Identification of phosphorylation sites within the signaling adaptor APPL1 by mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: APPL1 is a membrane-associated adaptor protein implicated in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, and survival. Although there is increasing interest in the biological roles as well as the protein and membrane interactions of APPL1, a comprehensive phosphorylation profile has not been generated. In this study, we use mass spectrometry (MS) to identify 13 phosphorylated residues within APPL1. By using multiple proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Glu C) and replicate experiments of linear ion trap (LTQ) MS and LTQ-Orbitrap-MS, a combined sequence coverage of 99.6% is achieved. Four of the identified sites are located in important functional domains, suggesting a potential role in regulating APPL1. One of these sites is within the BAR domain, two cluster near the edge of the PH domain, and one is located within the PTB domain. These phosphorylation sites may control APPL1 function by regulating the ability of APPL1 domains to interact with other proteins and membranes.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates that the synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has a neuroprotective effect on neurons. Our previous study demonstrated that APPL1 (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and leucine zipper motif) mediates the synaptic activity-dependent activation of PI3K-Akt signaling via coupling this pathway with NMDAR-PSD95 (postsynaptic density protein 95) complexes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of APPL1 with PSD95 using co-immunocytochemical staining and western blotting. We found that the PDZ2 domain of PSD95 is a binding partner of APPL1. Furthermore, we identified serine 707 of APPL1, a predicted phosphorylation site within the PDZ-binding motif at the C-terminus, as critical for the binding of APPL1 to PSD95, as well as for activation of the Akt signaling pathway during synaptic activity. This suggests that serine 707 of APPL1 is a potential phosphorylation site and may be involved in regulating the neuroprotective Akt signaling pathway that depends on synaptic NMDAR activity.
Project description:Cell migration is a complex process that requires the integration of signaling events that occur in distinct locations within the cell. Adaptor proteins, which can localize to different subcellular compartments, where they bring together key signaling proteins, are emerging as attractive candidates for controlling spatially coordinated processes. However, their function in regulating cell migration is not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role for the adaptor protein containing a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) in regulating cell migration. APPL1 impairs migration by hindering the turnover of adhesions at the leading edge of cells. The mechanism by which APPL1 regulates migration and adhesion dynamics is by inhibiting the activity of the serine/threonine kinase Akt at the cell edge and within adhesions. In addition, APPL1 significantly decreases the tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt by the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, which is critical for Akt-mediated cell migration. Thus, our results demonstrate an important new function for APPL1 in regulating cell migration and adhesion turnover through a mechanism that depends on Src and Akt. Moreover, our data further underscore the importance of adaptor proteins in modulating the flow of information through signaling pathways.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>The adiponectin signalling pathway is largely unknown, but recently the adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif (APPL1), has been shown to interact directly with adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR)1. APPL1 is present in C2C12 myoblasts and mouse skeletal muscle, but its presence in human skeletal muscle has not been investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>Samples from type 2 diabetic, and lean and non-diabetic obese participants were analysed by: immunoprecipitation and western blot; HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis; peak area analysis by MS; HPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS analysis; and RT-PCR analysis of APPL1 mRNA.<h4>Results</h4>Immunoprecipitation and western blot indicated a band specific to APPL1. Tryptic digestion and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of whole-muscle homogenate APPL1 unambiguously identified APPL1 with 56% sequence coverage. Peak area analysis by MS validated western blot results, showing APPL1 levels to be significantly increased in type 2 diabetic and obese as compared with lean participants. Targeted phosphopeptide analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS showed that APPL1 was phosphorylated specifically on Ser(401). APPL1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in obese and type 2 diabetic participants as compared with lean participants. After bariatric surgery in morbidly obese participants with subsequent weight loss, skeletal muscle APPL1 abundance was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in association with an increase in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.01), increased levels of ADIPOR1 (p < 0.05) and increased muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation (p < 0.05).<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>APPL1 abundance is significantly higher in type 2 diabetic muscle; APPL1 is phosphorylated in vivo on Ser(401). Improvements in hyperglycaemia and hypoadiponectinaemia following weight loss are associated with reduced skeletal muscle APPL1, and increased plasma adiponectin levels and muscle AMPK phosphorylation.
