an abasic site. The 2.5 A crystal structure of a ternary complex of RB69 L415F pol with a correctly base-paired incoming dTTP reveals that the phenylalanine ring is accommodated within a cavity seen in the wild-type enzyme, without steric clash or major change in active site geometry, consistent with retention of high-catalytic efficiency for correct incorporation. In addition, slight structural differences were observed that could be relevant to the reduced fidelity of L415F RB69 pol.
Project description:Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases. A previously solved structure of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69 gp43) in complex with Tg in the sequence context 5'-G-Tg-G shed light on how Tg blocks primer elongation: The protruding methyl group of the oxidized thymine displaces the adjacent 5'-G, which can no longer serve as a template for primer elongation [Aller, P., Rould, M. A., Hogg, M, Wallace, S. S. & Doublié S. (2007). A structural rationale for stalling of a replicative DNA polymerase at the most common oxidative thymine lesion, thymine glycol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 814-818.]. Several studies showed that in the sequence context 5'-C-Tg-purine, Tg is more likely to be bypassed by Klenow fragment, an A-family DNA polymerase. We set out to investigate the role of sequence context in Tg bypass in a B-family polymerase and to solve the crystal structures of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase in complex with Tg-containing DNA in the three remaining sequence contexts: 5'-A-Tg-G, 5'-T-Tg-G, and 5'-C-Tg-G. A combination of several factors-including the associated exonuclease activity, the nature of the 3' and 5' bases surrounding Tg, and the cis-trans interconversion of Tg-influences Tg bypass. We also visualized for the first time the structure of a well-ordered exonuclease complex, allowing us to identify and confirm the role of key residues (Phe123, Met256, and Tyr257) in strand separation and in the stabilization of the primer strand in the exonuclease site.
Project description:7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG), the predominant lesion formed following oxidative damage of DNA by reactive oxygen species, is processed differently by replicative and bypass polymerases. Our kinetic primer extension studies demonstrate that the bypass polymerase Dpo4 preferentially inserts C opposite oxoG, and also preferentially extends from the oxoG*C base pair, thus achieving error-free bypass of this lesion. We have determined the crystal structures of preinsertion binary, insertion ternary, and postinsertion binary complexes of oxoG-modified template-primer DNA and Dpo4. These structures provide insights into the translocation mechanics of the bypass polymerase during a complete cycle of nucleotide incorporation. Specifically, during noncovalent dCTP insertion opposite oxoG (or G), the little-finger domain-DNA phosphate contacts translocate by one nucleotide step, while the thumb domain-DNA phosphate contacts remain fixed. By contrast, during the nucleotidyl transfer reaction that covalently incorporates C opposite oxoG, the thumb-domain-phosphate contacts are translocated by one nucleotide step, while the little-finger contacts with phosphate groups remain fixed. These stepwise conformational transitions accompanying nucleoside triphosphate binding and covalent nucleobase incorporation during a full replication cycle of Dpo4-catalyzed bypass of the oxoG lesion are distinct from the translocation events in replicative polymerases.
Project description:Continuous oxidative damage inflicted on DNA produces 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a commonly occurring lesion that can potentially cause cancer by producing G ? T transversions during DNA replication. Mild oxidation of 8-oxoG leads to the formation of hydantoins, specifically guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), which are 100% mutagenic because they encode almost exclusively the insertion of dAMP and dGMP (encoding G ? T and G ? C transversions, respectively). The wild-type (wt) pol ? family DNA polymerase from bacteriophage RB69 (RB69pol) inserts dAMP and dGMP with low efficiency when situated opposite Gh. In contrast, the RB69pol Y567A mutant inserts both of these dNMPs opposite Gh with >100-fold higher efficiency than wt. We now report the crystal structure of the "closed" preinsertion complex for the Y567A mutant with dATP opposite a templating Gh (R-configuration) in a 13/18mer primer-template (P/T) at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure data reveal that the Y to A substitution provides the nascent base pair binding pocket (NBP) with the flexibility to accommodate Gh by allowing G568 to move in the major-to-minor groove direction of the P/T. Thus, Gh is rejected as a templating base by wt RB69pol because G568 is inflexible, preventing Gh from pairing with the incoming dATP or dGTP base.
