ABSTRACT: Tubular liposomes containing a hydrophilic model compound (fluorescein sodium salt, FSS) were entrapped inside the internal aqueous phase (W(1)) of water-in-oil-in-water (W(1)/O/W(2)) double-emulsion globules. Our hypothesis was that the oil membrane of double emulsions can function as a layer of protection to liposomes and their contents and thus better control their release. Liposomes were prepared in bulk, and their release was observed microscopically from individual double-emulsion globules. The liposomes containing FSS were released through external coalescence, and the behavior of this system was monitored visually by capillary video microscopy. Double-emulsion globules were stabilized with Tween 80 as the water-soluble surfactant, with Span 80 as the oil-soluble surfactant, while the oil phase (O) was n-hexadecane. The lipids in the tubular liposomes consist of L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine and Ceramide-VI. Variations of Tween 80 concentration in the external aqueous phase (W(2)) and Span 80 concentration in the O phase controlled the release of liposomes from the W(1) phase to the W(2) phase. The major finding of this work is that the sheer presence of liposomes in the W(1) phase is by itself a stabilizing factor for double-emulsion globules.
Project description:The formation, manufacture and characterization of low energy water-in-oil (w/o) nanoemulsions prepared using cold pressed flaxseed oil containing efavirenz was investigated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the nanoemulsion region(s). Other potential lipid-based drug delivery phases containing flaxseed oil with 1:1 m/m surfactant mixture of Tween® 80, Span® 20 and different amounts of ethanol were tested to characterize the impact of surfactant mixture on emulsion formation. Flaxseed oil was used as the oil phase as efavirenz exhibited high solubility in the vehicle when compared to other vegetable oils tested. Optimization of surfactant mixtures was undertaken using design of experiments, specifically a D-optimal design with the flaxseed oil content set at 10% m/m. Two solutions from the desired optimization function were produced based on desirability and five nanoemulsion formulations were produced and characterized in terms of in vitro release of efavirenz, physical and chemical stability. Metastable nanoemulsions containing 10% m/m flaxseed oil were successfully manufactured and significant isotropic gel (semisolid) and o/w emulsions were observed during phase behavior studies. Droplet sizes ranged between 156 and 225 nm, zeta potential between -24 and -41 mV and all formulations were found to be monodisperse with polydispersity indices ? 0.487.
Project description:The effects of oil droplet size and the formation of an interfacial protein film (IPF) on silver carp myofibrillar protein (MP)-oil composite gels were studied. MP- or Tween 80-stabilized camellia seed oil emulsions with different droplet sizes were prepared and added to MPs to prepare composite gels. The oil droplet size of the Tween 80-stabilized emulsion was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than that of the MP-stabilized emulsion with the same homogenization speed. However, polymerization of Tween 80-stabilized emulsions during the preparation of the composite gels was found. Composite gels with the MP-stabilized emulsions of a small droplet size showed significantly improved water-holding capacity, texture, and dynamic rheological properties. Interfacial shear rheology studies revealed that the storage modulus (G') of the MP-stabilized emulsion composite gels was higher than that of the Tween 80-stabilized gels, and the tan ? of the MP-stabilized oil emulsion composite gels was smaller than that of the Tween 80-stabilized gels, indicating that stronger elastic gel structures were formed. These results suggested that the IPF formed in the MP-stabilized emulsion helped stabilize the oil droplets embedded in the protein gel network, and the smaller the droplet size, the more stable the composite gel. This work provides a better understanding of how oil emulsions interact with protein and affect the properties of MP-oil composite gels.
Project description:A well-dispersed self-assembled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) ink with high purity was synthesized via AgNO3 emulsion prepared by blending an AgNO3 aqueous solution and a liquid paraffin solution of both polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and sorbitan monooleate (Span 80). The ink remained as an emulsion at low temperatures; however, it produced AgNPs after sintering at about 60°C and showed a high stability at nanoscale sizes (with diameters ranging 8.6-13.4 nm) and a high conductivity. During the whole procedure, Tween 80 acted as a surfactant, reductant and stabilizer. Presumably, Tween 80 underwent an autoxidation process, where a free radical of an ?-carbon of ether oxygen was formed by hydrogen abstraction. The mean diameter of emulsion droplets could be reduced by decreasing water content and increasing the ratio of surfactant and concentration of AgNO3 aqueous solution. Consequently, the thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction result clarified the purity of the produced Ag0. Dynamic light scattering and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy clarified that an increased concentration of AgNO3 decreased the particle size.
