Histone deacetylase inhibitors activate NF-kappaB in human leukemia cells through an ATM/NEMO-related pathway.
ABSTRACT: Mechanisms underlying histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI)-mediated NF-kappaB activation were investigated in human leukemia cells. Exposure of U937 and other leukemia cells to LBH-589 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by single strand (XRCC1) and double strand (gamma-H2AX) DNA breaks. Notably, LBH-589 lethality was markedly attenuated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of the DNA damage-linked histone, H1.2. LBH-589 triggered p65/RelA activation, NF-kappaB-dependent induction of Mn-SOD2, and ROS elimination. Interference with LBH-589-mediated NF-kappaB activation (e.g. in I kappaB alpha super-repressor transfected cells) diminished HDACI-mediated Mn-SOD2 induction and increased ROS accumulation, DNA damage, and apoptosis. The Mn-SOD2 mimetic TBAP (manganese(III)-tetrakis 4-benzoic acid porphyrin) prevented HDACI-induced ROS and NF-kappaB activation while dramatically attenuating DNA damage and cell death. In contrast, TRAF2 siRNA knockdown, targeting receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation, blocked TNFalpha- but not HDACI-mediated NF-kappaB activation and lethality. Consistent with ROS-mediated DNA damage, LBH-589 exposure activated ATM (on serine 1981) and increased its association with NEMO. Significantly, siRNA NEMO or ATM knockdown blocked HDACI-mediated NF-kappaB activation, resulting in diminished MnSOD2 induction and enhanced oxidative DNA damage and cell death. In accord with the recently described DNA damage/ATM/NEMO pathway, SUMOylation site mutant NEMO (K277A or K309A) cells exposed to LBH-589 displayed diminished ATM/NEMO association, NEMO and p65/RelA nuclear localization/activation, and MnSOD2 up-regulation. These events were accompanied by increased ROS production, gamma-H2AX formation, and cell death. Together, these findings indicate that in human leukemia cells, HDACIs activate the cytoprotective NF-kappaB pathway through an ATM/NEMO/SUMOylation-dependent process involving the induction of ROS and DNA damage and suggest that blocking NF-kappaB activation via the atypical ATM/NEMO nuclear pathway can enhance HDACI antileukemic activity.
Project description:The transcription factor NF-kappaB has critical functions in biologic responses to genotoxic stimuli. Activation of NF-kappaB in response to DNA double strand break (DSB) inducers can be mediated by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)-dependent phosphorylation of NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator). Here, we show that the replication stress inducers hydroxyurea (HU) and aphidicolin also activate this ATM-dependent signalling pathway. We further show that ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) interacts with NEMO but surprisingly does not cause NEMO phosphorylation. Consequently, ATR represses NF-kappaB activation induced by replication stress. Reduction or increase of ATR expression by RNA interference or overexpression increased or reduced ATM-NEMO association and NF-kappaB activation induced by HU. Apoptosis gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that HU and the DSB inducer etoposide caused complex patterns of NF-kappaB-dependent pro- and antiapoptotic gene expression with the overall outcome for the former being pro-apoptotic, whereas the latter antiapoptotic. Thus, replication stress and DSB inducers activate NF-kappaB through a conserved pathway with opposite biologic outcomes, and ATR antagonizes ATM function at least in part by competing for NEMO association.
Project description:Post-translational modifications of RelA play an important role in regulation of NF-κB activation. We previously demonstrated that in malignant hematopoietic cells, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) induced RelA hyperacetylation and NF-κB activation, attenuating lethality. We now present evidence that IκB kinase (IKK) β-mediated RelA Ser-536 phosphorylation plays a significant functional role in promoting RelA acetylation, inducing NF-κB activation, and limiting HDACI lethality in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Immunoblot profiling revealed that although basal RelA phosphorylation varied in MM cells, Ser-536 phosphorylation correlated with IKK activity. Exposure to the pan-HDACIs vorinostat or LBH-589 induced phosphorylation of IKKα/β (Ser-180/Ser-181) and RelA (Ser-536) in MM cells, including cells expressing an IκBα "super-repressor," accompanied by increased RelA nuclear translocation, acetylation, DNA binding, and transactivation activity. These events were substantially blocked by either pan-IKK or IKKβ-selective inhibitors, resulting in marked apoptosis. Consistent with these events, inhibitory peptides targeting either the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) binding domain for IKK complex formation or RelA phosphorylation sites also significantly increased HDACI lethality. Moreover, IKKβ knockdown by shRNA prevented Ser-536 phosphorylation and significantly enhanced HDACI susceptibility. Finally, introduction of a nonphosphorylatable RelA mutant S536A, which failed to undergo acetylation in response to HDACIs, impaired NF-κB activation and increased cell death. These findings indicate that HDACIs induce Ser-536 phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunit RelA through an IKKβ-dependent mechanism, an action that is functionally involved in activation of the cytoprotective NF-κB signaling cascade primarily through facilitation of RelA acetylation rather than nuclear translocation.