Project description:Ligases conduct the final stage of repair of DNA damage by sealing a single-stranded nick after excision of damaged nucleotides and reinsertion of correct nucleotides. Depending upon the circumstances and the success of the repair process, lesions may remain at the ligation site, either in the template or at the oligomer termini to be joined. Ligation experiments using bacteriophage T4 DNA ligase were carried out with purine lesions in four positions surrounding the nick site in a total of 96 different duplexes. The oxidized lesion 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (OG) showed, as expected, that the enzyme is most sensitive to lesions on the 3' end of the nick compared to the 5' end and to lesions located in the intact template strand. In general, substrates containing the OG.A mismatch were more readily ligated than those with the OG.C mismatch. Ligations of duplexes containing the OA.T base pair (OA = 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroadenosine) that could adopt an anti-anti conformation proceeded with high efficiencies. An OI.A mismatch-containing duplex (OI = 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroinosine) behaved like OG.A. Due to its low reduction potential, OG is readily oxidized to secondary oxidation products, such as the guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) nucleosides; these lesions also contain an oxo group at the original C8 position of the purine. Ligation of oligomers containing Gh and Sp occurred when opposite A and G, although the overall ligation efficiencies were much lower than those of most OG base pairs. Steady-state kinetic studies were carried out for representative examples of lesions in the template. Km increased by 90-100-fold for OG.C-, OI.C-, OI.A-, and OA.T-containing duplexes compared to that of a G.C-containing duplex. Substrates containing Gh.A, Gh.G, Sp.A, and Sp.G base pairs exhibited Km values 20-70-fold higher than that of the substrate containing a G.C base pair, while the Km value for OG.A was 5 times lower than that for G.C.
Project description:The kinetics of forming a proper Watson-Crick base pair as well incorporating bases opposite furan, an abasic site analog, have been well characterized for the B Family replicative DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T4. Structural studies of these reactions, however, have only been performed with the homologous enzyme from bacteriophage RB69. In this work, the homologous enzymes from RB69 and T4 were compared in parallel reactions to determine the relative abilities of the two polymerases to incorporate correct nucleotides as well as to form improper pairings. The kinetic rates for three different exonuclease mutants for each enzyme were measured for incorporation of an A opposite T and an A opposite furan as well as for the formation of A:C and T:T mismatches. The T4 exonuclease mutants were all approximately 2- to 7-fold more efficient than the corresponding RB69 exonuclease mutants depending on whether a T or furan was in the templating position and which exonuclease mutant was used. The rates for mismatch formation by T4 were significantly reduced compared with incorporation opposite furan, much more so than the corresponding RB69 mutant. These results show that there are kinetic differences between the two enzymes but they are not large enough to preclude structural assumptions for T4 DNA polymerase based on the known structure of the RB69 DNA polymerase.
Project description:Abasic sites are common DNA lesions, which are strong blocks to replicative polymerases and are potentially mutagenic when bypassed. We report here the 2.8 A structure of the bacteriophage RB69 replicative DNA polymerase attempting to process an abasic site analog. Four different complexes were captured in the crystal asymmetric unit: two have DNA in the polymerase active site whereas the other two molecules are in the exonuclease mode. When compared to complexes with undamaged DNA, the DNA surrounding the abasic site reveals distinct changes suggesting why the lesion is so poorly bypassed: the DNA in the polymerase active site has not translocated and is therefore stalled, precluding extension. All four molecules exhibit conformations that differ from the previously published structures. The polymerase incorporates dAMP across the lesion under crystallization conditions, indicating that the different conformations observed in the crystal may be part of the active site switching reaction pathway.
Project description:The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase, responsible for the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides (dNTP), is upregulated in response to DNA damage in all organisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, dNTP concentration increases approximately 6- to 8-fold in response to DNA damage. This concentration increase is associated with improved tolerance of DNA damage, suggesting that translesion DNA synthesis is more efficient at elevated dNTP concentration. Here we show that in a yeast strain with all specialized translesion DNA polymerases deleted, 4-nitroquinoline oxide (4-NQO) treatment increases mutation frequency approximately 3-fold, and that an increase in dNTP concentration significantly improves the tolerance of this strain to 4-NQO induced damage. In vitro, under single-hit conditions, the replicative DNA polymerase epsilon does not bypass 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine lesion (8-oxoG, one of the lesions produced by 4-NQO) at S-phase dNTP concentration, but does bypass the same lesion with 19-27% efficiency at DNA-damage-state dNTP concentration. The nucleotide inserted opposite 8-oxoG is dATP. We propose that during DNA damage in S. cerevisiae increased dNTP concentration allows replicative DNA polymerases to bypass certain DNA lesions.
Project description:Thymine glycol (Tg) is a common product of oxidation and ionizing radiation, including that used for cancer treatment. Although Tg is a poor mutagenic lesion, it has been shown to present a strong block to both repair and replicative DNA polymerases. The 2.65-A crystal structure of a binary complex of the replicative RB69 DNA polymerase with DNA shows that the templating Tg is intrahelical and forms a regular Watson-Crick base pair with the incorporated A. The C5 methyl group protrudes axially from the ring of the damaged pyrimidine and hinders stacking of the adjacent 5' template guanine. The position of the displaced 5' template guanine is such that the next incoming nucleotide cannot be incorporated into the growing primer strand, and it explains why primer extension past the lesion is prohibited even though DNA polymerases can readily incorporate an A across from the Tg lesion.