Homozygous deletion mapping in myeloma samples identifies genes and an expression signature relevant to pathogenesis and outcome.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Myeloma is a clonal malignancy of plasma cells. Poor-prognosis risk is currently identified by clinical and cytogenetic features. However, these indicators do not capture all prognostic information. Gene expression analysis can be used to identify poor-prognosis patients and this can be improved by combination with information about DNA-level changes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Using single nucleotide polymorphism-based gene mapping in combination with global gene expression analysis, we have identified homozygous deletions in genes and networks that are relevant to myeloma pathogenesis and outcome. RESULTS:We identified 170 genes with homozygous deletions and corresponding loss of expression. Deletion within the "cell death" network was overrepresented and cases with these deletions had impaired overall survival. From further analysis of these events, we have generated an expression-based signature associated with shorter survival in 258 patients and confirmed this signature in data from two independent groups totaling 800 patients. We defined a gene expression signature of 97 cell death genes that reflects prognosis and confirmed this in two independent data sets. CONCLUSIONS:We developed a simple 6-gene expression signature from the 97-gene signature that can be used to identify poor-prognosis myeloma in the clinical environment. This signature could form the basis of future trials aimed at improving the outcome of poor-prognosis myeloma.
Project description:Myeloma is a clonal malignancy of plasma cells. Poor prognosis risk is currently identified by clinical and cytogenetic features. However, these indicators do not capture all prognostic information. Gene expression analysis can be used to identify poor prognosis patients and this can be improved by combination with information about DNA level changes. Using SNP-based gene mapping in combination with global gene expression analysis we have identified homozygous deletions in genes and networks that are relevant to myeloma. From these, we have generated an expression-based signature associated with shorter survival in 247 patients and confirmed this signature in data from 2 independent groups totalling 800 patients. We identified 170 genes with homozygous deletions and corresponding loss of expression. Deletion within the “Cell Death” network was over-represented and cases with these deletions have impaired overall survival. We defined a gene expression signature of 97 cell death genes that reflects prognosis confirmed this in two independent data sets. We developed a simple 6-gene expression signature from the 97-gene signature that can be used to identify poor prognosis myeloma in the clinical environment. The signature can form the basis of future trials aimed at improving the outcome of poor prognosis myeloma. Overall design: 247 expression samples from CD138+ cell selection, 168 SNP-based gene mapping data from CD138+ cell selection and peripheral white blood cell
Project description:The purpose of this study is to identify prognostic markers and treatment targets using a clinically certified sequencing panel in multiple myeloma. We performed targeted sequencing of 578 individuals with plasma cell neoplasms using the FoundationOne Heme panel and identified clinically relevant abnormalities and novel prognostic markers. Mutational burden was associated with maf and proliferation gene expression groups, and a high-mutational burden was associated with a poor prognosis. We identified homozygous deletions that were present in multiple myeloma within key genes, including CDKN2C, RB1, TRAF3, BIRC3 and TP53, and that bi-allelic inactivation was significantly enriched at relapse. Alterations in CDKN2C, TP53, RB1 and the t(4;14) were associated with poor prognosis. Alterations in RB1 were predominantly homozygous deletions and were associated with relapse and a poor prognosis which was independent of other genetic markers, including t(4;14), after multivariate analysis. Bi-allelic inactivation of key tumor suppressor genes in myeloma was enriched at relapse, especially in RB1, CDKN2C and TP53 where they have prognostic significance.
Project description:Adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic tumor associated with poor outcome. In this study, we analyzed the prognostic relevance of genetic alterations, immunophenotypic markers, and microarray gene expression signatures in a panel of 53 adult T-ALL patients treated in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2993 clinical trial. An early immature gene expression signature, the absence of bi-allelic TCRG deletion, CD13 surface expression, heterozygous deletions of the short arm of chromosome 17, and mutations in IDH1/IDH2 and DNMT3A genes are associated with poor prognosis in this series. In contrast, expression of CD8 or CD62L, homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/CDKN2B, NOTCH1 and/or FBXW7 mutations, and mutations or deletions in the BCL11B tumor suppressor gene were associated with improved overall survival. Importantly, the prognostic relevance of CD13 expression and homozygous CDKN2A/CDKN2B deletions was restricted to cortical and mature T-ALLs. Conversely, mutations in IDH1/IDH2 and DNMT3A were specifically associated with poor outcome in early immature adult T-ALLs. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00002514.
Project description:Treatment of high-risk patients is a major challenge in multiple myeloma. This is especially true for patients assigned to the gene expression profiling-defined proliferation subgroup. Although recent efforts have identified some key players of proliferative myeloma, genetic interactions and players that can be targeted with clinically effective drugs have to be identified in order to overcome the poor prognosis of these patients. We therefore examined maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) for its implications in hyper-proliferative myeloma and analyzed the activity of the MELK inhibitor OTSSP167 both in vitro and in vivoMELK was found to be significantly overexpressed in the proliferative subgroup of myeloma. This finding translated into poor overall survival in patients with high vs low MELK expression. Enrichment analysis of upregulated genes in myeloma cells of MELKhigh patients confirmed the strong implications in myeloma cell proliferation. Targeting MELK with OTSSP167 impaired the growth and survival of myeloma cells, thereby affecting central survival factors such as MCL-1 and IRF4 This activity was also observed in the 5TGM.1 murine model of myeloma. OTSSP167 reduced bone marrow infiltration and serum paraprotein levels in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we revealed a strong link between MELK and other proliferation-associated high-risk genes (PLK-1, EZH2, FOXM1, DEPDC1) and MELK inhibition also impaired the expression of those genes. We therefore conclude that MELK is an essential component of a proliferative gene signature and that pharmacological inhibition of MELK represents an attractive novel approach to overcome the poor prognosis of high-risk patients with a proliferative expression pattern.
