P38 regulates pigmentation via proteasomal degradation of tyrosinase.
ABSTRACT: The synthesis of melanin pigments, or melanogenesis, is regulated by the balance of a variety of signal transduction pathways. Among these pathways, p38 MAPK signaling was found to be involved in stress-induced melanogenesis and to be activated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and ultraviolet irradiation. Previous studies have shown that alpha-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis can be inhibited by blocking p38 MAPK activity with SB203580, a pyridinyl imidazole compound. Consistent with this, we observed that pyridinyl imidazoles (SB203580 and SB202190) inhibited both basal and alpha-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, SB202474, which has no ability to inhibit p38 MAPK activity and is usually used as a negative control compound in p38 MAPK studies, also suppressed melanin synthesis induction. Furthermore, the independence of the p38 kinase pathway from the repression of melanogenesis by pyridinyl imidazole compounds was also confirmed by small interfering RNA experiments. Interfering with p38 MAPK expression surprisingly stimulated melanogenesis and tyrosinase family protein expression. Although the molecular mechanism(s) by which p38 promotes the degradation of melanogenic enzymes remain to be determined, the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was demonstrated by co-treatment with the proteasome-specific inhibitor MG132 and the relative decrease in the ubiquitination of tyrosinase in cells transfected with p38-specific small interfering RNA.
Project description:While investigating the role of p38 MAPK in regulating melanogenesis, we found that pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors class compounds as well as the analog compound SB202474, which does not inhibit p38 MAPK, suppressed both ?-MSH-induced melanogenesis and spontaneous melanin synthesis. In this study, we demonstrated that the inhibitory activity of the pyridinyl imidazoles correlates with inhibition of the canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway activity. Imidazole-treated cells showed a reduction in the level of Tcf/Lef target genes involved in the ?-catenin signaling network, including ubiquitous genes such as Axin2, Lef1, and Wisp1 as well as cell lineage-restricted genes such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and dopachrome tautomerase. Although over-expression of the Wnt signaling pathway effector ?-catenin slightly restored the melanogenic program, the lack of complete reversion suggested that the imidazoles interfered with ?-catenin-dependent transcriptional activity rather than with ?-catenin expression. Accordingly, we did not observe any significant change in ?-catenin protein expression. The independence of p38 MAPK activity from the repression of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway was confirmed by small interfering RNA knockdown of p38 MAPK expression, which by contrast, stimulated ?-catenin-driven gene expression. Our data demonstrate that the small molecule pyridinyl imidazoles possess two distinct and opposite mechanisms that modulate ?-catenin dependent transcription: a p38 inhibition-dependent effect that stimulates the Wnt pathway by increasing ?-catenin protein expression and an off-target mechanism that inhibits the pathway by repressing ?-catenin protein functionality. The p38-independent effect seems to be dominant and, at least in B16-F0 cells, results in a strong block of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Project description:The individual parts of Morus alba L. including root bark, branches, leaves, and fruits are used as a cosmetic ingredient in many Asian countries. This study identified several anti-melanogenesis constituents in a 70% ethanol extract of M. alba leaves. The ethyl acetate fraction of the initial ethanol extract decreased the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthetic pathway of melanin. Twelve compounds were isolated from this fraction and their structures were identified based on spectroscopic spectra. Then, the authors investigated the anti-melanogenesis effects of the isolated compounds in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells. Compounds 3 and 8 significantly inhibited not only melanin production but also intracellular tyrosinase activity in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone (?-MSH)-induced B16-F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These same compounds also inhibited melanogenesis-related protein expression such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). Compound 3 modulated the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and p38 signaling pathways in ?-MSH-activated B16-F10 melanoma cells, which resulted in the anti-melanogenesis effects. These results suggest that compound 3, isolated from M. alba leaves, could be used to inhibit melanin production via the regulation of melanogenesis-related protein expression.
