Characterization of recombinant lysyl oxidase propeptide.
ABSTRACT: Lysyl oxidase enzyme activity is critical for the biosynthesis of mature and functional collagens and elastin. In addition, lysyl oxidase has tumor suppressor activity that has been shown to depend on the propeptide region (LOX-PP) derived from pro-lysyl oxidase (Pro-LOX) and not on lysyl oxidase enzyme activity. Pro-LOX is secreted as a 50 kDa proenzyme and then undergoes biosynthetic proteolytic processing to active approximately 30 kDa LOX enzyme and LOX-PP. The present study reports the efficient recombinant expression and purification of rat LOX-PP. Moreover, using enzymatic deglycosylation and DTT derivatization combined with mass spectrometry technologies, it is shown for the first time that rLOX-PP and naturally occurring LOX-PP contain both N- and O-linked carbohydrates. Structure predictions furthermore suggest that LOX-PP is a mostly disordered protein, which was experimentally confirmed in circular dichroism studies. Due to its high isoelectric point and its disordered structure, we propose that LOX-PP can associate with extracellular and intracellular binding partners to affect its known biological activities as a tumor suppressor and inhibitor of cell proliferation.
Project description:The lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) is derived from pro-lysyl oxidase (Pro-LOX) by extracellular biosynthetic proteolysis. LOX-PP inhibits breast and prostate cancer xenograft tumor growth and has tumor suppressor activity. Although, several intracellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action of LOX-PP have been identified, LOX-PP uptake pathways have not been reported. Here we demonstrate that the major uptake pathway for recombinant LOX-PP (rLOX-PP) is PI3K-dependent macropinocytosis in PWR-1E, PC3, SCC9, MDA-MB-231 cell lines. A secondary pathway appears to be dynamin- and caveola dependent. The ionic properties of highly basic rLOX-PP provide buffering capacity at both high and low pHs. We suggest that the buffering capacity of rLOX-PP, which serves to limit endosomal acidification, sustains PI3K-dependent macropinocytosis in endosomes which in turn is likely to facilitate LOX-PP endosomal escape into the cytoplasm and its observed interactions with cytoplasmic targets and nuclear uptake.
Project description:Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an copper dependent amine oxidase enzyme involved in cross linking of collagens and elastins. Lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) is 18 kDa region cleaved during maturation of LOX and its anti-tumorigenic role were studied in various cancers. The effect of LOX-PP overexpression in retinoblastoma cancer cells (Y79) using transient transfection of LOX-PP gene accessed for global gene deregulations. The analysis resulted in RB cancer cell death through deregulation of retinoblastoma in cancer, cell cycle, apoptosis, focal adhesion-PI3K-AKT signaling and DNA repair mechanism pathway. Further validations were done using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Our results provide evidence that inducing apoptosis through AKT-NFκB signaling. Overall design: We analyzed Y79 cell from 2 Empty vector and 2 LOX-PP overexpressed cells using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome array 2.0 platform. Array data was processed by Affymetrix Transcriptome Analysis Console (TAC) 4.0 - Exon level Array Computational Tool. No techinical replicates were performed.
Project description:Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is secreted as a proenzyme (proLOX) that is proteolytically processed in the extracellular milieu to release the propeptide and mature, active LOX. LOX oxidizes lysyl residues of a number of protein substrates in the extracellular matrix and on the cell surface, which impacts several physiological and disease states. Although the LOX propeptide (LOX-PP) is glycosylated, little is known about the role of this modification in LOX secretion and activity. To gain insight into this issue, cells were transfected with native, full-length LOX cDNA (pre-pro-LOX), the N-glycosylation null pre-[N/Q]pro-LOX cDNA and the deletion mutant pre-LOX cDNA, referred to as secretory LOX, in which mature LOX is targeted to the secretory pathway without its N-terminal propeptide sequence. The results show that glycosylation of the LOX-PP is not required for secretion and extracellular processing of pro-LOX but it is required for optimal enzyme activity of the resulting mature LOX. Complete deletion of the propeptide sequence prevents mature LOX from exiting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, our study points out the requirement of the LOX-PP for pro-LOX exit from the ER and is the first to highlight the influence of LOX-PP glycosylation on LOX enzyme activity.
Project description:Enhanced RAS signaling and decreased androgen dependence of prostate cancer cells accompany poor clinical outcomes. Elevated autocrine fibroblast growth factors 2 (FGF-2) signaling promotes prostate cancer cell growth and survival. Expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) inhibits RAS transforming activity. LOX is secreted as 50 kDa pro-LOX protein and then undergoes extracellular proteolytic processing to form approximately 30 kDa LOX enzyme and approximately 18 kDa propeptide (LOX-PP). We have previously shown that LOX-PP inhibits breast cancer cell transformation and tumor formation, but mechanisms of action of LOX-PP have not been fully elucidated. Here we report that LOX expression is reduced in prostate cancer cell lines and that recombinant LOX-PP protein inhibits serum-stimulated DNA synthesis and MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways in DU 145 and PC-3 androgen-independent cell lines. In DU 145 cells, treatment with a pharmacologic FGF-receptor inhibitor or a neutralizing anti-FGFR1 antibody mimicked LOX-PP inhibition of serum-stimulated DNA synthesis. FGF-2-stimulated DNA synthesis, ERK1/2, AKT and FRS2alpha activation were found all to be inhibited by LOX-PP in DU 145 cells. LOX-PP reduced specific binding of FGF-2 to DU 145 cells, suggesting that LOX-PP targets FGF signaling at the receptor. Interestingly, PC-3 cells did not respond to FGF-2, consistent with previous reports. We conclude that LOX-PP inhibits proliferation of DU 145 cells by interfering with FGFR(s) binding and signaling, and that LOX-PP has other mechanisms of action in PC-3 cells.