Project description:APPL1 is an effector of the small GTPase Rab5. Together, they mediate a signal transduction pathway initiated by ligand binding to cell surface receptors. Interaction with Rab5 is confined to the amino (N)-terminal region of APPL1. We report the crystal structures of human APPL1 N-terminal BAR-PH domain motif. The BAR and PH domains, together with a novel linker helix, form an integrated, crescent-shaped, symmetrical dimer. This BAR-PH interaction is likely conserved in the class of BAR-PH containing proteins. Biochemical analyses indicate two independent Rab-binding sites located at the opposite ends of the dimer, where the PH domain directly interacts with Rab5 and Rab21. Besides structurally supporting the PH domain, the BAR domain also contributes to Rab binding through a small surface region in the vicinity of the PH domain. In stark contrast to the helix-dominated, Rab-binding domains previously reported, APPL1 PH domain employs beta-strands to interact with Rab5. On the Rab5 side, both switch regions are involved in the interaction. Thus we identified a new binding mode between PH domains and small GTPases.
Project description:The formation and plasticity of dendritic spines and synapses, which are poorly understood on a molecular level, are critical for cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The adaptor protein containing a PH domain, PTB domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL1) is emerging as a critical regulator of various cellular processes in non-neuronal cells, but its function in the nervous system is not well understood. Here, we show that APPL1 localizes to dendritic spines and synapses and regulates the development of these structures in hippocampal neurons. Knockdown of endogenous APPL1 using siRNA led to a significant decrease in the number of spines as well as synapses and this defect could be rescued by expression of siRNA-resistant APPL1. Expression of exogenous APPL1 increased the spine and synaptic density and the amount of surface GluR1-containing ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs). Deletion of the C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding domain of APPL1, which binds the serine/threonine kinase Akt, resulted in a significant decrease in the spine and synaptic density, suggesting a role for Akt in regulating the development of these structures. Consistent with this, knockdown of Akt with siRNA or expression of dominant negative Akt led to a dramatic decrease in spine and synapse formation. In addition, APPL1 increased the amount of active Akt in spines and synapses and the effects of APPL1 on these structures were dependent on Akt, indicating that Akt is an effector of APPL1 in the regulation of these processes. Moreover, APPL1 signaling modulates spine and synapse formation through p21-activated kinase (PAK). Thus, our results indicate that APPL1 signaling through Akt and PAK is critical for spine and synaptic development and point to a role for APPL1 and its effectors in regulating cognitive function.
Project description:Mutations of the inositol 5' phosphatase oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) give rise to the congenital X-linked disorders oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and Dent disease, two conditions giving rise to abnormal kidney proximal tubule reabsorption, and additional nervous system and ocular defects in the case of Lowe syndrome. Here, we identify two closely related endocytic proteins, Ses1 and Ses2, which interact with the ASH-RhoGAP-like (ASPM-SPD-2-Hydin homology and Rho-GTPase Activating Domain-like) domain of OCRL. The interaction is mediated by a short amino acid motif similar to that used by the rab-5 effector APPL1 (Adaptor Protein containing pleckstrin homology [PH] domain, PTB domain and Leucine zipper motif 1) APPL1 for OCRL binding. Ses binding is mutually exclusive with APPL1 binding, and is disrupted by the same missense mutations in the ASH-RhoGAP-like domain that also disrupt APPL1 binding. Like APPL1, Ses1 and -2 are localized on endosomes but reside on different endosomal subpopulations. These findings define a consensus motif (which we have called a phenylalanine and histidine [F&H] motif) for OCRL binding and are consistent with a scenario in which Lowe syndrome and Dent disease result from perturbations at multiple sites within the endocytic pathway.
