Rapid heteromerization and phosphorylation of ligand-activated plant transmembrane receptors and their associated kinase BAK1.
ABSTRACT: In plants leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) located at the plasma membrane play a pivotal role in the perception of extracellular signals. For two of these LRR-RKs, the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the flagellin receptor FLS2, interaction with the LRR receptor-like kinase BAK1 (BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1) was shown to be required for signal transduction. Here we report that FLS2.BAK1 heteromerization occurs almost instantaneously after perception of the ligand, the flagellin-derived peptide flg22. Flg22 can induce formation of a stable FLS2.BAK1 complex in microsomal membrane preparations in vitro, and the kinase inhibitor K-252a does not prevent complex formation. A kinase dead version of BAK1 associates with FLS2 in a flg22-dependent manner but does not restore responsiveness to flg22 in cells of bak1 plants, demonstrating that kinase activity of BAK1 is essential for FLS2 signaling. Furthermore, using in vivo phospholabeling, we are able to detect de novo phosphorylation of both FLS2 and BAK1 within 15 s of stimulation with flg22. Similarly, brassinolide induces BAK1 phosphorylation within seconds. Other triggers of plant defense, such as bacterial EF-Tu and the endogenous AtPep1 likewise induce rapid formation of heterocomplexes consisting of de novo phosphorylated BAK1 and proteins representing the ligand-specific binding receptors EF-Tu receptor and Pep1 receptor 1, respectively. Thus, we propose that several LRR-RKs form tight complexes with BAK1 almost instantaneously after ligand binding and that the subsequent phosphorylation events are key initial steps in signal transduction.
Project description:Metazoans and plants use pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense conserved microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) in the extracellular environment. In plants, the bacterial MAMPs flagellin and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) activate distinct, phylogenetically related cell surface pattern recognition receptors of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) family called FLS2 and EF-Tu receptor, respectively. BAK1 is an LRR-RK coreceptor for both FLS2 and EF-Tu receptor. BAK1 is also a coreceptor for the plant brassinosteroid (BR) receptor, the LRR-RK BRI1. Binding of BR to BRI1 primarily promotes cell elongation. Here, we tune the BR pathway response to establish how plant cells can generate functionally different cellular outputs in response to MAMPs and pathogens. We demonstrate that BR can act antagonistically or synergistically with responses to MAMPs. We further show that the synergistic activities of BRs on MAMP responses require BAK1. Our results highlight the importance of plant steroid homeostasis as a critical step in the establishment of plant immunity. We propose that tradeoffs associated with plasticity in the face of infection are layered atop plant steroid developmental programs.
Project description:Plants rely heavily on receptor-like kinases (RLKs) for perception and integration of external and internal stimuli. The Arabidopsis regulatory leucine-rich repeat RLK (LRR-RLK) BAK1 is involved in steroid hormone responses, innate immunity, and cell death control. Here, we describe the differential regulation of three different BAK1-dependent signaling pathways by a novel allele of BAK1, bak1-5. Innate immune signaling mediated by the BAK1-dependent RKs FLS2 and EFR is severely compromised in bak1-5 mutant plants. However, bak1-5 mutants are not impaired in BR signaling or cell death control. We also show that, in contrast to the RD kinase BRI1, the non-RD kinases FLS2 and EFR have very low kinase activity, and we show that neither was able to trans-phosphorylate BAK1 in vitro. Furthermore, kinase activity for all partners is completely dispensable for the ligand-induced heteromerization of FLS2 or EFR with BAK1 in planta, revealing another pathway specific mechanistic difference. The specific suppression of FLS2- and EFR-dependent signaling in bak1-5 is not due to a differential interaction of BAK1-5 with the respective ligand-binding RK but requires BAK1-5 kinase activity. Overall our results demonstrate a phosphorylation-dependent differential control of plant growth, innate immunity, and cell death by the regulatory RLK BAK1, which may reveal key differences in the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of ligand-binding RD and non-RD RKs.
