GAB2 as an Alzheimer disease susceptibility gene: follow-up of genomewide association results.
ABSTRACT: Genomewide association (GWA) studies have recently implicated 4 novel Alzheimer disease (AD) susceptibility loci (GAB2, GOLM1, and 2 uncharacterized loci to date on chromosomes 9p and 15q). To our knowledge, these findings have not been independently replicated.To assess these GWA findings in 4 large data sets of families affected by AD.Follow-up of genetic association findings in previous studies.Academic research.More than 4000 DNA samples from almost 1300 families affected with AD.Genetic association analysis testing of 4 GWA signals (rs7101429 [GAB2], rs7019241 [GOLM1], rs10519262 [chromosome 15q], and rs9886784 [chromosome 9p]) using family-based methods.In the combined analyses, only rs7101429 in GAB2 yielded significant evidence of association with the same allele as in the original GWA study (P =.002). The results are in agreement with recent meta-analyses of this and other GAB2 polymorphisms suggesting approximately a 30% decrease in risk for AD among carriers of the minor alleles. None of the other 3 tested loci showed consistent evidence for association with AD across the investigated data sets.GAB2 contains genetic variants that may lead to a modest change in the risk for AD. Despite these promising results, more data from independent samples are needed to better evaluate the potential contribution of GAB2 to AD risk in the general population.
Project description:Background:Growth factor receptor-bound protein-associated binding protein 2 gene (GAB2) has been regarded as one of the susceptibility gene associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of GAB2 polymorphisms on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins in AD continuum remains unclear. Methods:We evaluated the connection between four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GAB2 and AD-related CSF biomarkers including amyloid ? (A?), total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) level in 627 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects. Results:rs1385600 and rs1007837 were significantly associated with all the three biomarkers in CSF (rs1385600: A? Pc =0.0112, T-tau Pc =0.0356, P-tau Pc =0.0116; rs1007837: A? Pc =0.0058, T-tau Pc =0.0278, P-tau Pc =0.0231). rs2373115 only showed significant association with A? and P-tau (A?, Pc=0.0398, P-tau, Pc=0.0329). rs10793294 showed no significant association with all the three biomarkers. Conclusions:Our study suggested that GAB2 variants were significantly associated with the level of the three CSF biomarkers, which further supported that GAB2 genetic variation modulates AD risk via the alteration of both A? and tau pathology.
Project description:In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), we found an association between common haplotypes of the GAB2 gene and AD risk in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele, the major late-onset AD susceptibility gene. We previously proposed the use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) measurements as a quantitative pre-symptomatic endophenotype, more closely related to disease risk than the clinical syndrome itself, to help evaluate putative genetic and non-genetic modifiers of AD risk. In this study, we examined the relationship between the presence or absence of the relatively protective GAB2 haplotype and PET measurements of regional-to-whole brain FDG uptake in several AD-affected brain regions in 158 cognitively normal late-middle-aged APOE?4 homozygotes, heterozygotes, and non-carriers. GAB2 haplotypes were characterized using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 Array data from each of these subjects. As predicted, the possibly protective GAB2 haplotype was associated with higher regional-to-whole brain FDG uptake in AD-affected brain regions in APOE?4 carriers. While additional studies are needed, this study supports the association between the possibly protective GAB2 haplotype and the risk of late-onset AD in APOE?4 carriers. It also supports the use of brain-imaging endophenotypes to help assess possible modifiers of AD risk.
Project description:GRB-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) represents a compelling genome-wide association signal for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) with reported odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.75-0.85. We tested eight GAB2 variants in four North American Caucasian case-control series (2,316 LOAD, 2,538 controls) for association with LOAD. Meta-analyses revealed ORs ranging from (0.61-1.20) with no significant association (all p>0.32). Four variants were hetergeneous across the populations (all p<0.02) due to a potentially inflated effect size (OR?=?0.61-0.66) only observed in the smallest series (702 LOAD, 209 controls). Despite the lack of association in our series, the previously reported protective association for GAB2 remained after meta-analyses of our data with all available previously published series (11,952-22,253 samples; OR?=?0.82-0.88; all p<0.04). Using a freely available database of lymphoblastoid cell lines we found that protective GAB2 variants were associated with increased GAB2 expression (p?=?9.5×10(-7)-9.3×10(-6)). We next measured GAB2 mRNA levels in 249 brains and found that decreased neurofibrillary tangle (r?=?-0.34, p?=?0.0006) and senile plaque counts (r?=?-0.32, p?=?0.001) were both good predictors of increased GAB2 mRNA levels albeit that sex (r?=?-0.28, p?=?0.005) may have been a contributing factor. In summary, we hypothesise that GAB2 variants that are protective against LOAD in some populations may act functionally to increase GAB2 mRNA levels (in lymphoblastoid cells) and that increased GAB2 mRNA levels are associated with significantly decreased LOAD pathology. These findings support the hypothesis that Gab2 may protect neurons against LOAD but due to significant population heterogeneity, it is still unclear whether this protection is detectable at the genetic level.