Project description:Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted by the white adipose tissue, plays an important role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and controlling energy homeostasis in insulin-sensitive tissues. A decrease in the circulating level of adiponectin has been linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin exerts its effects through two membrane receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. APPL1 is the first identified protein that interacts directly with adiponectin receptors. APPL1 is an adaptor protein with multiple functional domains, the Bin1/amphiphysin/rvs167, pleckstrin homology, and phosphotyrosine binding domains. The PTB domain of APPL1 interacts directly with the intracellular region of adiponectin receptors. Through this interaction, APPL1 mediates adiponectin signaling and its effects on metabolism. APPL1 also functions in insulin-signaling pathway and is an important mediator of adiponectin-dependent insulin sensitization in skeletal muscle. Adiponectin signaling through APPL1 is necessary to exert its anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects on endothelial cells. APPL1 also acts as a mediator of other signaling pathways by interacting directly with membrane receptors or signaling proteins, thereby playing critical roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival, endosomal trafficking, and chromatin remodeling. This review focuses mainly on our current understanding of adiponectin signaling in various tissues, the role of APPL1 in mediating adiponectin signaling, and also its role in the cross-talk between adiponectin/insulin-signaling pathways.
Project description:Binding of insulin receptor substrate proteins 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) to the insulin receptor (IR) is essential for the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. However, the mechanism of IRS1/2 recruitment to the IR remains elusive. Here, we identify adaptor protein APPL1 as a critical molecule that promotes IRS1/2-IR interaction. APPL1 forms a complex with IRS1/2 under basal conditions, and this complex is then recruited to the IR in response to insulin or adiponectin stimulation. The interaction between APPL1 and IR depends on insulin- or adiponectin-stimulated APPL1 phosphorylation, which is greatly reduced in insulin target tissues in obese mice. appl1 deletion in mice consistently leads to systemic insulin resistance and a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated IRS1/2, but not IR, tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating that APPL1 sensitizes insulin signaling by acting at a site downstream of the IR. Our study uncovers a mechanism regulating insulin signaling and crosstalk between the insulin and adiponectin pathways.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus is a highly heterogeneous disorder encompassing several distinct forms with different clinical manifestations including a wide spectrum of age at onset. Despite many advances, the causal genetic defect remains unknown for many subtypes of the disease, including some of those forms with an apparent Mendelian mode of inheritance. Here we report two loss-of-function mutations (c.1655T>A [p.Leu552(?)] and c.280G>A [p.Asp94Asn]) in the gene for the Adaptor Protein, Phosphotyrosine Interaction, PH domain, and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1) that were identified by means of whole-exome sequencing in two large families with a high prevalence of diabetes not due to mutations in known genes involved in maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). APPL1 binds to AKT2, a key molecule in the insulin signaling pathway, thereby enhancing insulin-induced AKT2 activation and downstream signaling leading to insulin action and secretion. Both mutations cause APPL1 loss of function. The p.Leu552(?) alteration totally abolishes APPL1 protein expression in HepG2 transfected cells and the p.Asp94Asn alteration causes significant reduction in the enhancement of the insulin-stimulated AKT2 and GSK3? phosphorylation that is observed after wild-type APPL1 transfection. These findings-linking APPL1 mutations to familial forms of diabetes-reaffirm the critical role of APPL1 in glucose homeostasis.
Project description:Adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, pleckstrin homology domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1) is an adapter protein that positively mediates adiponectin signalling. Deficiency of APPL1 in the target tissues of insulin induces insulin resistance. We therefore aimed, in the present study, to determine its role in regulating pancreatic beta cell function.A hyperglycaemic clamp test was performed to determine insulin secretion in APPL1 knockout (KO) mice. Glucose- and adiponectin-induced insulin release was measured in islets from APPL1 KO mice or INS-1(832/13) cells with either APPL1 knockdown or overproduction. RT-PCR and western blotting were conducted to analyse gene expression and protein abundance. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential were assayed to evaluate mitochondrial function.APPL1 is highly expressed in pancreatic islets, but its levels are decreased in mice fed a high-fat diet and db/db mice compared with controls. Deletion of the Appl1 gene leads to impairment of both the first and second phases of insulin secretion during hyperglycaemic clamp tests. In addition, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is significantly decreased in islets from APPL1 KO mice. Conversely, overproduction of APPL1 leads to an increase in GSIS in beta cells. In addition, expression levels of several genes involved in insulin production, mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial OCR, ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential are reduced significantly in APPL1-knockdown beta cells. Moreover, suppression or overexproduction of APPL1 inhibits or stimulates adiponectin-potentiated GSIS in beta cells, respectively.Our study demonstrates the roles of APPL1 in regulating GSIS and mitochondrial function in pancreatic beta cells, which implicates APPL1 as a therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.