Peptide designed to elicit apoptosis in adipose tissue endothelium reduces food intake and body weight.
ABSTRACT: Because adipose tissue is highly vascularized, modifying adipose tissue vasculature may provide a novel method for reducing body fat. A peptide sequence that elicits apoptosis of endothelium in white fat potently reduced body weight. We sought to determine how inhibiting adipose tissue vasculature changes key aspects of energy balance regulation and the neuroendocrine system that maintains energy balance.Lean and obese mice or rats were treated with proapoptotic peptide for 4 or 27 days. Daily energy intake and expenditure were measured in mice on a low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) and in rats on a HFD. A conditioned taste aversion test was performed to assess whether proapoptotic peptide produces visceral illness. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and proopiomelanocoritin (POMC) mRNA expression and plasma leptin levels were evaluated.Proapoptotic peptide completely reversed HFD-induced obesity in mice and reduced body weight in mice and rats on a HFD but not in those on a LFD. Fat loss occurred with no change of energy expenditure but reduced food intake that occurred without signs of illness and despite reduced circulating leptin and reduced hypothalamic POMC gene expression, indicating that the decrease in food intake is independent of the action of leptin.These experiments provide compelling evidence for a previously unknown relationship between the status of adipose tissue vasculature and the regulation of food intake.
Project description:Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions has not been performed so far. Here, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice, harboring an intact nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene, were fed a purified 40 energy% HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Afterward, mice were divided into three dietary groups: HFD (maintained on HFD), LFD (changed to LFD with identical ingredients), and HFD-CR (restricted to 70 % of the HFD). The effects of the interventions were examined after 5 weeks. Beneficial effects were seen for both HFD-CR and LFD (compared to HFD) regarding physiological parameters (body weight and fat mass) and metabolic parameters, including circulating insulin and leptin levels. Macrophage infiltration in WAT was reduced by both interventions, although more effectively by HFD-CR. Strikingly, molecular parameters in WAT differed between HFD-CR and LFD, with increased activation of mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism in HFD-CR mice. Our results confirm that restriction of the amount of dietary intake and reduction in the dietary energy content are both effective in inducing weight loss. The larger decrease in WAT inflammation and increase in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism may be due to a larger degree of energy restriction in HFD-CR, but could also be due to superior effectiveness of dietary restriction in weight loss strategies.
Project description:Activation of central PPAR? promotes food intake and body weight gain; however, the identity of the neurons that express PPAR? and mediate the effect of this nuclear receptor on energy homeostasis is unknown. Here, we determined that selective ablation of PPAR? in murine proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons decreases peroxisome density, elevates reactive oxygen species, and induces leptin sensitivity in these neurons. Furthermore, ablation of PPAR? in POMC neurons preserved the interaction between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, which is dysregulated by HFD. Compared with control animals, mice lacking PPAR? in POMC neurons had increased energy expenditure and locomotor activity; reduced body weight, fat mass, and food intake; and improved glucose metabolism when exposed to high-fat diet (HFD). Finally, peripheral administration of either a PPAR? activator or inhibitor failed to affect food intake of mice with POMC-specific PPAR? ablation. Taken together, our data indicate that PPAR? mediates cellular, biological, and functional adaptations of POMC neurons to HFD, thereby regulating whole-body energy balance.
Project description:Experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in mice is commonly used to assess the role of immune cell-specific genes in various pathophysiological settings. The application of BMT in obesity research is hampered by the significant reduction in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We set out to characterize metabolic tissues that may be affected by the BMT procedure and impair the HFD-induced response. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent syngeneic BMT using lethal irradiation. After a recovery period of 8 weeks they were fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 16 weeks. HFD-induced obesity was reduced in mice after BMT as compared to HFD-fed control mice, characterized by both a reduced fat (-33%; p<0.01) and lean (-11%; p<0.01) mass, while food intake and energy expenditure were unaffected. As compared to control mice, BMT-treated mice had a reduced mature adipocyte volume (approx. -45%; p<0.05) and reduced numbers of preadipocytes (-38%; p<0.05) and macrophages (-62%; p<0.05) in subcutaneous, gonadal and visceral white adipose tissue. In BMT-treated mice, pancreas weight (-46%; p<0.01) was disproportionally decreased. This was associated with reduced plasma insulin (-68%; p<0.05) and C-peptide (-37%; p<0.01) levels and a delayed glucose clearance in BMT-treated mice on HFD as compared to control mice. In conclusion, the reduction in HFD-induced obesity after BMT in mice is at least partly due to alterations in the adipose tissue cell pool composition as well as to a decreased pancreatic secretion of the anabolic hormone insulin. These effects should be considered when interpreting results of experimental BMT in metabolic studies.
