124I PET-based 3D-RD dosimetry for a pediatric thyroid cancer patient: real-time treatment planning and methodologic comparison.
ABSTRACT: Patient-specific 3-dimensional radiobiologic dosimetry (3D-RD) was used for (131)I treatment planning for an 11-y-old girl with differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, heavy lung involvement, and cerebral metastases. (124)I PET was used for pharmacokinetics. Calculation of the recommended administered activity, based on lung toxicity constraints, was performed in real time (i.e., during the data-acquisition interval). The results were available to the physician in time to influence treatment; these estimates were compared with conventional dosimetry methodologies. In subsequent, retrospective analyses, the 3D-RD calculations were expanded to include additional tumor dose estimates, and the conventional methodologies were reexamined to reveal the causes of the differences observed. A higher recommended administered activity than by an S-value-based method with a favorable clinical outcome was obtained. This approach permitted more aggressive treatment while adhering to patient-specific lung toxicity constraints. A retrospective analysis of the conventional methodologies with appropriate corrections yielded absorbed dose estimates consistent with 3D-RD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Red bone marrow (RBM) toxicity is dose-limiting in (pretargeted) radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Previous blood-based and two-dimensional (2D) image-based methods have failed to show a clear dose-response relationship. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) image-based RBM dosimetry approach using the Monte Carlo-based 3D radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) software and determined its additional value for predicting RBM toxicity. METHODS:RBM doses were calculated for 13 colorectal cancer patients after pretargeted RIT with the two-step administration of an anti-CEA × anti-HSG bispecific monoclonal antibody and a (177)Lu-labeled di-HSG-peptide. 3D-RD RBM dosimetry was based on the lumbar vertebrae, delineated on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans acquired directly, 3, 24, and 72 h after (177)Lu administration. RBM doses were correlated to hematologic effects, according to NCI-CTC v3 and compared with conventional 2D cranium-based and blood-based dosimetry results. Tumor doses were calculated with 3D-RD, which has not been possible with 2D dosimetry. Tumor-to-RBM dose ratios were calculated and compared for (177)Lu-based pretargeted RIT and simulated pretargeted RIT with (90)Y. RESULTS:3D-RD RBM doses of all seven patients who developed thrombocytopenia were higher (range 0.43 to 0.97 Gy) than that of the six patients without thrombocytopenia (range 0.12 to 0.39 Gy), except in one patient (0.47 Gy) without thrombocytopenia but with grade 2 leucopenia. Blood and 2D image-based RBM doses for patients with grade 1 to 2 thrombocytopenia were in the same range as in patients without thrombocytopenia (0.14 to 0.29 and 0.11 to 0.26 Gy, respectively). Blood-based RBM doses for two grade 3 to 4 patients were higher (0.66 and 0.51 Gy, respectively) than the others, and the cranium-based dose of only the grade 4 patient was higher (0.34 Gy). Tumor-to-RBM dose ratios would increase by 25% on average when treating with (90)Y instead of (177)Lu. CONCLUSIONS:3D dosimetry identifies patients at risk of developing any grade of RBM toxicity more accurately than blood- or 2D image-based methods. It has the added value to enable calculation of tumor-to-RBM dose ratios.
Project description:This article presents a revised voxel S values (VSVs) approach for dosimetry in targeted radiotherapy, allowing dose calculation for any voxel size and shape of a given SPECT or PET dataset. This approach represents an update to the methodology presented in MIRD pamphlet no. 17.VSVs were generated in soft tissue with a fine spatial sampling using the Monte Carlo (MC) code MCNPX for particle emissions of 9 radionuclides: (18)F, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (123)I, (131)I, (177)Lu, (186)Re, and (201)Tl. A specific resampling algorithm was developed to compute VSVs for desired voxel dimensions. The dose calculation was performed by convolution via a fast Hartley transform. The fine VSVs were calculated for cubic voxels of 0.5 mm for electrons and 1.0 mm for photons. Validation studies were done for (90)Y and (131)I VSV sets by comparing the revised VSV approach to direct MC simulations. The first comparison included 20 spheres with different voxel sizes (3.8-7.7 mm) and radii (4-64 voxels) and the second comparison a hepatic tumor with cubic voxels of 3.8 mm. MC simulations were done with MCNPX for both. The third comparison was performed on 2 clinical patients with the 3D-RD (3-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry) software using the EGSnrc (Electron Gamma Shower National Research Council Canada)-based MC implementation, assuming a homogeneous tissue-density distribution.For the sphere model study, the mean relative difference in the average absorbed dose was 0.20% ± 0.41% for (90)Y and -0.36% ± 0.51% for (131)I (n = 20). For the hepatic tumor, the difference in the average absorbed dose to tumor was 0.33% for (90)Y and -0.61% for (131)I and the difference in average absorbed dose to the liver was 0.25% for (90)Y and -1.35% for (131)I. The comparison with the 3D-RD software showed an average voxel-to-voxel dose ratio between 0.991 and 0.996. The calculation time was below 10 s with the VSV approach and 50 and 15 h with 3D-RD for the 2 clinical patients.This new VSV approach enables the calculation of absorbed dose based on a SPECT or PET cumulated activity map, with good agreement with direct MC methods, in a faster and more clinically compatible manner.
