Comparison of radioimmunoprecipitation with luciferase immunoprecipitation for autoantibodies to GAD65 and IA-2beta.
ABSTRACT: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of luciferase immunoprecipitation (LIPS) with radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) for the measurement of autoantibodies to the type 1 diabetes autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and insulinoma-associated protein (IA)-2beta.Sera from 49 type 1 diabetic patients and 100 nondiabetic control subjects from Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program 2007 were used to screen for autoantibodies to GAD65. An additional 200 type 1 diabetic patients and 200 nondiabetic control subjects were used to validate the GAD65 results and screen for autoantibodies to IA-2beta.LIPS showed equal sensitivity and specificity to RIP for detecting autoantibodies to GAD65 and IA-2beta. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed that the detection of autoantibodies to GAD65 and IA-2beta by LIPS and RIP were not statistically different.The LIPS assay does not require the use of radioisotopes or in vitro transcription/translation and is a practical alternative at the clinical level for the RIP assay.
Project description:Highly reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis of neurological diseases are not widely available. Here we evaluated a luciferase immunoprecipitation technology (LIPS) for the diagnosis of a CNS autoimmune disorder, stiff-person syndrome (SPS). Analysis by LIPS of 40 sera samples from SPS and control subjects for anti-GAD65 antibodies revealed dramatic titer differences allowing diagnosis of SPS with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Anti-GAD65 antibody titers of SPS were segregated from controls with values greater than 23 standard deviations above the control subject mean. By analyzing patient antibody responses directly to GAD65 sub-fragments, the central region containing the decarboxylase catalytic domain was highly immunoreactive with all of the SPS sera, while the N- and C-terminal regions showed lower antibody titers and only reacted with subsets of SPS sera. Additional profiling revealed that some SPS patients showed autoantibodies against GAD67 and tyrosine hydroxylase, but no significant immunoreactivity was detected with cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase or GABA transaminase. This study validates LIPS as a robust method to interrogate autoantibodies for the diagnosis of SPS and potentially other neurological diseases.
Project description:Ghrelin is a newly discovered peptide and an endogenous ligand for growth hormone (GH) secretagogue (GHS) receptor. It has been shown to possess various central and peripheral effects, including GH secretion, food intake, and gastric and cardiac effects. Ghrelin and the GHS receptor are expressed also in pancreatic islets. We have identified several ghrelin-induced genes by PCR-select subtraction methods, among which is a beta-cell autoantigen for type 1 diabetes, IA-2beta. Administration of ghrelin increased IA-2beta mRNA in mouse brain, pancreas, and insulinoma cell lines (MIN6 and betaTC3). However, the expression of IA-2, another structurally related beta-cell autoantigen, was not induced by ghrelin. Administration of ghrelin or overexpression of IA-2beta, but not overexpression of IA-2, inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 insulinoma cells and, moreover, inhibition of IA-2beta expression by the RNA interference technique ameliorated ghrelin's inhibitory effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These findings strongly suggest that inhibitory effects of ghrelin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion are at least partly due to increased expression of IA-2beta induced by ghrelin. Our data demonstrate the link among ghrelin, IA-2beta, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
Project description:Targeted deletion of IA-2 and IA-2beta, major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes and transmembrane secretory vesicle proteins, results in impaired secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of these deletions on daily rhythms in blood pressure, heart rate, core body temperature, and spontaneous physical and neuronal activity. We found that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2beta profoundly disrupts the usual diurnal variation of each of these parameters, whereas the deletion of either IA-2 or IA-2beta alone did not produce a major change. In situ hybridization revealed that IA-2 and IA-2beta transcripts are highly but nonrhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the site of the brain's master circadian oscillator. Electrophysiological studies on tissue slices from the suprachiasmatic nuclei showed that disruption of both IA-2 and IA-2beta results in significant alterations in neuronal firing. From these studies, we concluded that deletion of IA-2 and IA-2beta, structural proteins of secretory vesicles and modulators of neuroendocrine secretion, has a profound effect on the circadian system.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The presence of autoantibodies has been proposed as evidence for a role of autoimmunity in autism. This report investigates the prevalence of autoantibodies in children with autism using the luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) immunoassay technology. A panel of autoantibody targets against several known and candidate neurological autoantigens, autoimmune-associated autoantigens and viruses was employed. METHODS:Serological analysis was performed on typically developing children (n = 55), developmentally delayed children without autism (n = 24) and children diagnosed with autism (n=104). Autoantibodies were measured against glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65), a CNS autoantigen proposed to be associated with autism and against Ro52, glial fibrillary acidic protein, tyrosine hydroxylase, aquaporin-4, and gamma-enolase, the mouse mammary tumor virus and the xenotropic murine leukemia virus. Antibody levels and seropositivity prevalence were analyzed for statistically significant differences between the three groups. RESULTS:The majority of the children (98%) were seronegative for all targets in the antigen panel. No GAD65 seropositive children were detected in the cohort. Several low level seropositive sera against several of the protein targets were identified in isolated children in each of the three groups, but there was no difference in prevalence. CONCLUSION:Using this panel of antigens and a sensitive, robust assay, no evidence of unusual immunoreactivity was detected in children with autism, providing evidence against a role of autoimmunity against several previously implicated proteins in autism spectrum disorder pathogenesis. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:The idea that autoantibodies represent an underlying cause or are biomarkers for autism pathophysiology is not supported by this report.