Project description:Similar to neoplastic tissues, growth and development of adipose tissue are thought to be angiogenesis-dependent. Since visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we hypothesized that angiogenesis inhibition would attenuate obesity-induced NAFLD. We fed C57BL/6J mice a low-fat diet (LFD, chow 10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or HFD supplemented with the lemon-balm extract ALS-L1023 (HFD-ALS) for 15 weeks. ALS-L1023 reduced endothelial cell-tube formation in vitro. HFD increased VAT angiogenesis and induced weight gains including body weight, VAT mass and visceral adipocyte size compared with LFD. However, HFD-ALS led to weight reductions without affecting calorie intake compared with HFD. HFD-ALS also reduced serum ALT and AST levels and improved lipid metabolism. HFD-ALS suppressed steatosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and accumulation of collagen in livers. HFD-ALS modulated hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation, fibrosis, antioxidation, and apoptosis. Concomitantly, analysis of VAT function revealed that HFD-ALS led to fewer CD68-positive macrophage numbers and lower expression of inflammatory cytokines compared with HFD. Our findings show that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 attenuates NAFLD by targeting VAT during obesity, suggesting that angiogenesis inhibitors could aid in the treatment and prevention of obesity-induced human NAFLD.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Hypomagnesaemia (blood Mg2+ <0.7 mmol/l) is a common phenomenon in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown how a low blood Mg2+ concentration affects lipid and energy metabolism. Therefore, the importance of Mg2+ in obesity and type 2 diabetes has been largely neglected to date. This study aims to determine the effects of hypomagnesaemia on energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. METHODS:Mice (n?=?12/group) were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) (10% or 60% of total energy) in combination with a normal- or low-Mg2+ content (0.21% or 0.03% wt/wt) for 17 weeks. Metabolic cages were used to investigate food intake, energy expenditure and respiration. Blood and tissues were taken to study metabolic parameters and mRNA expression profiles, respectively. RESULTS:We show that low dietary Mg2+ intake ameliorates HFD-induced obesity in mice (47.00?±?1.53 g vs 38.62?±?1.51 g in mice given a normal Mg2+-HFD and low Mg2+-HFD, respectively, p?<?0.05). Consequently, fasting serum glucose levels decreased and insulin sensitivity improved in low Mg2+-HFD-fed mice. Moreover, HFD-induced liver steatosis was absent in the low Mg2+ group. In hypomagnesaemic HFD-fed mice, mRNA expression of key lipolysis genes was increased in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), corresponding to reduced lipid storage and high blood lipid levels. Low Mg2+-HFD-fed mice had increased brown adipose tissue (BAT) Ucp1 mRNA expression and a higher body temperature. No difference was observed in energy expenditure between the two HFD groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Mg2+-deficiency abrogates HFD-induced obesity in mice through enhanced eWAT lipolysis and BAT activity.
Project description:In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. On long (16L:8D), relative to short (8L:16D), photoperiod food intake and growth rate were increased, but percentage adiposity remained constant (ca 3-4%). On a high fat diet (HFD), containing 22.8% fat (45% energy as fat), food intake was reduced, but energy intake increased on both photoperiods. This led to a small increase in adiposity (up to 10%) without overt change in body weight. These changes were also reflected in plasma leptin and lipid levels. Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. As for other animals and humans, there was evidence of central hyposomatotropism in response to obesity, as GHRH gene expression was suppressed by the HFD. Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. However, there was a general dissociation between plasma leptin levels and expression of these hypothalamic energy balance genes. Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSH? or NMU), which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function.
Project description:C1q/TNF-related protein 3 (CTRP3) is a secreted metabolic regulator whose circulating levels are reduced in human and rodent models of obesity and diabetes. Previously, we showed that CTRP3 infusion lowers blood glucose by suppressing gluconeogenesis and that transgenic overexpression of CTRP3 protects mice against diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Here, we used a genetic loss-of-function mouse model to further address whether CTRP3 is indeed required for metabolic homeostasis under normal and obese states. Both male and female mice lacking CTRP3 had similar weight gain when fed a control low-fat (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD). Regardless of diet, no differences were observed in adiposity, food intake, metabolic rate, energy expenditure, or physical activity levels between wild-type (WT) and Ctrp3-knockout (KO) animals of either sex. Contrary to expectations, loss of CTRP3 in LFD- or HFD-fed male and female mice also had minimal or no impact on whole body glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Unexpectedly, the liver sizes of HFD-fed Ctrp3-KO male mice were markedly reduced despite a modest increase in triglyceride content. Furthermore, liver expression of fat oxidation genes was upregulated in the Ctrp3-KO mice. Whereas the liver and adipose expression of profibrotic TGF?1, as well as its serum levels, was suppressed in HFD-fed KO mice, circulating proinflammatory IL-6 levels were markedly increased; these changes, however, were insufficient to affect systemic metabolic outcome. We conclude that, although it is dispensable for physiological control of energy balance, CTRP3 plays a previously unsuspected role in modulating liver size and circulating cytokine levels in response to obesity.
Project description:Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue.
Project description:Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT.
Project description:Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation promotes insulin resistance (IR) and other obesity complications. AT inflammation and IR are associated with oxidative stress, adipocyte death, and the scavenging of dead adipocytes by proinflammatory CD11c+ AT macrophages (ATMPhi). We tested the hypothesis that supplementation of an obesitogenic (high-fat) diet with whole blueberry (BB) powder protects against AT inflammation and IR. Male C57Bl/6j mice were maintained for 8 wk on 1 of 3 diets: low-fat (10% of energy) diet (LFD), high-fat (60% of energy) diet (HFD) or the HFD containing 4% (wt:wt) whole BB powder (1:1 Vaccinium ashei and V. corymbosum) (HFD+B). BB supplementation (2.7% of total energy) did not affect HFD-associated alterations in energy intake, metabolic rate, body weight, or adiposity. We observed an emerging pattern of gene expression in AT of HFD mice indicating a shift toward global upregulation of inflammatory genes (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase), increased M1-polarized ATMPhi (CD11c+), and increased oxidative stress (reduced glutathione peroxidase 3). This shift was attenuated or nonexistent in HFD+B-fed mice. Furthermore, mice fed the HFD+B were protected from IR and hyperglycemia coincident with reductions in adipocyte death. Salutary effects of BB on adipocyte physiology and ATMPhi gene expression may reflect the ability of BB anthocyanins to alter mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB stress signaling pathways, which regulate cell fate and inflammatory genes. These results suggest that cytoprotective and antiinflammatory actions of dietary BB can provide metabolic benefits to combat obesity-associated pathology.