Project description:Regions on 1p with recurrent deletions in presenting myeloma patients were examined with the purpose of defining the deletions and assessing their survival impact.Gene mapping, gene expression, FISH, and mutation analyses were conducted on patient samples from the MRC Myeloma IX trial and correlated with clinical outcome data.1p32.3 was deleted in 11% of cases, and deletion was strongly associated with impaired overall survival (OS) in patients treated with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). In patients treated less intensively, del(1)(p32.3) was not associated with adverse progression-free survival (PFS) or OS. The target of homozygous deletions was CDKN2C, however its role in the adverse outcome of cases with hemizygous deletion was less certain. 1p22.1-21.2 was the most frequently deleted region and contained the candidate genes MTF2 and TMED5. No mutations were identified in these genes. 1p12 was deleted in 19% of cases, and deletion was associated with impaired OS in univariate analysis. The target of homozygous deletion was FAM46C, which was mutated in 3.4% of cases. When cases with FAM46C deletion or mutation were considered together, they were strongly associated with impaired OS in the intensive treatment setting.Deletion of 1p32.3 and 1p12 was associated with impaired OS in myeloma patients receiving ASCT. FAM46C was identified as a gene with potential pathogenic and prognostic significance based on the occurrence of recurrent homozygous deletions and mutations.
Project description:We have sequenced 463 presenting cases of myeloma entered into the UK Myeloma XI study using whole exome sequencing. Here we identify mutations induced as a consequence of misdirected AID in the partner oncogenes of IGH translocations, which are activating and associated with impaired clinical outcome. An APOBEC mutational signature is seen in 3.8% of cases and is linked to the translocation-mediated deregulation of MAF and MAFB, a known poor prognostic factor. Patients with this signature have an increased mutational load and a poor prognosis. Loss of MAF or MAFB expression results in decreased APOBEC3B and APOBEC4 expression, indicating a transcriptional control mechanism. Kataegis, a further mutational pattern associated with APOBEC deregulation, is seen at the sites of the MYC translocation. The APOBEC mutational signature seen in myeloma is, therefore, associated with poor prognosis primary and secondary translocations and the molecular mechanisms involved in generating them.
Project description:Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) DNA cytosine deaminases have emerged as potential genomic mutators in various cancers. Multiple myeloma accumulates APOBEC signature mutations as it progresses; however, the mechanisms underlying APOBEC signature acquisition and its consequences remain elusive. In this study, we examined the significance and clinical impact of APOBEC3B (A3B) activity in multiple myeloma. Among APOBECs, only highly expressed A3B was associated with poor prognosis in myeloma patients, independent of other known poor prognostic factors. Quantitative PCR revealed that CD138-positive primary myeloma cells and myeloma cell lines exhibited remarkably high A3B expression levels. Interestingly, lentiviral A3B knockdown prevented the generation of deletion and loss-of-function mutations in exogenous DNA, whereas in control cells, these mutations accumulated with time. A3B knockdown also decreased the basal levels of ?-H2AX foci, suggesting that A3B promotes constitutive DNA double-strand breaks in myeloma cells. Importantly, among control shRNA-transduced cells, we observed the generation of clones that harboured diverse mutations in exogenous genes and several endogenous genes frequently mutated in myeloma, including TP53. Taken together, the results suggest that A3B constitutively mutates the tumour genome beyond the protection of the DNA repair system, which may lead to clonal evolution and genomic instability in myeloma.
Project description:PURPOSE:Deletions of chromosome 1 have been described in 7% to 40% of cases of myeloma with inconsistent clinical consequences. CDKN2C at 1p32.3 has been identified in myeloma cell lines as the potential target of the deletion. We tested the clinical impact of 1p deletion and used high-resolution techniques to define the role of CDKN2C in primary patient material. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We analyzed 515 cases of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for deletions of CDKN2C. In 78 myeloma cases, we carried out Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism mapping and U133 Plus 2.0 expression arrays. In addition, we did mutation, methylation, and Western blotting analysis. RESULTS:By FISH we identified deletion of 1p32.3 (CDKN2C) in 3 of 66 MGUS (4.5%), 4 of 39 SMM (10.3%), and 55 of 369 multiple myeloma cases (15%). We examined the impact of copy number change at CDKN2C on overall survival (OS), and found that the cases with either hemizygous or homozygous deletion of CDKN2C had a worse OS compared with cases that were intact at this region (22 months versus 38 months; P = 0.003). Using gene mapping we identified three homozygous deletions at 1p32.3, containing CDKN2C, all of which lacked expression of CDKN2C. Cases with homozygous deletions of CDKN2C were the most proliferative myelomas, defined by an expression-based proliferation index, consistent with its biological function as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that deletions of CDKN2C are important in the progression and clinical outcome of myeloma.