Project description:Antarctic krill oil is high in nutritional value and has biological functions like anti-inflammation and hypolipidemic effects. But it has and unpleasant smell, and unsaturated fatty acids are prone to oxidative deterioration. Its high viscosity and low solubility in water make it difficult for processing. Microemulsion can be a new promising route for development of krill oil product. We determined a formula of krill oil-in-water microemulsion with krill oil: isopropyl myristate = 1:3 as oil phase, Tween 80:Span 80 = 8:2 as surfactant, ethanol as co-surfactant and the mass ratio of surfactant to co-surfactant of 3:1. After screening the formula, we researched several characteristics of the prepared oil-in-water microemulsion, including electrical conductivity, microstructure by transmission electron microscope and cryogenic transmission electron microscope, droplet size analysis, rheological properties, thermal behavior by differential scanning calorimeter and stability against pH, salinity, and storage time.
Project description:Hydrophobic curcumin in temulawak extract and hydrophilic betacyanin in red dragon fruit extract are high-value bioactive compounds with extensive applications in functional food. In this study, these extracts were encapsulated in water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) nanoemulsions as a delivery system using a two-step high-energy emulsification method. PGPR and Span 20 were used as lipophilic emulsifiers for the primary w/o emulsion. The most stable w/o/w formulation with the least oil phase separation of 5% <i>v</i>/<i>v</i> consisted of w/o emulsion (15% <i>w</i>/<i>w</i>) and Tween 80 (1.5% <i>w</i>/<i>w</i>) as hydrophilic emulsifier. The formulation was characterized by a 189-nm mean droplet diameter, 0.16 polydispersity index, and -32 mV zeta potential. The freeze-thaw stability may be attributed to the combination of low w/o emulsion content and high Tween 80 concentration in the outer water phase of the w/o/w nanoemulsions used in this study. The IC<sub>50</sub> values of the nanoemulsion and the red dragon fruit extract were similar. It means that the higher concentration of curcumin in the nanoemulsions and the lower IC<sub>50</sub> value of temulawak extract ensured sufficient antioxidant activities of the w/o/w nanoemulsions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are a lot of different types of sunscreen products (oils, sticks, gels, creams, lotions) which can be found on the world's market. Sunscreen product that contains active chemical ingredients sometimes has harmful effects on the skin. Sunflower oil contains vitamin E and acts as a natural sunscreen which can absorb UVB light. The average droplet size of nanoemulsion is between 100 and 500 nm and do not show the problems of stability (creaming, flocculation, coalescence, and sedimentation), which are commonly associated with macroemulsions. AIM:The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the sunflower oil nanoemulsion as a sunscreen. METHODS:Sunflower oil nanoemulsions were prepared by spontaneous emulsification method with 3 formulas F1 (Tween 80 38%, sorbitol 22%), F2 (Tween 80 36%, sorbitol 24%), F3 (Tween 80 34%, sorbitol 26%) and 5% sunflower oil as a sunscreen substance. The nanoemulsions were evaluated for particle size, physical stability in room temperature (25 ± 2°C), low temperature (4 ± 2°C) and high temperature (40 ± 2°C) during experiment for 12 weeks of storage, centrifugation at 3750 rpm for 5 hours, viscosity, pH, freeze-thaw test and sun protection value (SPF) value by in vitro. RESULTS:The results of nanoemulsion evaluation showed that nanoemulsion formula F1 had the smallest average particle size of 124.47 nm with yellowish colour, clear, transparent, pH value (6.5 ± 0.1), viscosity value (225 ± 25 cP), did not show any separation or creaming in the centrifugation, and stable during experiment for 12 weeks of storage at room temperature, low temperature and high temperature. The SPF value of all nanoemulsion preparations was higher than that of the emulsion. CONCLUSION:The preparation of the sunflower oil nanoemulsion with a ratio of Tween 80 and sorbitol (38: 22) produces a stable nanoemulsion during the experiment for 12 weeks storage at the room, low and high temperature. The nanoemulsion preparation has higher SPF values compared to the emulsion. This nanoemulsion formulation could be considered more effective in sunscreen cosmetic use compare to the emulsion.