Project description:The lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene reverted Ras transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and tumor formation by gastric cancer cells, which frequently carry mutant RAS genes. The secreted lysyl oxidase proenzyme is processed to a propeptide (LOX-PP) and a functional enzyme (LOX). Unexpectedly, the tumor suppressor activity mapped to the LOX-PP domain, which inhibited tumor formation and the invasive phenotype of NF639 breast cancer cells driven by human epidermal growth factor receptor-2/neu, which signals via Ras. A single-nucleotide polymorphism, G473A (rs1800449), resulting in an Arg158Gln substitution in a highly conserved region within LOX-PP, occurs with an average 473A allele carrier frequency of 24.6% in the HapMap database, but was present in many breast cancer cell lines examined. Here, we show that the Arg-to-Gln substitution profoundly impairs the ability of LOX-PP to inhibit the invasive phenotype and tumor formation of NF639 cells in a xenograft model. LOX-PP Gln displayed attenuated ability to oppose the effects of LOX, which promoted a more invasive phenotype. In a case-control study of African American women, a potential association of the Gln-encoding A allele was seen with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha-negative invasive breast cancer in African American women. Consistently, LOX gene expression was higher in ER-negative versus ER-positive primary breast cancers, and LOX-PP Gln was unable to inhibit invasion by ER-negative cell lines. Thus, these findings identify for the first time genetic polymorphism as a mechanism of impaired tumor suppressor function of LOX-PP and suggest that it may play an etiologic role in ER-negative breast cancer.
Project description:Lysyl oxidase is required for the normal biosynthesis and maturation of collagen and elastin. It is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells, and its increased expression has been previously found in atherosclerosis and in models of balloon angioplasty. The lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) has more recently been found to have biological activity as a tumor suppressor, and it inhibits Erk1/2 Map kinase activation. We reasoned that LOX-PP may have functions in normal non-transformed cells. We, therefore, investigated its effects on smooth muscle cells, focusing on important biological processes mediated by Erk1/2-dependent signaling pathways including proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. In addition, we investigated whether evidence for accumulation of LOX-PP could be found in vivo in a femoral artery injury model. Recombinant LOX-PP was expressed and purified, and was found to inhibit primary rat aorta smooth muscle cell proliferation and DNA synthesis by more than 50%. TNF-alpha-stimulated MMP-9 expression and Erk1/2 activation were both significantly inhibited by LOX-PP. Immunohistochemistry studies carried out with affinity purified anti-LOX-PP antibody showed that LOX-PP epitopes were expressed at elevated levels in vascular lesions of injured arteries. These novel data suggest that LOX-PP may provide a feedback control mechanism that serves to inhibit properties associated with the development of vascular pathology.
Project description:RAS mutations or its activation by upstream receptor tyrosine kinases are frequently associated with poor response of carcinomas to chemotherapy. The 18 kDa propeptide domain of lysyl oxidase (LOX-PP) released from the secreted precursor protein (Pro-LOX) has been shown to inhibit RAS signaling and the transformed phenotype of breast, pancreatic, lung, and prostate cancer cells in culture, and formation of tumors by Her-2/neu-driven breast cancer cells in a mouse xenograft model. Here, we tested the effects of LOX-PP on MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells, driven by mutant RAS. In MIA PaCa-2 cells in culture, LOX-PP attenuated the ERK and AKT activities and decreased the levels of the NF-?B p65 and RelB subunits and cyclin D1, which are activated by RAS signaling. In mouse xenograft growth, LOX-PP reduced growth of tumors by these pancreatic cancer cells, and the nuclear levels of the p65 NF-?B subunit and cyclin D1 proteins. While biological agents attenuate tumor growth when used alone, often they have additive or synergistic effects when used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, we next tested the hypotheses that LOX-PP sensitizes pancreatic and breast cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. Purified LOX-PP enhanced the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin in pancreatic and breast cancer cells, as judged by ATP production, Cell Death ELISA assays, caspase 3 activation, PARP cleavage, and Annexin V staining. Thus, LOX-PP potentiates the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin on breast and pancreatic cancer cells, warranting additional studies with a broader spectrum of current cancer treatment modalities.
