Structures of SPOP-substrate complexes: insights into molecular architectures of BTB-Cul3 ubiquitin ligases.
ABSTRACT: In the largest E3 ligase subfamily, Cul3 binds a BTB domain, and an associated protein-interaction domain such as MATH recruits substrates for ubiquitination. Here, we present biochemical and structural analyses of the MATH-BTB protein, SPOP. We define a SPOP-binding consensus (SBC) and determine structures revealing recognition of SBCs from the phosphatase Puc, the transcriptional regulator Ci, and the chromatin component MacroH2A. We identify a dimeric SPOP-Cul3 assembly involving a conserved helical structure C-terminal of BTB domains, which we call "3-box" due to its facilitating Cul3 binding and its resemblance to F-/SOCS-boxes in other cullin-based E3s. Structural flexibility between the substrate-binding MATH and Cul3-binding BTB/3-box domains potentially allows a SPOP dimer to engage multiple SBCs found within a single substrate, such as Puc. These studies provide a molecular understanding of how MATH-BTB proteins recruit substrates to Cul3 and how their dimerization and conformational variability may facilitate avid interactions with diverse substrates.
Project description:The Cul3-based E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate many cellular processes using a large family of BTB domain-containing proteins as their target recognition components, but how they recognize targets remains unknown. Here we identify and characterize degrons that mediate the degradation of the Hedgehog pathway transcription factor cubitus interruptus (Ci)/Gli by Cul3-Hedghog-induced MATH and BTB domain-containing protein (HIB)/SPOP. Ci uses multiple Ser/Thr (S/T)-rich motifs that bind HIB cooperatively to mediate its degradation. We provide evidence that both HIB and Ci form dimers/oligomers and engage in multivalent interactions, which underlies the in vivo cooperativity among individual HIB-binding sites. We find that similar S/T-rich motifs are present in Gli proteins as well as in numerous HIB-interacting proteins and mediate Gli degradation by SPOP. Our results provide a mechanistic insight into how HIB/SPOP recognizes its substrates and have important implications for the genome-wide prediction of substrates for Cul3-based E3 ligases.
Project description:BTB-Kelch proteins are substrate-specific adaptors for cullin-3 (Cul3) RING-box-based E3 ubiquitin ligases, mediating protein ubiquitylation for subsequent proteasomal degradation. Vaccinia virus encodes three BTB-Kelch proteins: A55, C2, and F3. Viruses lacking A55 or C2 have altered cytopathic effects in cultured cells and altered pathology in vivo Previous studies have shown that the ectromelia virus orthologue of A55 interacts with Cul3 in cells. We report that the N-terminal BTB-BACK (BB) domain of A55 binds directly to the Cul3 N-terminal domain (Cul3-NTD), forming a 2:2 complex in solution. We solved the structure of an A55BB/Cul3-NTD complex from anisotropic crystals diffracting to 2.3/3.7 Å resolution in the best/worst direction, revealing that the overall interaction and binding interface closely resemble the structures of cellular BTB/Cul3-NTD complexes, despite low sequence identity between A55 and cellular BTB domains. Surprisingly, despite this structural similarity, the affinity of Cul3-NTD for A55BB was stronger than for cellular BTB proteins. Glutamate substitution of the A55 residue Ile-48, adjacent to the canonical ?X(D/E) Cul3-binding motif, reduced affinity of A55BB for Cul3-NTD by at least 2 orders of magnitude. Moreover, Ile-48 and the ?X(D/E) motif are conserved in A55 orthologues from other poxviruses, but not in the vaccinia virus proteins C2 or F3. The high-affinity interaction between A55BB and Cul3-NTD suggests that, in addition to directing the Cul3-RING E3 ligase complex to degrade cellular/viral target proteins that are normally unaffected, A55 may also sequester Cul3 from cellular adaptor proteins, thereby protecting substrates of these cellular adaptors from ubiquitylation and degradation.
Project description:The HIB-Cul3 complex E3 ligase regulates physiological homeostasis through regulating its substrate stability and its activity can be modulated by changing HIB abundance. However, regulation of HIB remains elusive. Here we provide evidence that HIB is degraded through the proteasome by Cul3-mediated polyubiquitination in K48 manner in Drosophila. Strikingly, HIB is targeted for degradation by itself. We further identify that three degrons ((52)LKSS(56)T, (76)LDEE(80)S and (117)MESQ(121)R) and K185 and K198 of HIB are essential for its auto-degradation. Finally, we demonstrate that HIB-Cul3 substrates, Ci and Puc, can effectively protect HIB from HIB-Cul3-mediated degradation. Taken together, our study indicates that there is an exquisite equilibrium between the adaptor and targets to achieve the tight control of the HIB, which is essential for maintaining suitable Hh and JNK signaling. And the mechanism of adaptor self-degradation and reciprocal control of the abundance between adaptor and its substrates is also applied to BTB-Cul3 E3 ligase adaptor dKeap1, dDiablo and dKLHL18.