Project description:In biocatalytic conversions, substrates and products may display inhibitory or toxic effects on the biocatalyst. Rhodococcus erythropolis 1awq could further remove sulfur from hydrodesulfurized diesel oil, and the biodesulfurization was enhanced by the surfactant Tween 80. Tween 80 was shown to decrease the product concentration associated with the cells, reducing product inhibition.
Project description:In this study, two saponins-rich plant extracts, viz. Saponaria officinalis and Quillaja saponaria, were used as surfactants in an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion based on hempseed oil (HSO). This study focused on a low oil phase content of 2% v/v HSO to investigate stable emulsion systems under minimum oil phase conditions. Emulsion stability was characterized by the emulsification index (EI), centrifugation tests, droplet size distribution as well as microscopic imaging. The smallest droplets recorded by dynamic light scattering (droplets size v. number), one day after the preparation of the emulsion, were around 50-120 nm depending the on use of Saponaria and Quillaja as a surfactant and corresponding to critical micelle concentration (CMC) in the range 0-2 g/L. The surface and interfacial tension of the emulsion components were studied as well. The effect of emulsions on environmental bacteria strains was also investigated. It was observed that emulsions with Saponaria officinalis extract exhibited slight toxic activity (the cell metabolic activity reduced to 80%), in contrast to Quillaja emulsion, which induced Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 growth. The highest-stability samples were those with doubled CMC concentration. The presented results demonstrate a possible use of oil emulsions based on plant extract rich in saponins for the food industry, biomedical and cosmetics applications, and nanoemulsion preparations.
Project description:Generic drug products are expected to have the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (Q1) with the same content (Q2) and microstructure arrangement (Q3) as the innovator product. In complex oil-in-water emulsion drugs, the hydrophobic API is mainly formulated in oil droplets stabilized by surfactant and micelles composed of extra surfactant molecules. The API phase partition in oil and water (mainly micelle) is a critical quality attribute (CQA) of emulsion product in demonstrating physicochemical equivalence using difluprednate (DFPN) emulsion product Durezol® as a model, we developed a novel low-field benchtop NMR method to demonstrate its applicability in measuring DFPN phase partition for ophthalmic oil-in-water emulsion products. Low-field 19F spectra were collected for DFPN in formulation, in water phase and oil phase after separation from ultra-centrifugation. The NMR data showed the mass balance of DFPN before and after phase separation. The average water phase content of different Durezol® lots was 32 ± 3% with 1% variation from method reproducibility test. The partition results were 52 ± 2% for the in-house control products prepared in Q1/Q2 equivalence to Durezol® but by a different process. The significant difference in DFPN-phase partition between Durezol® and the in-house formulation demonstrated manufacture difference readily changed the API partition. The newly developed ultra-centrifugation and 19F NMR by benchtop instrument is a simple, robust, and sensitive analytical method for ophthalmic emulsion drug product development and control.
Project description:Recent trends in preservation of processed foods involve the use of natural compounds, rather than chemically synthesized additives, to simultaneously confer antimicrobial properties and prevent fat oxidation. In this regard, black pepper essential oils, due to its diversity in biological activities, have been increasingly popular. The compounds are often used in relatively low amounts and in the form of nanoparticles to permit well blending into foods or uniform dispersion on the surface of fresh meat. The purpose of this study is to determine experimental parameters of a nano-emulsion formation process from black pepper essential oil via the phase inversion temperature (PIT) technique. The study results showed that the system achieved the optimal nano-emulsion under following condition: the ratio by weight of water: Tween-80: oil = 86:9.7:4.3, the stirring speed of nano-emulsions at 500 rpm for 45 min (heating at 75°C for 30 min and then rapidly cooling at 5°C for 15 min).