Project description:The growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2)-associated binder (Gab) proteins are intracellular scaffolding/docking molecules, and participate in multiple signaling pathways, usually acting as the downstream effector of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs)-triggered signal transduction pathway. When phosphorylated by PTKs, Gab proteins can recruit several signaling molecules (p85, SHP2, and Crk), and subsequently activate multiple transmitting signals that are critical for cell growth, survival, differentiation and apoptosis. Recently, it has been reported that Gab2 polymorphism is associated with the increase in the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. This review mainly focuses on the structure and function of Gab2 protein and its role in the pathogenesis of AD.
Project description:Grb2-associated binder (Gab)2 functions downstream of a variety of receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases as a docking platform for specific signal transducers and performs important functions in both normal physiology and oncogenesis. Gab2 signalling is promoted by its association with specific receptors through the adaptor Grb2. However, the molecular mechanisms that attenuate Gab2 signals have remained unclear. We now demonstrate that growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Gab2 on two residues, S210 and T391, leads to recruitment of 14-3-3 proteins. Together, these events mediate negative-feedback regulation, as Gab2(S210A/T391A) exhibits sustained receptor association and signalling and promotes cell proliferation and transformation. Importantly, introduction of constitutive 14-3-3-binding sites into Gab2 renders it refractory to receptor activation, demonstrating that site-selective binding of 14-3-3 proteins is sufficient to terminate Gab2 signalling. Furthermore, this is associated with reduced binding of Grb2. This leads to a model where signal attenuation occurs because 14-3-3 promotes dissociation of Gab2 from Grb2, and thereby uncouples Gab2 from the receptor complex. This represents a novel regulatory mechanism with implications for diverse tyrosine kinase signalling systems.
Project description:Metastatic melanoma is a disease with a poor prognosis that currently lacks effective treatments. Critical biological features of metastasis include acquisition of migratory competence, growth factor independence, and invasive potential. In an attempt to identify genes that contribute to melanoma pathogenesis, a genome-wide search using bacterial artificial chromosome array comparative genomic hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in a series of 64 metastatic melanoma samples and 20 melanoma cell lines identified increased copy numbers of Gab2 located on 11q14.1. Gab2 is an adaptor protein that potentiates the activation of the Ras-Erk and PI3K-Akt pathways and has recently been implicated in human cancer; however, its role in melanoma has not been explored. In this study, we found that Gab2 was either amplified (approximately 11%) and/or overexpressed (approximately 50%) in melanoma. Gab2 protein expression correlated with clinical melanoma progression, and higher levels of expression were seen in metastatic melanomas compared with primary melanoma and melanocytic nevi. We found that overexpression of Gab2 potentiates, whereas silencing of Gab2 reduces, migration and invasion of melanoma cells. Gab2 mediated the hyperactivation of Akt signaling in the absence of growth factors, whereas inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway decreased Gab2-mediated tumor cell migration and invasive potential. Gab2 overexpression resulted in enhanced tumor growth and metastatic potential in vivo. These studies demonstrate a previously undefined role for Gab2 in melanoma tumor progression and metastasis.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:Despite Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) being clinically distinct entities, there is a possibility of a pathological overlap, with some genome-wide association (GWA) studies suggesting that the 2 diseases represent a biological continuum. The application of GWA studies to idiopathic forms of AD and PD have identified a number of loci that contain genetic variants that increase the risk of these disorders. OBJECTIVE:To assess the genetic overlap between PD and AD by testing for the presence of potentially pleiotropic loci in 2 recent GWA studies of PD and AD. DESIGN:Combined GWA analysis. SETTING:Data sets from the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS:Thousands of patients with AD or PD and their controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Meta-analysis of GWA studies of AD and PD. METHODS:To identify evidence for potentially pleiotropic alleles that increased the risk for both PD and AD, we performed a combined PD-AD meta-analysis and compared the results with those obtained in the primary GWA studies.We also tested for a net effect of potentially polygenic alleles that were shared by both disorders by performing a polygenic score analysis. Finally, we also performed a gene-based association analysis that was aimed at detecting genes that harbor multiple disease-causing single-nucleotide polymorphisms, some of which confer a risk of PD and some a risk of AD. RESULTS:Detailed interrogation of the single-nucleotide polymorphism, polygenic, and gene-based analyses resulted in no significant evidence that supported the presence of loci that increase the risk of both PD and AD. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Our findings therefore imply that loci that increase the risk of both PD and AD are not widespread and that the pathological overlap could instead be “downstream” of the primary susceptibility genes that increase the risk of each disease.