Project description:The present study aimed to examine the potential inhibitory activity of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis and the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Our data demonstrated that OEA markedly inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase, was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by OEA. In addition, OEA may suppress melanogenesis through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)-independent pathway. Moreover, OEA activated ERK, Akt, p38 pathways and inhibits CREB pathway in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. The specific ERK inhibitor PD98059 partly blocked OEA-inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity and partly abrogated the OEA-suppressed expression of melanogenic proteins. Furthermore, OEA presented remarkable inhibition on the body pigmentation in the zebrafish model system. Our findings demonstrated that OEA is an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation through activation of ERK, Akt and p38 pathways, inhibition of the CREB pathway, and subsequent down-regulation of MITF, TRP-1 and tyrosinase production.
Project description:Melanin is a natural pigment produced by cells to prevent damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. Previously, resveratrol was shown to reduce melanin synthesis. As a natural polyphenol with various biological activities, resveratrol occurs in a variety of beverages and plant foods, such as grapes. Therefore, we investigated whether grape extracts containing resveratrol also had the ability to regulate melanin synthesis. In this study, we used mouse B16F10 melanoma cells as a model for melanin synthesis with the melanogenesis-inducing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) as a positive control. Our results confirmed previous reports that resveratrol reduces melanin synthesis by reducing the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme tyrosinase. In contrast, the grape extract could not reduce melanin synthesis, and in fact promoted melanogenesis in the presence of α-MSH. The expression of genes related to melanin synthesis, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1, tyrosinase-related protein-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, also supports these phenomena, which means that even in the presence of resveratrol, grape extract will strengthen the function of α-MSH in promoting melanin synthesis. Therefore, these results also provide a point of view for research on cosmetics.
Project description:Flumequine is a well-known second generation quinolone antibiotic that induces phototoxicity. However, the effect of flumequine on skin melanogenesis is unclear. Therefore, we, for the first time, investigated whether flumequine regulates melanogenesis. The present study showed that flumequine slightly inhibited in vitro mushroom tyrosinase activity but significantly increased extracellular and intracellular melanin content in B16F10 cells and promoted the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. Additionally, flumequine remarkably increased melanin pigmentation in zebrafish larvae without any toxicity. We also found that flumequine stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation; inhibition of p38 MAPK and JNK resulted in significant downregulation of extracellular and intracellular melanin content in B16F10 cells and pigmentation of zebrafish larvae accompanied with suppression of MITF and tyrosinase expression, indicating that flumequine-mediated p38 and JNK promote melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo. According to the molecular docking prediction, flumequine targeted dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase 16 (DUSP16), which is a major negative regulator of p38 MAPK and JNK. Our findings demonstrate that flumequine induces an increase in melanin content in B16F10 cells and zebrafish larvae by activating p38 MAPK and JNK. These data show the potential of flumequine for use as an anti-vitiligo agent.
Project description:Dendropanax morbiferus H. Lév has been reported to have some pharmacologic activities and also interested in functional cosmetics. We found that the water extract of D. morbiferus leaves significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin formation in ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced B16-F10 cells. D. morbiferus reduced melanogenesis-related protein levels, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), TRP-1, and TRP-2, without any cytotoxicity. Two active ingredients of D. morbiferus, (10E)-9,16-dihydroxyoctadeca-10,17-dien-12,14-diynoate (DMW-1) and (10E)-(-)-10,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,9,16-triol (DMW-2) were identified by testing the anti-melanogenic effects and then by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. DMW-1 and DMW-2 significantly inhibited melanogenesis by the suppression of protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive binding protein (CREB) and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. DMW-1 showed a better inhibitory effect than DMW-2 in ?-MSH-induced B16-F10 cells. D. morbiferus and its active component DMW-1 inhibited melanogenesis through the downregulation of cAMP, p-PKA/CREB, p-p38, MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, and tyrosinase. These results indicate that D. morbiferus and DMW-1 may be useful ingredients for cosmetics and therapeutic agents for skin hyperpigmentation disorders.
