4-arylflavan-3-ols as proanthocyanidin models: absolute configuration via density functional calculation of electronic circular dichroism.
ABSTRACT: Density functional theory/B3LYP has been employed to optimize the conformations of selected 4-arylflavan-3-ols and their phenolic methyl ether 3-O-acetates. The electronic circular dichroism spectra of the major conformers have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory to validate the empirical aromatic quadrant rule applied to the assignment of the absolute configuration of this class of compounds. The modest 6-31G* basis set was sufficient to produce reasonable spectra. The calculated Cotton effects at 220-240 nm, crucial for the assignment of the C-4 absolute configuration, result from electronic transitions of the molecular orbitals involving the pi-electrons of the spatially close aromatic A-ring and 4-aryl moieties. The sign of this Cotton effect is determined by the orientation of the 4-aryl substituent: the negative and positive Cotton effects are associated with 4alpha- and 4beta-aryl substituents, respectively.
Project description:A new application of vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD), which enables the measurement of CD spectra in the vacuum-ultraviolet region (140-200 nm), for the assignment of the absolute configurations of bromoallenes is described. Bromoallene moieties are found in natural products obtained from many marine organisms. To date, the absolute configuration of bromoallenes has been assigned almost exclusively with Lowe's rule, which is based on specific rotation. However, exceptions to Lowe's rule have been reported arising from the presence of other substituents with large specific rotations. For the unambiguous assignment of the absolute configuration of the bromoallene moiety with its characteristic absorption wavelength at 180-190 nm due to the ?-?* transition, VUVCD was applied to four pairs of bromoallene diastereomers prepared by modifying the synthetic scheme of omaezallene. The VUVCD spectra clearly showed positive or negative Cotton effects around 180-190 nm according to the configuration of the bromoallene employed, revealing the potential of VUVCD for determining absolute stereochemistry.
Project description:The assignment of absolute configurations is of critical importance for understanding the biochemical processing of DNA lesions. The diastereomeric spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) lesions are oxidation products of guanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), and the absolute configurations of the two diastereomers, Sp1 and Sp2, have been evaluated by experimental and computational optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) methods. In order to support our previous assignments by the ORD method, we calculated the electronic circular dichroism spectra (ECD) of the Sp stereoisomers. Comparison of the experimentally measured and computed ECD spectra indicates that Sp1 has (-)-S absolute configuration, while Sp2 has (+)-R absolute configuration. Thus, the S and R assignments, based on the ECD spectra of Sp1 and Sp2, are consistent with our previous assignments of absolute configurations. To further test the validity of this approach, we performed a proof-of-principle computation of the ECD and ORD of the R and S enantiomers of allantoin (similar in chemical composition to Sp) of known absolute configurations. The calculations provide the correct assignment of the absolute configurations of the allantoin enantiomers, indicating that the computational TDDFT approach is robust for identifying the absolute configurations of allantoins and probably the Sp stereoisomers, as has been shown previously for other organic molecules.
Project description:The structure of C hordein was studied by a combination of solution and solid-state 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy. The repetitive primary structure results in simple solution-state n.m.r. spectra, which allow assignment of the majority of the resonances to five major residues. The major resonances, with the exception of the aromatic signals, are also present in the solid-state spectra. The proline residues are in the trans configuration, consistent with an earlier study suggesting a beta-turn-rich structure.
Project description:A series of 2-aryl-3-azolyl-1-indolyl-propan-2-ols was designed as new analogs of fluconazole (FLC) by replacing one of its two triazole moieties by an indole scaffold. Two different chemical approaches were then developed. The first one, in seven steps, involved the synthesis of the key intermediate 1-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl-1H-indole and the final opening of oxiranes by imidazole or 1H-1,2,4-triazole. The second route allowed access to the target compounds in only three steps, this time with the ring opening by indole and analogs. Twenty azole derivatives were tested against Candida albicans and other Candida species. The enantiomers of the best anti-Candida compound, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-(1H-indol-1-yl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-propan-2-ol (8g), were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to determine their absolute configuration. The (-)-8g enantiomer (Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = IC80 = 0.000256 µg/mL on C. albicans CA98001) was found with the S-absolute configuration. In contrast the (+)-8g enantiomer was found with the R-absolute configuration (MIC = 0.023 µg/mL on C. albicans CA98001). By comparison, the MIC value for FLC was determined as 0.020 µg/mL for the same clinical isolate. Additionally, molecular docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using a crystal structure of Candida albicans lanosterol 14?-demethylase (CaCYP51). The (-)-(S)-8g enantiomer aligned with the positioning of posaconazole within both the heme and access channel binding sites, which was consistent with its biological results. All target compounds have been also studied against human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells. Finally, the selectivity of four compounds on a panel of human P450-dependent enzymes (CYP19, CYP17, CYP26A1, CYP11B1, and CYP11B2) was investigated.
Project description:Aimed at exploring the dentin biomodification potential of proanthocyanidins (PACs) for the development of dental biomaterials, this study reports the phytochemical and dental evaluation of nine B-type PACs from grape seed extract (GSE). Out of seven isolated dimers (1-7), four new compounds (2, 3, 5, and 6) involved relatively rare ent-catechin or ent-epicatechin monomeric flavan-3-ol units. Low-temperature NMR analyses conducted along with phloroglucinolysis and electronic circular dichroism enabled unequivocal structural characterization and stereochemical assignment. Additionally, one known (8) and one new (9) B-type trimer were characterized. Differential 13C NMR chemical shifts (??) were used to determine the absolute configuration of 9, relative to the dimers 1 and 2 as the possible constituent subunits. Compared to the dimers, the trimers showed superior dentin biomodification properties. The dimers, 1-7, exhibited pronounced differences in their collagenase inhibitory activity, while enhancing dentin stiffness comparably. This suggests that PAC structural features such as the degree of polymerization, relative and absolute configuration have a differential influence on enhancement of dentin biomechanical and biostability. As mechanical enhancement to dentin and resistance to proteolytic biodegradation are both essential properties functional and stable dentin substrate, the structurally closely related PACs suggest a new metric, the dentin biomodification potential (DBMP) that may rationalize both properties.