Project description:Cullins belong to a family of scaffold proteins that assemble multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase complexes to recruit protein substrates for ubiquitination via unique sets of substrate adaptor, such as Skp1 or Elongin B, and a substrate-binding protein with a conserved protein-protein interacting domain, such as leucine-rich repeats (LRR), a WD40 domain, or a zinc-finger domain. In the case of the Cullin3 (Cul3), it forms a BTB-Cul3-Rbx1 (BCR) ubiquitin ligase complex where it is believed that a BTB domain-containing protein performs dual functions where it serves as both the substrate adaptor and the substrate recognition protein.Tandem affinity purification and LC/MS-MS analysis of the BCR complex led to the identification of 10,225 peptides. After the SEQUEST algorithm and CDART program were used for protein identification and domain prediction, we discovered a group of Cul3-bound proteins that contain either the LRR or WD40 domain (CLWs). Further biochemical analysis revealed that the LRR domain-containing CLWs could bind both Cul3 and BTB domain-containing proteins. The dual binding role for the LRR domain-containing CLWs results in causing the BTB-domain protein to become a substrate instead of an adaptor.To further distinguish potential substrates from other components that are part of the BCR ubiquitin ligase complex, we altered the parameters in the SEQUEST algorithm to select for peptide fragments with a modified lysine residue. This method not only identifies the potential substrates of the BCR ubiquitin ligase complex, but it also pinpoints the lysine residue in which the post-translational modification occurs. Interestingly, none of the CLWs were identified by this method, supporting our hypothesis that CLWs were not potential substrates but rather additional components of the BCR ubiquitin ligase complex.Our study identified a new set of Cul3-binding proteins known as CLWs via tandem affinity purification and LC/MS-MS analysis. Subsequently, our biochemical analysis revealed that some CLWs modify binding of BTB domain-containing proteins to the complex, causing degradation of the BTB domain-containing protein. As these CLWs were excluded from our list of substrates, we propose that CLWs serve as unique Cul3 binding proteins that provide an alternative regulatory mechanism for the complex.
Project description:Cullin-RING ligases are multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligases that recruit substrate-specific adaptors to catalyze protein ubiquitylation. Cul3-based Cullin-RING ligases are uniquely associated with BTB adaptors that incorporate homodimerization, Cul3 assembly, and substrate recognition into a single multidomain protein, of which the best known are BTB-BACK-Kelch domain proteins, including KEAP1. Cul3 assembly requires a BTB protein "3-box" motif, analogous to the F-box and SOCS box motifs of other Cullin-based E3s. To define the molecular basis for this assembly and the overall architecture of the E3, we determined the crystal structures of the BTB-BACK domains of KLHL11 both alone and in complex with Cul3, along with the Kelch domain structures of KLHL2 (Mayven), KLHL7, KLHL12, and KBTBD5. We show that Cul3 interaction is dependent on a unique N-terminal extension sequence that packs against the 3-box in a hydrophobic groove centrally located between the BTB and BACK domains. Deletion of this N-terminal region results in a 30-fold loss in affinity. The presented data offer a model for the quaternary assembly of this E3 class that supports the bivalent capture of Nrf2 and reveals potential new sites for E3 inhibitor design.
Project description:MATH-BTB proteins are known to act as substrate-specific adaptors of CUL3-based E3 ligases in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Their BTB domain binds to CUL3 scaffold proteins and the less conserved MATH domain targets a highly diverse collection of substrate proteins to promote their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. In plants, a significant expansion of the MATH-BTB family occurred in the grasses. Here, we report analysis of TaMAB2, a MATH-BTB protein transiently expressed at the onset of embryogenesis in wheat. Due to difficulties in studying its role in zygotes and early embryos, we have overexpressed TaMAB2 in Arabidopsis to generate gain-of-function mutants and to elucidate interaction partners and substrates. Overexpression plants showed severe growth defects as well as disorganization of microtubule bundles indicating that TaMAB2 interacts with substrates in Arabidopsis. In tobacco BY-2 cells, TaMAB2 showed a microtubule and ubiquitin-associated cytoplasmic localization pattern in form of foci. Its direct interaction with CUL3 suggests functions in targeting specific substrates for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Although direct interactions with tubulin could not be confimed, tandem affinity purification of TaMAB2 interactors point towards cytoskeletal proteins including tubulin and actin as well as the translation initiation machinery. The idenification of various subunits of eucaryotic translation initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4 as TaMAB2 interactors indicate regulation of translation initiation as a major function during onset of embryogenesis in plants.