Project description:Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) delivers high absorbed doses to kidneys and may lead to permanent nephropathy. Reliable dosimetry of kidneys is thus critical for safe and effective PRRT. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of planning PRRT based on 3D radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) in order to optimize both the amount of activity to administer and the fractionation scheme, while limiting the absorbed dose and the biological effective dose (BED) to the renal cortex.Planar and SPECT data were available for a patient examined with (111)In-DTPA-octreotide at 0.5 (planar only), 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection. Absorbed dose and BED distributions were calculated for common therapeutic radionuclides, i.e., (111)In, (90)Y and (177)Lu, using the 3D-RD methodology. Dose-volume histograms were computed and mean absorbed doses to kidneys, renal cortices, and medullae were compared with results obtained using the MIRD schema (S-values) with the multiregion kidney dosimetry model. Two different treatment planning approaches based on (1) the fixed absorbed dose to the cortex and (2) the fixed BED to the cortex were then considered to optimize the activity to administer by varying the number of fractions.Mean absorbed doses calculated with 3D-RD were in good agreement with those obtained with S-value-based SPECT dosimetry for (90)Y and (177)Lu. Nevertheless, for (111)In, differences of 14% and 22% were found for the whole kidneys and the cortex, respectively. Moreover, the authors found that planar-based dosimetry systematically underestimates the absorbed dose in comparison with SPECT-based methods, up to 32%. Regarding the 3D-RD-based treatment planning using a fixed BED constraint to the renal cortex, the optimal number of fractions was found to be 3 or 4, depending on the radionuclide administered and the value of the fixed BED. Cumulative activities obtained using the proposed simulated treatment planning are compatible with real activities administered to patients in PRRT.The 3D-RD treatment planning approach based on the fixed BED was found to be the method of choice for clinical implementation in PRRT by providing realistic activity to administer and number of cycles. While dividing the activity in several cycles is important to reduce renal toxicity, the clinical outcome of fractionated PRRT should be investigated in the future.
Project description:Radiation dose estimations are key for optimizing therapies. We studied the role of 124I-omburtamab (8H9) given intraventricularly in assessing the distribution and radiation doses before 131I-omburtamab therapy in patients with metastatic leptomeningeal disease and compared it with the estimates from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling. Methods: Patients with histologically proven malignancy and metastatic disease to the central nervous system or leptomeninges who met eligibility criteria for 131I-omburtamab therapy underwent immuno-PET imaging with 124I-8H9 followed by 131I-8H9 antibody therapy. Patients were imaged with approximately 74 MBq of intraventricular 124I-omburtamab via an Ommaya reservoir. Whole-body PET images were acquired at approximately 4, 24, and 48 h after administration and analyzed for dosimetry calculations. Peripheral blood and CSF samples were obtained at multiple time points for dosimetry estimation. Results: Forty-two patients with complete dosimetry and therapy data were analyzed. 124I-omburtamab PET-based radiation dosimetry estimations revealed mean (±SD) absorbed dose to the CSF for 131I-8H9 of 0.62 ± 0.40 cGy/MBq, compared with 2.22 ± 2.19 cGy/MBq based on 124I-omburtamab CSF samples and 1.53 ± 1.37 cGy/MBq based on 131I-omburtamab CSF samples. The mean absorbed dose to the blood was 0.051 ± 0.11 cGy/MBq for 124I-omburtamab samples and 0.07 ± 0.04 cGy/MBq for 131I-omburtamab samples. The effective whole-body radiation dose for 124I-omburtamab was 0.49 ± 0.27 mSv/MBq. The mean whole-body clearance half-time was 44.98 ± 16.29 h. Conclusion: PET imaging with 124I-omburtamab antibody administered intraventricularly allows for noninvasive estimation of dose to CSF and normal organs. High CSF-to-blood absorbed-dose ratios are noted, allowing for an improved therapeutic index to leptomeningeal disease and reduced systemic doses. PET imaging-based estimates were less variable and more reliable than CSF sample-based dosimetry.