Project description:Effects of the HDAC inhibitor LBH-589 (panobinostat) on fludarabine lethality toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were examined in vitro and in vivo. LBH-589 pretreatment sensitized U937, HL-60, and primary leukemia cells to fludarabine while blocking NF-?B activation accompanied by XIAP down-regulation and JNK activation. Pharmacologic or genetic JNK inhibition significantly attenuated LBH-589/fludarabine lethality, whereas XIAP over-expression diminished JNK activation and apoptosis. Combined in vivo treatment abrogated leukemia growth in a U937 xenograft murine model and substantially increased animal survival. These studies highlight the interplay between NF-?B activation, XIAP down-regulation, and JNK activation in anti-leukemic synergism between fludarabine and LBH-589.
Project description:Activation of NF-?B, pivotal for immunity and oncogenesis, is tightly controlled by multiple feedback mechanisms. In response to DNA damage, SUMOylation of NEMO (NF-?B essential modulator) is critical for NF-?B activation; however, the SUMO proteases and feedback mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here we show that among the six known Sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs), only SENP2 can efficiently associate with NEMO, deSUMOylate NEMO, and inhibit NF-?B activation induced by DNA damage. We further show that NF-?B induces SENP2 (and SENP1) transcription selectively in response to genotoxic stimuli, which involves ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent histone methylation of SENP2 promoter ?B regions and NF-?B recruitment. SENP2 null cells display biphasic NEMO SUMOylation and activation of IKK and NF-?B, and higher resistance to DNA damage-induced cell death. Our study establishes a self-attenuating feedback mechanism selective to DNA damage-induced signaling to limit NF-?B-dependent cell survival responses.
Project description:NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) has a pivotal role in many cellular processes, including the inflammatory and immune responses and, therefore, its activation is tightly regulated by the IKK (IkappaB kinase) complex and by IkappaBalpha degradation. When Shigella bacteria multiply within epithelial cells they release peptidoglycans, which are recognized by Nod1 and stimulate the NF-kappaB pathway, thus leading to a severe inflammatory response. Here, we show that IpaH9.8, a Shigella effector possessing E3 ligase activity, dampens the NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory response to the bacterial infection in a unique way. IpaH9.8 interacts with NEMO/IKKgamma and ABIN-1, a ubiquitin-binding adaptor protein, promoting ABIN-1-dependent polyubiquitylation of NEMO. Consequently, polyubiquitylated NEMO undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation, which perturbs NF-kappaB activation. As NEMO is essential for NF-kappaB activation, we propose that the polyubiquitylation and degradation of NEMO during Shigella infection is a new bacterial strategy to modulate host inflammatory responses.
Project description:TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) ligation can result in cell survival or cell death. What determines which of the two opposing responses is triggered is not fully understood. The current model suggests that it is the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway and its induction of prosurvival genes, or the lack thereof, which determines the outcome. NF-kappaB essential modifier (NEMO)/IkappaB kinase-gamma (IKKgamma)-deficient cells are highly sensitive to apoptosis, and as NEMO is essential for NF-kappaB activation, it has been assumed that this is due to the lack of NF-kappaB. This study demonstrates that this assumption was incorrect and that NEMO has another antiapoptotic function that is independent of its role in the NF-kappaB pathway. NEMO prevents receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) from engaging CASPASE-8 before NF-kappaB-mediated induction of antiapoptotic genes. Without NEMO, RIP1 associates with CASPASE-8 resulting in rapid tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that there are two cell-death checkpoints following TNF stimulation: an early transcription-independent checkpoint whereby NEMO restrains RIP1 from activating the caspase cascade, followed by a later checkpoint dependent on NF-kappaB-mediated transcription of prosurvival genes.