Project description:The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasma, freckles, age spots and chloasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimelanogenic effect of sesamol, an active lignan isolated from Sesamum indicum, in melan-a cells. Sesamol strongly inhibited melanin biosynthesis and the activity of intracellular tyrosinase by decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. Sesamol significantly decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related genes, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1,2 (TRP-1,2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). In addition, sesamol also induces phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, sesamol dose-dependently decreased zebrafish pigment formation, tyrosinase activity and expression of melanogenesis-related genes. These findings indicate that sesamol inhibited melanin biosynthesis by down-regulating tyrosinase activity and melanin production via regulation of gene expression of melanogenesis-related proteins through modulation of MITF activity, which promoted phosphorylation of p38 and JNK in melan-a cells. Together, these results suggest that sesamol strongly inhibits melanin biosynthesis, and therefore, sesamol represents a new skin-whitening agent for use in cosmetics.
Project description:Protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound that is a potent inhibitor of mushroom tyrosinase. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-melanogenesis activity of PA have not yet been reported. The aim of the current study was to clarify the melanogenesis inhibitory effects of PA and its molecular mechanisms in murine melanoma cells (B16F10). We first predicted the 3D structure of tyrosinase and used a molecular docking algorithm to simulate binding between tyrosinase and PA. These molecular modeling studies calculated a binding energy of -527.42 kcal/mol and indicated that PA interacts with Cu400 and 401, Val283, and His263. Furthermore, PA significantly decreased α-MSH-induced intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited key melanogenic proteins such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. In addition, PA decreased MITF expression levels by inhibiting phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). These results demonstrate that PA can effectively suppress melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Taken together, our results show that PA could serve as a potential inhibitor of melanogenesis, and hence could be explored as a possible skin-lightening agent.
Project description:In this study, the authors investigated the anti-melanogenic effects of 3,8-dihydroxyquinoline (jineol) isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, the mechanisms responsible for its inhibition of melanogenesis in melan-a cells, and its antioxidant efficacy. Mushroom tyrosinase activities and melanin contents were determined in melan-a cells, and the protein and mRNA levels of MITF, tyrosinase, TYRP-1, and TYRP-2 were assessed. Jineol exhibited significant, concentration-dependent antioxidant effects as determined by DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays. Jineol significantly inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity by functioning as an uncompetitive inhibitor, and markedly inhibited melanin production and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melan-a cells. In addition, jineol abolished the expressions of tyrosinase, TYRP-1, TYRP-2, and MITF, thereby blocking melanin production and interfering with the phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 and p38 prevented melanogenesis inhibition by jineol, and the proteasome inhibitor (MG-132) prevented jineol-induced reductions in cellular tyrosinase levels. Taken together, jineol was found to stimulate MAP-kinase (ERK1/2 and p38) phosphorylation and the proteolytic degradation pathway, which led to the degradations of MITF and tyrosinase, and to suppress the productions of melanin.
Project description:Saponins, which are glycosylated, represent a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soyasaponin Ag, a secondary metabolite extracted from soybean, on α‑melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α‑MSH)‑induced melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. To elucidate the mechanisms through which soyasaponin Ag inhibits melanin synthesis, we performed cellular tyrosinase activity assays and analyzed the expression of the melanogenesis‑related genes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase‑related protein (TRP)‑1 and TRP‑2. We demonstrated that soyasaponin Ag inhibited α‑MSH‑induced melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Of note, soyasaponin Ag had no inhibitory effect on intracellular tyrosinase activity. However, soyasaponin Ag inhibited TRP‑2 expression in a dose‑dependent manner. Therefore, the depigmenting effect of soyasaponin Ag may be due to the inhibition of tyrosinase expression or the enhancement of tyrosinase degradation. Moreover, soyasaponin Ag did not exert any toxic on B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, suggesting that soyasaponin is a safe component for use in skin care cosmetic formulations that are used for skin whitening.