Project description:With new radiotherapy techniques, treatment delivery is becoming more complex and accordingly, these treatment techniques require dosimetry audits to test advanced aspects of the delivery to ensure best practice and safe patient treatment. This review of novel methodologies for dosimetry audits for advanced radiotherapy techniques includes recent developments and future techniques to be applied in dosimetry audits. Phantom-based methods (i.e. phantom-detector combinations) including independent audit equipment and local measurement equipment as well as phantom-less methods (i.e. portal dosimetry, transmission detectors and log files) are presented and discussed. Methodologies for both conventional linear accelerator (linacs) and new types of delivery units, i.e. Tomotherapy, stereotactic devices and MR-linacs, are reviewed. Novel dosimetry audit techniques such as portal dosimetry or log file evaluation have the potential to allow parallel auditing (i.e. performing an audit at multiple institutions at the same time), automation of data analysis and evaluation of multiple steps of the radiotherapy treatment chain. These methods could also significantly reduce the time needed for audit and increase the information gained. However, to maximise the potential, further development and harmonisation of dosimetry audit techniques are required before these novel methodologies can be applied.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetry of CG-Darc with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) in the treatment of breast cancer with APBI. CG-Darc plans were generated using two tangential couch arcs combined with a simultaneous noncoplanar gantry arc. The dynamic couch arc was modeled by consecutive IMRT fields at 10° intervals. RapidArc plans used a single partial arc with an avoidance sector, preventing direct beam exit into the thorax. CG-Darc and RapidArc plans were compared with 3D CRT in 20 patients previously treated with 3D CRT (group A), and in 15 additional patients who failed the dosimetric constraints of the Canadian trial and of NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 for APBI (group B). CG-Darc resulted in superior target coverage compared to 3D CRT and RapidArc (V95%: 98.2% vs. 97.1% and 95.7%). For outer breast lesions, CG-Darc and RapidArc significantly reduced the ipsilateral breast V50% by 8% in group A and 15% in group B (p < 0.05) as compared with 3D CRT. For inner and centrally located lesions, CG-Darc resulted in significant ipsilateral lung V10% reduction when compared to 3D CRT and RapidArc (10.7% vs. 12.6% and 20.7% for group A, and 15.1% vs. 25.2% and 27.3% for group B). Similar advantage was observed in the dosimetry of contralateral breast where the percent maximum dose for CG-Darc, 3D CRT, and RapidArc were 3.9%, 6.3%, and 5.8% for group A and 4.3%, 9.2%, and 6.3% for group B, respectively (p < 0.05). CG-Darc achieved superior target coverage while decreasing normal tissue dose even in patients failing APBI dose constraints. Consequently, this technique has the potential of expanding the use of APBI to patients currently ineligible for such treatment. Modification of the RapidArc algorithm will be necessary to link couch and gantry rotation with variable dose rate and, therefore, enable the use of CG-Darc in clinical practice.
Project description:For optimal treatment planning in radionuclide therapy, robust tumor dose-response correlations must be established. Here, fully 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry was performed coupling SPECT/CT at multiple time points with Monte Carlo-based voxel-by-voxel dosimetry to examine such correlations.Twenty patients undergoing (131)I-tositumomab for the treatment of refractory B-cell lymphoma volunteered for the study. Sixty tumors were imaged. Activity quantification and dosimetry were performed using previously developed 3D algorithms for SPECT reconstruction and absorbed dose estimation. Tumors were outlined on CT at multiple time points to obtain absorbed dose distributions in the presence of tumor deformation and regression. Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) was calculated to assess the biologic effects of the nonuniform absorbed dose, including the cold antibody effect. Response for correlation analysis was determined on the basis of the percentage reduction in the product of the largest perpendicular tumor diameters on CT at 2 mo. Overall response classification (as complete response, partial response, stable disease, or progressive disease) used for prediction analysis was based on criteria that included findings on PET.Of the evaluated tumor-absorbed dose summary measures (mean absorbed dose, EUD, and other measures from dose-volume histogram analysis), a statistically significant correlation with response was seen only with EUD (r = 0.36 and P = 0.006 at the individual tumor level; r = 0.46 and P = 0.048 at the patient level). The median value of mean absorbed dose for stable disease, partial response, and complete response patients was 196, 346, and 342 cGy, respectively, whereas the median value of EUD for each of these categories was 170, 363, and 406 cGy, respectively. At a threshold of 200 cGy, both mean absorbed dose and EUD had a positive predictive value for responders (partial response + complete response) of 0.875 (14/16) and a negative predictive value of 1.0 (3/3).Improved dose-response correlations were demonstrated when EUD incorporating the cold antibody effect was used instead of the conventionally used mean tumor-absorbed dose. This work demonstrates the importance of 3D calculation and radiobiologic modeling when estimating absorbed dose for correlation with outcome.