Project description:Islet-associated protein 2 (IA-2) and IA-2beta are major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core secretory vesicles (DCV) of neuroendocrine cells. The deletion of these genes results in a decrease in insulin secretion. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that this deletion not only affects the secretion of insulin, but has a more global effect on neuroendocrine secretion that leads to disturbances in behavior and learning. Measurement of neurotransmitters showed that norepinephrine, dopamine and 5-HT were significantly decreased in the brain of double knockout (DKO) mice (P<0.05 to <0.001). In tests evaluating anxiety-like behavior and conditioned-learning, the DKO mice showed a highly significant increase in anxiety-like behavior (P<0.01 to <0.001) and impairment of conditioned learning (P<0.01) as compared to WT mice. The DKO mice also displayed an increase in spontaneous and induced seizures (P<0.01) and age-related death. Contrary to the generally held view that IA-2 and IA-2beta are expressed exclusively in DCV, subcellular fractionation studies revealed that IA-2beta, but not IA-2, co-purifies with fractions rich in synaptic vesicles (SV), and that the secretion of dopamine, GABA and glutamate from the synaptosomes of the DKO mice was significantly decreased as was the number of SV (P<0.01). Taken together, these findings show that IA-2beta is present in both DCV and SV, and that the deletion of IA-2/IA-2beta has a global effect on the secretion of neurotransmitters. The impairment of secretion leads to behavioral and learning disturbances, seizures and reduced lifespan.
Project description:Islet-cell antigen 512 (IA-2) and phogrin (IA-2beta) are atypical members of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family that are characterized by a lack of activity against conventional PTP substrates. The physiological role(s) of these proteins remain poorly defined, although recent studies indicate that IA-2 may be involved in granule trafficking and exocytosis. To further understand their function, we have embarked upon developing low-molecular-mass inhibitors of IA-2 and IA-2beta. Previously, we have shown that a general PTP inhibitor, 2-(oxalylamino)benzoic acid (OBA), can be developed into highly selective and potent inhibitors of PTP1B. However, since wild-type IA-2 and IA-2beta lack conventional PTP activity, a novel strategy was designed whereby catalytically active species were generated by 'back-mutating' key non-consensus catalytic region residues to those of PTP1B. These mutants were then used as tools with which to test the potency and selectivity of OBA and a variety of its derivatives. Catalytically competent IA-2 and IA-2beta species were generated by 'back-mutation' of only three key residues (equivalent to Tyr(46), Asp(181) and Ala(217) using the human PTP1B numbering) to those of PTP1B. Importantly, enzyme kinetic analyses indicated that the overall fold of both mutant and wild-type IA-2 and IA-2beta was similar to that of classic PTPs. In particular, one derivative of OBA, namely 7-(1,1-dioxo-1 H -benzo[ d ]isothiazol-3-yloxymethyl)-2-(oxalylamino)-4,7-dihydro-5 H -thieno[2,3- c ]pyran-3 -carboxylic acid ('Compound 6 ' shown in the main paper), which inhibited IA-2beta((S762Y/Y898P/D933A)) (IA-2beta in which Ser(762) has been mutated to tyrosine, Tyr(898) to proline, and Asp(933) to alanine) with a K (i) value of approximately 8 microM, appeared ideal for future lead optimization. Thus molecular modelling of this classical, competitive inhibitor in the catalytic site of wild-type IA-2beta identified two residues (Ser(762) and Asp(933)) that offer the possibility for unique interaction with an appropriately modified 'Compound 6 '. Such a compound has the potential to be a highly selective and potent active-site inhibitor of wild-type IA-2beta.