Project description:We have identified a novel pathway of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling that results in nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and chemoresistance in response to DNA damage. We show that the anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) and its congener N-benzyladriamycin (AD 288) selectively activate ATM and DNA-PK, respectively. Both ATM and DNA-PK promote sequential activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/p90(rsk) signaling cascade in a p53-independent fashion. In turn, p90(rsk) interacts with the IkappaB kinase 2 (IKK-2) catalytic subunit of IKK, thereby inducing NF-kappaB activity and cell survival. Collectively, our findings suggest that distinct members of the phosphatidylinositol kinase family activate a common prosurvival MAPK/IKK/NF-kappaB pathway that opposes the apoptotic response following DNA damage.
Project description:Elucidating the molecular mechanism of the low-dose radiation (LDR)-mediated radioadaptive response is crucial for inventing potential therapeutic approaches to improving normal tissue protection in radiation therapy. ATM, a DNA-damage sensor, is known to activate the stress-sensitive transcription factor NF-kappaB upon exposure to ionizing radiation. This study provides evidence of the cooperative functions of ATM, ERK, and NF-kappaB in inducing a survival advantage through a radioadaptive response as a result of LDR treatment (10 cGy X-rays). By using p53-inhibited human skin keratinocytes, we show that phosphorylation of ATM, MEK, and ERK (but not JNK or p38) is enhanced along with a twofold increase in NF-kappaB luciferase activity at 24 h post-LDR. However, NF-kappaB reporter gene transactivation without a significant enhancement of p65 or p50 protein level suggests that NF-kappaB is activated as a rapid protein response via ATM without involving the transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB subunit genes. A direct interaction between ATM and NF-kappaB p65 is detected in the resting cells and this interaction is significantly increased with LDR treatment. Inhibition of ATM with caffeine, KU-55933, or siRNA or inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway can block the LDR-induced NF-kappaB activation and eliminate the LDR-induced survival advantage. Altogether, these results suggest a p53-independent prosurvival network involving the coactivation of the ATM, MEK/ERK, and NF-kappaB pathways in LDR-treated human skin keratinocytes, which is absent from mutant IkappaB cells (HK18/mIkappaB), which fail to express NF-kappaB activity.
Project description:The rapid induction of type I IFN is a central event of the innate defense against viral infections and is tightly regulated by a number of cellular molecules. Viral components induce strong type I IFN responses through the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular cytoplasmic receptors such as an RNA helicase RIG-I and/or MDA5. According to recent studies, the NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO, also called IKKgamma) is crucial for this virus-induced antiviral response. However, the precise roles of signal activation by NEMO adaptor have not been elucidated. Here, we show that virus-induced IRF3 and NF-kappaB activation depends on the K(lys)-27-linked polyubiquitination to NEMO by the novel ubiquitin E3 ligase triparite motif protein 23 (TRIM23). Virus-induced IRF3 and NF-kappaB activation, as well as K27-linked NEMO polyubiquitination, were abrogated in TRIM23 knockdown cells, whereas TRIM23 knockdown had no effect on TNFalpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, in NEMO-deficient mouse embryo fibroblast cells, IFN-stimulated response element-driven reporter activity was restored by ectopic expression of WT NEMO, as expected, but only partial recovery by NEMO K165/309/325/326/344R multipoints mutant on which TRIM23-mediated ubiquitin conjugation was substantially reduced. Thus, we conclude that TRIM23-mediated ubiquitin conjugation to NEMO is essential for TLR3- and RIG-I/MDA5-mediated antiviral innate and inflammatory responses.
Project description:The mechanism by which the Carma1-Bcl10-MALT1 (CBM) complex couples T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling to IkappaB kinase (IKK) and NF-kappaB activation is not known. Here, we show that Bcl10 undergoes K63-linked polyubiquitination in response to T cell activation and subsequently binds NEMO, the regulatory subunit of IKK. This interaction requires the ubiquitin-binding activity of NEMO. The sites of Bcl10 ubiquitination were mapped to K31 and K63. Mutation of these residues did not affect TCR signaling-induced CBM complex assembly but prevented Bcl10 ubiquitination, NEMO binding, and NF-kappaB activation. Therefore, the regulated ubiquitination of Bcl10 and its recognition by NEMO are a critical link between the CBM complex, IKK recruitment, and NF-kappaB activation.