Project description:Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy in children and young adults. It is driven by oncogenic fusion proteins (i.e. EWS/FLI1) acting as aberrant transcription factors that upregulate and downregulate target genes, leading to cellular transformation. Thus, identificating these target genes and understanding their contribution to Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis are key for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study we show that lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme involved in maintaining structural integrity of the extracellular matrix, is downregulated by the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein and in consequence it is not expressed in Ewing sarcoma cells and primary tumors. Using a doxycycline inducible system to restore LOX expression in an Ewing sarcoma derived cell line, we showed that LOX displays tumor suppressor activities. Interestingly, we showed that the tumor suppressor activity resides in the propeptide domain of LOX (LOX-PP), an N-terminal domain produced by proteolytic cleavage during the physiological processing of LOX. Expression of LOX-PP reduced cell proliferation, cell migration, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and formation of tumors in immunodeficient mice. By contrast, the C-terminal domain of LOX, which contains the enzymatic activity, had the opposite effects, corroborating that the tumor suppressor activity of LOX is mediated exclusively by its propeptide domain. Finally, we showed that LOX-PP inhibits ERK/MAPK signalling pathway, and that many pathways involved in cell cycle progression were significantly deregulated by LOX-PP, providing a mechanistic explanation to the cell proliferation inhibition observed upon LOX-PP expression. In summary, our observations indicate that deregulation of the LOX gene participates in Ewing sarcoma development and identify LOX-PP as a new therapeutic target for one of the most aggressive paediatric malignancies. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies based on the administration of LOX propeptide or functional analogues could be useful for the treatment of this devastating paediatric cancer.
Project description:The lysyl oxidase gene inhibits Ras signaling in transformed fibroblasts and breast cancer cells. Its activity was mapped to the 162 amino acid propeptide domain (LOX-PP) of the lysyl oxidase precursor protein. LOX-PP inhibited the Her-2/Ras signaling axis in breast cancer cells, and reduced the Her-2-driven breast tumor burden in a xenograft model. Since its mechanism of action is largely unknown, co-affinity-purification/mass spectrometry was performed and the "Cbl-interacting protein of 85-kDa" (CIN85) identified as an associating protein. CIN85 is an SH3-containing adapter protein that is overexpressed in invasive breast cancers. The CIN85 SH3 domains interact with c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, via an unconventional PxxxPR ligand sequence, with the highest affinity displayed by the SH3-B domain. Interaction with CIN85 recruits c-Cbl to the AMAP1 complex where its ubiquitination activity is necessary for cancer cells to develop an invasive phenotype and to degrade the matrix. Direct interaction of LOX-PP with CIN85 was confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation analysis of lysates from breast cancer cells and of purified expressed proteins. CIN85 interaction with c-Cbl was reduced by LOX-PP. Domain specific CIN85 regions and deletion mutants of LOX-PP were prepared and used to map the sites of interaction to the SH3-B domain of CIN85 and to an epitope encompassing amino acids 111 to 116 of LOX-PP. Specific LOX-PP point mutant proteins P111A and R116A failed to interact with CIN85 or to compete for CIN85 binding with c-Cbl. Structural modeling identified a new atypical PxpxxRh SH3-binding motif in this region of LOX-PP. The LOX-PP interaction with CIN85 was shown to reduce the invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells, including their ability to degrade the surrounding extracellular matrix and for Matrigel outgrowth. Thus, LOX-PP interacts with CIN85 via a novel SH3-binding motif and this association reduces CIN85-promoted invasion by breast cancer cells.
Project description:The propeptide (LOX-PP) domain of the lysyl oxidase proenzyme was shown to inhibit the transformed phenotype of breast, lung and pancreatic cells in culture and the formation of Her2/neu-driven breast cancer in a xenograft model. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs1800449) positioned in a highly conserved region of LOX-PP results in an Arg158Gln substitution (humans). This arginine (Arg)?glutamine (Gln) substitution profoundly impaired the ability of LOX-PP to inhibit the invasive phenotype and xenograft tumor formation. To study the effect of the SNP in vivo, here we established a knock in (KI) mouse line (LOX-PPGln mice) expressing an Arg152Gln substitution corresponding to the human Arg158Gln polymorphism. Breast cancer was induced in wild-type (WT) and LOX-PPGln female mice beginning at 6 weeks of age by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in combination with progesterone. Time course analysis of tumor development demonstrated earlier tumor onset and shorter overall survival in LOX-PPGln versus WT mice. To further compare the tumor burden in WT and LOX-PPGln mice, inguinal mammary glands from both groups of mice were examined for microscopic lesion formation. LOX-PPGln glands contained more lesions (9.6 versus 6.9 lesions/#4 bilateral). In addition, more DMBA-treated LOX-PPGln mice had increased leukocyte infiltrations in their livers and were moribund compared with DMBA-treated WT mice. Thus, these data indicate that the Arg?Gln substitution in LOX-PP could be an important marker associated with a more aggressive cancer phenotype and that this KI model is ideal for further mechanistic studies regarding the tumor suppressor function of LOX-PP.