Project description:Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and autoantibodies specific for GAD65 (GADA) are associated with autoimmune diseases including Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) and Type 1 diabetes (T1D). GADA is recognized as a biomarker of value for clinical diagnosis and prognostication in these diseases. Nonetheless, it remains medically interesting to develop sensitive and specific assays to detect GAD65 preceding GADA emergence, and to monitor GADA-GAD65 immune complexes in blood samples. In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive proximity ligation assay to measure serum GAD65. This novel assay allowed detection of as little as 0.65?pg/ml GAD65. We were also able to detect immune complexes involving GAD65 and GADA. Both free GAD65 and GAD65-GADA levels were significantly higher in serum samples from SPS patients compared to healthy controls. The proximity ligation assays applied for detection of GAD65 and its immune complexes may thus enable improved diagnosis and better understanding of SPS.
Project description:Islet antigen (IA)-2, IA-2β, and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) are major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Autoantibodies to these autoantigens appear years before disease onset and are widely used as predictive markers. Little is known, however, about what regulates the expression of these autoantigens. The present experiments were initiated to test the hypothesis that microRNAs (miRNAs) can target and affect the levels of these autoantigens. Bioinformatics was used to identify miRNAs predicted to target the mRNAs coding IA-2, IA-2β, and GAD65. RNA interference for the miRNA processing enzyme Dicer1 and individual miRNA mimics and inhibitors were used to confirm the effect in mouse islets and MIN6 cells. We show that the imprinted 14q32 miRNA cluster contains 56 miRNAs, 32 of which are predicted to target the mRNAs of T1D autoantigens and 12 of which are glucose-sensitive. Using miRNA mimics and inhibitors, we confirmed that at least 7 of these miRNAs modulate the mRNA levels of the T1D autoantigens. Dicer1 knockdown significantly reduced the mRNA levels of all 3 autoantigens, further confirming the importance of miRNAs in this regulation. We conclude that miRNAs are involved in regulating the expression of the major T1D autoantigens.
Project description:Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by sudden cramps and spasms. High titers of enzyme-inhibiting IgG autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) are a hallmark of SPS, implicating an autoimmune component in the pathology of the syndrome. Studying the B cell compartment and the anti-GAD65 B cell response in two monozygotic twins suffering from SPS, who were treated with the B cell-depleting monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, we found that the humoral autoimmune response in SPS is composed of a rituximab-sensitive part that is rapidly cleared after treatment, and a rituximab-resistant component, which persists and acts as a reservoir for autoantibodies inhibiting GAD65 enzyme activity. Our data show that these potentially pathogenic anti-GAD65 autoantibodies are secreted by long-lived plasma cells, which may either be persistent or develop from rituximab-resistant memory B lymphocytes. Both subsets represent only a fraction of anti-GAD65 autoantibody secreting cells. Therefore, the identification and targeting of this compartment is a key factor for successful treatment planning of SPS and of similar autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Autoantibodies against antigens expressed by insulin-producing ? cells are circulating in both healthy individuals and patients at risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. Recent studies suggest that another set of antibodies (anti-idiotypic antibodies) exists in this antibody/antigen interacting network to regulate auto-reactive responses. Anti-idiotypic antibodies may block the antigen-binding site of autoantibodies or inhibit autoantibody expression and secretion. The equilibrium between autoantibodies and anti-idiotypic antibodies plays a critical role in mediating or preventing autoimmunity. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying such a network in autoimmunity and potentially develop neutralizing reagents to prevent or treat Type 1 diabetes, we need to produce autoantibodies and autoantigens with high quality and purity. Herein, using GAD65/anti-GAD65 autoantibodies as a model system, we aimed to establish reliable approaches for the preparation of highly pure autoantibodies suitable for downstream investigation.