Project description:Signaling initiation by receptor-like kinases (RLKs) at the plasma membrane of plant cells often requires regulatory leucine-rich repeat (LRR) RLK proteins such as SERK or BIR proteins. The present work examined how the microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor FLS2 builds signaling complexes with BAK1 (SERK3). We first, using in vivo methods that validate separate findings by others, demonstrated that flg22 (flagellin epitope) ligand-initiated FLS2-BAK1 extracellular domain interactions can proceed independent of intracellular domain interactions. We then explored a candidate SERK protein interaction site in the extracellular domains (ectodomains; ECDs) of the significantly different receptors FLS2, EFR (MAMP receptors), PEPR1 (damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptor), and BRI1 (hormone receptor). Repeat conservation mapping revealed a cluster of conserved solvent-exposed residues near the C-terminus of models of the folded LRR domains. However, site-directed mutagenesis of this conserved site in FLS2 did not impair FLS2-BAK1 ECD interactions, and mutations in the analogous site of EFR caused receptor maturation defects. Hence this conserved LRR C-terminal region apparently has functions other than mediating interactions with BAK1. In vivo tests of the subsequently published FLS2-flg22-BAK1 ECD co-crystal structure were then performed to functionally evaluate some of the unexpected configurations predicted by that crystal structure. In support of the crystal structure data, FLS2-BAK1 ECD interactions were no longer detected in in vivo co-immunoprecipitation experiments after site-directed mutagenesis of the FLS2 BAK1-interaction residues S554, Q530, Q627 or N674. In contrast, in vivo FLS2-mediated signaling persisted and was only minimally reduced, suggesting residual FLS2-BAK1 interaction and the limited sensitivity of co-immunoprecipitation data relative to in vivo assays for signaling outputs. However, Arabidopsis plants expressing FLS2 with the Q530A+Q627A double mutation were impaired both in detectable interaction with BAK1 and in FLS2-mediated responses, lending overall support to current models of FLS2 structure and function.
Project description:Plants must adapt to their environment and require mechanisms for sensing their surroundings and responding appropriately. An expanded family of more than 200 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) transduces fluctuating and often contradictory signals from the environment into changes in nuclear gene expression. Two LRR-RKs, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a steroid receptor, and FLAGELLIN SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2), an innate immune receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, act cooperatively to partition necessary growth-defense trade-offs. BRI1 and FLS2 share common signaling components and slightly different activation mechanisms. BRI1 and FLS2 are paradigms for understanding the signaling mechanisms of LRR-containing receptors in plants.
Project description:Flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2) is a leucine-rich repeat/transmembrane domain/protein kinase (LRR-RLK) that is the plant receptor for bacterial flagellin or the flagellin-derived flg22 peptide. Previous work has shown that after flg22 binding, FLS2 releases BIK1 kinase and homologs and associates with BAK1 kinase, and that FLS2 kinase activity is critical for FLS2 function. However, the detailed mechanisms for activation of FLS2 signaling remain unclear. The present study initially identified multiple FLS2 in vitro phosphorylation sites and found that Serine-938 is important for FLS2 function in vivo. FLS2-mediated immune responses are abolished in transgenic plants expressing FLS2(S938A), while the acidic phosphomimic mutants FLS2(S938D) and FLS2(S938E) conferred responses similar to wild-type FLS2. FLS2-BAK1 association and FLS2-BIK1 disassociation after flg22 exposure still occur with FLS2(S938A), demonstrating that flg22-induced BIK1 release and BAK1 binding are not sufficient for FLS2 activity, and that Ser-938 controls other aspects of FLS2 activity. Purified BIK1 still phosphorylated purified FLS2(S938A) and FLS2(S938D) mutant kinase domains in vitro. Phosphorylation of BIK1 and homologs after flg22 exposure was disrupted in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing FLS2(S938A) or FLS2(D997A) (a kinase catalytic site mutant), but was normally induced in FLS2(S938D) plants. BIK1 association with FLS2 required a kinase-active FLS2, but FLS2-BAK1 association did not. Hence FLS2-BIK1 dissociation and FLS2-BAK1 association are not sufficient for FLS2-mediated defense activation, but the proposed FLS2 phosphorylation site Ser-938 and FLS2 kinase activity are needed both for overall defense activation and for appropriate flg22-stimulated phosphorylation of BIK1 and homologs.
Project description:The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 <i>in vivo</i> has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F) transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F)-Flag in the homozygous <i>bak1-4 bkk1-1</i> double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F) in the <i>bak1-4</i> null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F) transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F)-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL) inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F)-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic <i>hrpA<sup>-</sup></i> mutant of <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. <i>tomato</i> DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F) transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the <i>bak1-4</i> background) and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and seedling growth inhibition. These new results do not support any involvement of Tyr-610 phosphorylation in either BR or immune signaling.
Project description:Plants and animals use innate immunity as a first defense against pathogens, a costly yet necessary tradeoff between growth and immunity. In Arabidopsis, the regulatory leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) BAK1 combines with the LRR-RLKs FLS2 and EFR in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and the LRR-RLK BRI1 in brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated growth. Therefore, a potential tradeoff between these pathways mediated by BAK1 is often postulated. Here, we show a unidirectional inhibition of FLS2-mediated immune signaling by BR perception. Unexpectedly, this effect occurred downstream or independently of complex formation with BAK1 and associated downstream phosphorylation. Thus, BAK1 is not rate-limiting in these pathways. BRs also inhibited signaling triggered by the BAK1-independent recognition of the fungal PAMP chitin. Our results suggest a general mechanism operative in plants in which BR-mediated growth directly antagonizes innate immune signaling.