Project description:The cullin-RING family of ubiquitin ligases regulates diverse cellular functions, such as cell cycle control, via ubiquitylation of specific substrates. CUL3 targets its substrates through BTB proteins. Here we show that depletion of CUL3 and the BTB protein KLHL18 causes a delay in mitotic entry. Centrosomal activation of Aurora-A, a kinase whose activity is required for entry into mitosis, is also delayed in depleted cells. Moreover, we identify Aurora-A as a KLHL18-interacting partner. Overexpression of KLHL18 and CUL3 promotes Aurora-A ubiquitylation in vivo, and the CUL3-KLHL18-ROC1 ligase ubiquitylates Aurora-A in vitro. Our study reveals that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase is required for timely entry into mitosis, as well as for the activation of Aurora-A at centrosomes. We propose that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry through an Aurora-A-dependent pathway.
Project description:E3 ubiquitin ligases that direct substrate proteins to the ubiquitin-proteasome system are promising, though largely unexplored drug targets both because of their function and their remarkable specificity. CRLs [Cullin-RING (really interesting new gene) ligases] are the largest group of E3 ligases and function as modular multisubunit complexes constructed around a Cullin-family scaffold protein. The Cul3-based CRLs uniquely assemble with BTB (broad complex/tramtrack/bric-à-brac) proteins that also homodimerize and perform the role of both the Cullin adapter and the substrate-recognition component of the E3. The most prominent member is the BTB-BACK (BTB and C-terminal Kelch)-Kelch protein KEAP1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), a master regulator of the oxidative stress response and a potential drug target for common conditions such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Structural characterization of BTB-Cul3 complexes has revealed a number of critical assembly mechanisms, including the binding of an N-terminal Cullin extension to a bihelical '3-box' at the C-terminus of the BTB domain. Improved understanding of the structure of these complexes should contribute significantly to the effort to develop novel therapeutics targeted to CRL3-regulated pathways.
Project description:Vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is an essential receptor for the homeostasis of endothelial cells. In this study, we showed that NEDD8-conjugated Cullin3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin E3 (UbE3) ligase plays a crucial role in VEGFR2 mRNA expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with MLN4924, an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme, or with CUL3 siRNA drastically lost their response to VEGF due to the intense decrease in VEGFR2 expression. Moreover, speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) and death-domain associated protein (DAXX) were involved in the CUL3 UbE3 ligase complex as a substrate adaptor and a substrate, respectively. Knockdown of SPOP and CUL3 led to the upregulation of DAXX protein and downregulation of VEGFR2 levels. These levels were inversely correlated with one another. In addition, simultaneous knockdown of SPOP and DAXX completely reversed the downregulation of VEGFR2 levels. Moreover, the CUL3-SPOP-DAXX axis had the same effects on NOTCH1, DLL4 and NRP1 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that the CUL3-SPOP-DAXX axis plays a very important role in endothelial cell function by targeting key angiogenic regulators.
Project description:Oxidative damage has been associated with various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Alzheimer's disease, as well as non-neurodegenerative conditions such as cancer and heart disease. The Keap1-Nrf2 system plays a central role in the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stress. The Nrf2 transcription function and its degradation by the proteasomal pathway (Keap1-Nrf2-Cul3-Roc1 complex) are regulated by the cytoplasmic repressor protein, Keap1 which possesses BTB, BACK (IVR region) and Kelch domains. The BTB-BACK domains are important for Keap1 homo-dimerization as well as to interact with Cullin-3 for Nrf2 degradation. The crystal structure of the Keap1-Kelch domain is known; however, that of the BTB-BACK domains are not yet determined. We present here, through molecular modeling studies, the analysis of Keap1-BTB dimerization, and of BTB-BACK domains role in complex with Cul3. The electrostatic charge distribution at the BTB dimer interface of Keap1 is significantly different from other known BTB containing protein structures. Another intriguing feature is also observed that the non-conserved residues at the BTB-BACK-Cul3 interface region may play critical role for differentiating Cul3 recognition by Keap1 from other adaptor proteins for their specific substrates proteasomal degradation.