Project description:Gab2 is an important adapter molecule for cytokine signaling. Despite its major role in signaling by receptors associated with hematopoiesis, the role of Gab2 in hematopoiesis has not been addressed. We report that despite normal numbers of peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cells, and c-Kit(+)Lin(-)Sca-1(+) (KLS) cells, Gab2-deficient hematopoietic cells are deficient in cytokine responsiveness. Significant reductions in the number of colony-forming units in culture (CFU-C) in the presence of limiting cytokine concentrations were observed, and these defects could be completely corrected by retroviral complementation. In earlier hematopoiesis, Gab2-deficient KLS cells isolated in vitro responded poorly to hematopoietic growth factors, resulting in an up to 11-fold reduction in response to a cocktail of stem cell factor, flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Gab2-deficient c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cells also demonstrate impaired activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and S6 in response to IL-3, which supports defects in activating the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K) and mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Associated with the early defects in cytokine response, competitive transplantation of Gab2(-/-) bone marrow cells resulted in defective long-term multilineage repopulation. Therefore, we demonstrate that Gab2 adapter function is intrinsically required for hematopoietic cell response to early-acting cytokines, resulting in defective hematopoiesis in Gab2-deficient mice.
Project description:GAB2 is a scaffold protein with diverse upstream and downstream effectors. MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways are known effectors of GAB2. It is amplified and overexpressed in a variety of human tumors including melanoma. Here we show a previously undescribed role for GAB2 in NRAS-driven melanoma. Specifically, we found that GAB2 is co-expressed with mutant NRAS in melanoma cell lines and tumor samples and its expression correlated with metastatic potential. Co-expression of GAB2(WT) and NRAS(G12D) in melanocytes and in melanoma cells increased anchorage-independent growth by providing GAB2-expressing cells a survival advantage through upregulation of BCL-2 family of anti-apoptotic factors. Of note, collaboration of GAB2 with mutant NRAS enhanced tumorigenesis in vivo and led to an increased vessel density with strong CD34 and VEGFR2 activity. We found that GAB2 facilitiated an angiogenic switch by upregulating HIF-1? and VEGF levels. This angiogenic response was significantly suppressed with the MEK inhibitor PD325901. These data suggest that GAB2-mediated signaling cascades collaborate with NRAS-driven downstream activation for conferring an aggressive phenotype in melanoma. Second, we show that GAB2/NRAS signaling axis is non-linear and non-redundant in melanocytes and melanoma, and thus are acting independent of each other. Finally, we establish a link between GAB2 and angiogenesis in melanoma for the first time. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that GAB2 is a novel regulator of tumor angiogenesis in NRAS-driven melanoma through regulation of HIF-1? and VEGF expressions mediated by RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling.
Project description:Our previous studies have found that Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2-associated binding protein 2 (Gab2)-a docking protein-governs the development of fatty liver disease. Here, we further demonstrate that Gab2 mediates hepatocarcinogenesis. Compared with a faint expression in para-carcinoma tissue, Gab2 was highly expressed in ?60-70% of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens. Deletion of Gab2 dramatically suppressed diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC in mice. The oncogenic effects of Gab2 in HepG2 cells were promoted by Gab2 overexpression but were rescued by Gab2 knockdown. Furthermore, Gab2 knockout in HepG2 cells restrained cell proliferation, migration and tumor growth in nude mice. Signaling pathway analysis with protein kinase inhibitors demonstrated that oncogenic regulation by Gab2 in hepatic cells involved multiple signaling molecules, including ERK, Akt, and Janus kinases (Jaks), especially those that mediate inflammatory signaling. IL-6 signaling was increased by Gab2 overexpression and impaired by Gab2 deletion via regulation of Jak2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation and the expression of downstream genes, such as Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), c-Myc, MMP7 (matrix metalloproteinase-7), and cyclin D1in vitro and in vivo These data indicate that Gab2 mediates the pathologic progression of HCC by integrating multiple signaling pathways and suggest that Gab2 might be a powerful therapeutic target for HCC.-Cheng, J., Zhong, Y., Chen, S., Sun, Y., Huang, L., Kang, Y., Chen, B., Chen, G., Wang, F., Tian, Y., Liu, W., Feng, G.-S., Lu, Z. Gab2 mediates hepatocellular carcinogenesis by integrating multiple signaling pathways.