Project description:Plants use receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are typical of whole classes of microbes. After ligand perception, many leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing PRRs interact with the LRR-RK BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). BAK1 is thus expected to interact with unknown PRRs. Here, we used BAK1 as molecular bait to identify a previously unknown LRR-RLP required for the recognition of the csp22 peptide derived from bacterial cold shock protein. We established a method to identify proteins that interact with BAK1 only after csp22 treatment. BAK1 was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and immunopurified after treatment with csp22. BAK1-associated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified several proteins including known BAK1 interactors and a previously uncharacterized LRR-RLP that we termed RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN REQUIRED FOR CSP22 RESPONSIVENESS (NbCSPR). This RLP associates with BAK1 upon csp22 treatment, and NbCSPR-silenced plants are impaired in csp22-induced defense responses. NbCSPR confers resistance to bacteria in an age-dependent and flagellin-induced manner. As such, it limits bacterial growth and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of flowering N. benthamiana plants. Transgenic expression of NbCSPR into Arabidopsis thaliana conferred responsiveness to csp22 and antibacterial resistance. Our method may be used to identify LRR-type RKs and RLPs required for PAMP perception/responsiveness, even when the active purified PAMP has not been defined.
Project description:BAK1 is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase that functions as a coreceptor with the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1 and the flagellin receptor FLS2, and as a negative regulator of programmed cell death. BAK1 has been shown to autophosphorylate on numerous serine/threonine sites in vitro as well as to transphosphorylate associated receptor kinases both in vitro and in planta. In the present study we identify Tyr-610 in the carboxyl-terminal domain of BAK1 as a major site of autophosphorylation that is brassinolide-induced in vivo and requires a kinase-active BAK1. Expression of BAK1(Y610F)-Flag in transgenic plants lacking the endogenous bak1 and its functional paralogue, bkk1, produced plants that were viable but extremely small and generally resembled BR signaling mutants, whereas an acidic substitution for Tyr-610 to mimic phosphorylation restored normal growth. Several lines of evidence support the notion that BR signaling is impaired in the BAK1(Y610F)-Flag plants, and are consistent with the recently proposed sequential transphosphorylation model for BRI1/BAK1 interaction and activation. In contrast, the FLS2-mediated inhibition of seedling growth by the flg22 elicitor occurred normally in the Y610F-directed mutant. However, expression of many defense genes was dramatically reduced in BAK1(Y610F) plants and the nonpathogenic hrpA mutant of Pseudomonas syringae was able to grow rapidly in the mutant. These results indicate that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 is required for some but not all functions of BAK1, and adds significantly to the emerging notion that tyrosine phosphorylation could play an important role in plant receptor kinase signaling.
Project description:Maintaining active growth and effective immune responses is often costly for a living organism to survive. Fine-tuning the shared cross-regulators is crucial for metazoans and plants to make a trade-off between growth and immunity. The Arabidopsis regulatory receptor-like kinase BAK1 complexes with the receptor kinases FLS2 in bacterial flagellin-triggered immunity and BRI1 in brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated growth. BR homeostasis and signaling unidirectionally modulate FLS2-mediated immune responses at multiple levels. We have shown previously that BIK1, a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, is directly phosphorylated by BAK1 and associates with FLS2/BAK1 complex in transducing flagellin signaling. In contrast to its positive role in plant immunity, we report here that BIK1 acts as a negative regulator in BR signaling. The bik1 mutant displays various BR hypersensitive phenotypes accompanied with increased accumulation of de-phosphorylated BES1 proteins and transcriptional regulation of BZR1 and BES1 target genes. BIK1 associates with BRI1, and is released from BRI1 receptor upon BR treatment, which is reminiscent of FLS2-BIK1 complex dynamics in flagellin signaling. The ligand-induced release of BIK1 from receptor complexes is associated with BIK1 phosphorylation. However, in contrast to BAK1-dependent FLS2-BIK1 dissociation, BAK1 is dispensable for BRI1-BIK1 dissociation. Unlike FLS2 signaling which depends on BAK1 to phosphorylate BIK1, BRI1 directly phosphorylates BIK1 to transduce BR signaling. Thus, BIK1 relays the signaling in plant immunity and BR-mediated growth via distinct phosphorylation by BAK1 and BRI1, respectively. Our studies indicate that BIK1 mediates inverse functions in plant immunity and development via dynamic association with specific receptor complexes and differential phosphorylation events.