Project description:An investigation of anti-oxidative compounds from the brown alga Dictyopteris undulata has led to the isolation and identification of isozonarol, isozonarone, chromazonarol, zonaroic acid and isozonaroic acid. Their structures were identified by comparison of MS and NMR spectra. Full NMR assignment and absolute configuration of isozonaroic acid are described. Isozonarol showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity among the compounds isolated.
Project description:The plants of the genus Kadsura are widely distributed in China, South Korea, and Japan. Their roots and stems are traditionally used to treat blood diseases and pain. The main bioactive constituents of Kadsura longipedunculata comprise highly oxygenated triterpenoids. Schiartane-type nortriterpenoids showed anti-HIV, anti-HBV, and cytotoxic bioactivities. For such compounds, the absolute configuration influences the bioactivities, and hence its unambiguous determination is essential. In this work, the absolute configurations of three highly oxygenated schiartane-type nortriterpenoids were unequivocally assigned using X-ray, ECD, and J-based configuration analysis and HSQC overlay data.The ethanol extract of Kadsura longipedunculata Finet et Gagnep was purified by column chromatography using silica, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS as substrates. To help assign the absolute configuration of schiartane-type nortriterpenoids, X-ray diffraction analysis, ECD experiment compared to ab initio computed data, DP4+ analysis, HSQC overlay, NOESY, and J-based configuration analysis were carried out. Hetero- and homo-nuclear coupling constants were extracted from HETLOC experiments.Three new highly oxygenated triterpenoids, micrandilactone I (1), micrandilactone J (2), and 22,23-di-epi-micrandilactone J (3) were isolated. Their 2D structures were solved using NMR and HRESIMS data and their absolute configurations were elucidated using X-ray diffraction analysis, ECD experimental results compared to ab initio computed spectra, HSQC overlay, DP4+, NOESY, and J-based configuration analysis. Micrandilactone I (1) and 22,23-di-epi-micrandilactone J (3) showed moderate hepatoprotective activity against APAP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells with cell survival rates of 53.0 and 50.2%, respectively, at 10?M (bicyclol, 49.0%), while micrandilactone J (2) was inactive.This is the first comprehensive stereochemical assignment of a non-crystalline schiartane-type nortriterpenoid like 3. This general protocol may contribute towards solving the problems hampering the assignment of the absolute configurations of other members of this class of nortriterpenoids.
Project description:As part of research to search for antitumor agents in fungi originating from marine organisms, cephalimysins E?L were isolated from a culture broth of Aspergillus fumigatus that was separated from the marine fish Mugil cephalus. One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed their planar structures, which are diastereomers of each other. Their absolute stereostructures were established by epimerization at C-8 with acidic methanol, nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. These demonstrated the detailed relationships between absolute configuration and CD Cotton effects. Additionally, in the growth inhibition assay against P388, HL-60, L1210, and KB cell lines, some of the fungal metabolites or reaction products exhibited moderate activities.
Project description:Aromatic groups were incorporated into 9H-9-silafluorene units at the 9-position (mono-9H-silafluorenes) and 9,9'-positions (di-9H-9-silafluorenes). The aryl substituents showed weak conjugation to the 9H-9-silafluorene for 9-aryl substituted ones 1-7 and a 9,9'-phenylene substituted one (compound 8) and they exhibited similar absorption and emission spectra. The 9H-9-silafluorene 10 containing a 5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophenyl) group showed a significantly red-shifted absorption and fluorescence maxima in the solid-state. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies found J-type aggregated structures formed by intermolecular CH-? interactions (ca. 2.6-2.7 Å). Density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT), and configuration interaction single (CIS) calculations were conducted to explain the observed optical properties.
Project description:Racemic chiral O,N-heterocycles containing 2-arylchroman or 2-aryl-2H-chromene subunit condensed with morpholine, thiazole, or pyrrole moieties at the C-3-C-4 bond were synthesized with various substitution patterns of the aryl group by the cyclization of cis- or trans-3-aminoflavanone analogues. The 3-aminoflavanone precursors were obtained in a Neber rearrangement of oxime tosylates of flavanones, which provided the trans diastereomer as the major product and enabled the isolation of both the cis- and trans-diastereomers. The cis- and trans-aminoflavanones were utilized to prepare three diastereomers of 5-aryl-chromeno[4,3-b][1,4]oxazines. Antiproliferative activity of the condensed heterocycles and precursors was evaluated against A2780 and WM35 cancer cell lines. For a 3-(N-chloroacetylamino)-flavan-4-ol derivative, showing structural analogy with acyclic acid ceramidase inhibitors, 0.15 ?M, 3.50 ?M, and 6.06 ?M IC50 values were measured against A2780, WM35, and HaCat cell lines, and apoptotic mechanism was confirmed. Low micromolar IC50 values down to 2.14 ?M were identified for the thiazole- and pyrrole-condensed 2H-chromene derivatives. Enantiomers of the condensed heterocycles were separated by HPLC using chiral stationary phase, HPLC-ECD spectra were recorded and TDDFT-ECD calculations were performed to determine the absolute configuration and solution conformation. Characteristic ECD transitions of the separated enantiomers were correlated with the absolute configuration and effect of substitution pattern on the HPLC elution order was determined.