Project description:Spatially fractionated radiation therapy represents a significant departure from canonical thinking in radiation oncology despite having origins in the early 1900s. The original and most common implementation of spatially fractionated radiation therapy uses commercially available blocks or multileaf collimators to deliver a nonconfluent, sieve-like pattern of radiation to the target volume in a nonuniform dose distribution. Dosimetrically, this is parameterized by the ratio of the valley dose in cold spots to the peak dose in hot spots, or the valley-to-peak dose ratio. The radiobiologic mechanisms are postulated to involve radiation-induced bystander effects, microvascular alterations, and/or immunomodulation. Current indications include bulky or locally advanced disease that would not be amenable to conventional radiation or that has proved refractory to chemoradiation. Early-phase clinical trials have shown remarkable success, with some response rates >90% and minimal toxicity. This has promoted technological developments in 3-dimensional formats (LATTICE), micron-size beams (microbeam), and proton arrays. Nevertheless, more clinical and biological data are needed to specify ideal dosimetry parameters and to formulate robust clinical indications and guidelines for optimal standardized care.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Total body irradiation (TBI) is a treatment used in the conditioning of patients prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We developed an extended-distance TBI technique using a conventional linac with multi-leaf collimator to deliver a homogeneous dose, and spare critical organs.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Patients were treated either in lateral recumbent or in supine position depending on the dose level. A conventional linac was used with the patient midline at 350 cm from the beam source. A series of beams was prepared manually using a 3D treatment planning system (TPS) aiming to improve dose homogeneity, spare the organs at risk and facilitate accurate patient positioning. An optimized dose calculation model for extended-distance treatments was developed using phantom measurements. During treatment, in-vivo dosimetry was performed using electronic dosimeters, and accurate positioning was verified using a mobile megavoltage imager. We analyzed dose volume histogram parameters for 19 patients, and in-vivo measurements for 46 delivered treatment fractions.<h4>Results</h4>Optimization of the dose calculation model for TBI improved dose calculation by 2.1% at the beam axis, and 17% at the field edge. Treatment planning dose objectives and constraints were met for 16 of 19 patients. Results of in-vivo dosimetry were within the set limitations (±10%) with mean deviations of 3.7% posterior of the lungs and 0.6% for the abdomen.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We developed a TBI treatment technique using a conventional linac and TPS that can reliably be used in the conditioning regimen of patients prior to stem cell transplantation.
Project description:Patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) may be prepared using either thyroid-stimulating hormone withdrawal (THW) or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) injections before 131I administration for treatment. The objective of this study was to compare the absorbed dose to the critical organs and tumors determined by 124I PET/CT-based dosimetry for 131I therapy of metastatic DTC when the same patient was prepared with and imaged after both THW and rhTSH injections. Methods: Four DTC patients at MedStar Washington Hospital Center were first prepared using the rhTSH method and imaged by 124I PET/CT at 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after administration of approximately 30-63 MBq of 124I. After 5-8 wk, the same patients were prepared using the THW method and imaged as before. The 124I PET/CT images acquired as part of a prospective study were used to perform retrospective dosimetric calculations for 131I therapy for the normal organs with the dosimetry package 3D-RD. The absorbed doses from 131I for the lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, and bone marrow were obtained for each study (rhTSH and THW). Twenty-two lesions in 3 patients were identified. The contours were drawn on each PET image of each study. Time-integrated activity coefficients were calculated and used as input in OLINDA/EXM sphere dose calculator to obtain the absorbed dose to tumors. Results: The THW-to-rhTSH organ absorbed dose ratio averaged over 5 organs for the first 3 patients was 1.5, 2.5, and 0.64, respectively, and averaged over 3 organs for the fourth patient was 1.1. The absorbed dose per unit administered activity to the bone marrow was 0.13, 0.086, 0.33, and 0.068 mGy/MBq after rhTSH and 0.11, 0.14, 0.22, and 0.080 mGy/MBq after THW for each patient, respectively. With the exception of 3 lesions of 1 patient, the absorbed dose per unit administered activity of 131I was higher in the THW study than in the rhTSH study. The ratio of the average tumor absorbed dose after stimulation by THW compared with stimulation by rhTSH injections was 3.9, 27, and 1.4 for patient 1, patient 2, and patient 3, respectively. The ratio of mean tumor to bone marrow absorbed dose per unit administered activity of 131I, after THW and rhTSH, was 232 and 62 (patient 1), 12 and 0.78 (patient 2), and 22 and 11 (patient 3), respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest a high patient variability in the overall absorbed dose to the normal organs per MBq of 131I administered, between the 2 TSH stimulation methods. The tumor-to-dose-limiting-organ (bone marrow) absorbed dose ratio, that is, the therapeutic index, was higher in the THW-aided than rhTSH-aided administrations. Additional comparison for tumor and normal organ absorbed dose in patients prepared using both methods is needed before definitive conclusions may be drawn regarding rhTSH versus THW patient preparation methods for 131I therapy of metastatic DTC.