The common feature of leukemia-associated IDH1 and IDH2 mutations is a neomorphic enzyme activity converting alpha-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate.
ABSTRACT: The somatic mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) observed in gliomas can lead to the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Here, we report that tumor 2HG is elevated in a high percentage of patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Surprisingly, less than half of cases with elevated 2HG possessed IDH1 mutations. The remaining cases with elevated 2HG had mutations in IDH2, the mitochondrial homolog of IDH1. These data demonstrate that a shared feature of all cancer-associated IDH mutations is production of the oncometabolite 2HG. Furthermore, AML patients with IDH mutations display a significantly reduced number of other well characterized AML-associated mutations and/or associated chromosomal abnormalities, potentially implicating IDH mutation in a distinct mechanism of AML pathogenesis.
Project description:In 2016, as part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology, we published a Registered Report (Fiehn et al., 2016), that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper "The common feature of leukemia-associated IDH1 and IDH2 mutations is a neomorphic enzyme activity converting alpha-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate" (Ward et al., 2010). Here, we report the results of those experiments. We found that cells expressing R172K mutant IDH2 did not display isocitrate-dependent NADPH production above vector control levels, in contrast to the increased production observed with wild-type IDH2. Conversely, expression of R172K mutant IDH2 resulted in increased alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent consumption of NADPH compared to wild-type IDH2 or vector control. These results are similar to those reported in the original study (Figure 2; Ward et al., 2010). Further, expression of R172K mutant IDH2 resulted in increased 2HG levels within cells compared to the background levels observed in wild-type IDH2 and vector control, similar to the original study (Figure 3D; Ward et al., 2010). In primary human AML samples, the 2HG levels observed in samples with mutant IDH1 or IDH2 status were higher than those observed in samples without an IDH mutation, similar to what was observed in the original study (Figure 5C; Ward et al., 2010). Finally, we report meta-analyses for each result.
Project description:Cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations produce the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), but the clinical utility of 2HG has not been established. We studied whether 2HG measurements in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients correlate with IDH mutations, and whether diagnostic or remission 2HG measurements predict survival. Sera from 223 de novo AML patients were analyzed for 2HG concentration by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pretreatment 2HG levels ranged from 10 to 30?000 ng/mL and were elevated in IDH-mutants (median, 3004 ng/mL), compared to wild-type IDH (median, 61 ng/mL) (P < .0005). 2HG levels did not differ among IDH1 or IDH2 allelic variants. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, a discriminatory level of 700 ng/mL optimally segregated patients with and without IDH mutations, and on subsequent mutational analysis of the 13 IDH wild-type samples with 2HG levels >700 ng/mL, 9 were identified to have IDH mutations. IDH-mutant patients with 2HG levels >200 at complete remission had shorter overall survival compared to 2HG ?200 ng/mL (hazard ratio, 3.9; P = .02). We establish a firm association between IDH mutations and serum 2HG concentration in AML, and confirm that serum oncometabolite measurements provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information that can improve patient selection for IDH-targeted therapies.
Project description:2-Hydroxyglutarate (2HG) exists as two enantiomers, (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG, and both are implicated in tumor progression via their inhibitory effects on ?-ketoglutarate (?KG)-dependent dioxygenases. The former is an oncometabolite that is induced by the neomorphic activity conferred by isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutations, whereas the latter is produced under pathologic processes such as hypoxia. We report that IDH1/2 mutations induce a homologous recombination (HR) defect that renders tumor cells exquisitely sensitive to poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This "BRCAness" phenotype of IDH mutant cells can be completely reversed by treatment with small-molecule inhibitors of the mutant IDH1 enzyme, and conversely, it can be entirely recapitulated by treatment with either of the 2HG enantiomers in cells with intact IDH1/2 proteins. We demonstrate mutant IDH1-dependent PARP inhibitor sensitivity in a range of clinically relevant models, including primary patient-derived glioma cells in culture and genetically matched tumor xenografts in vivo. These findings provide the basis for a possible therapeutic strategy exploiting the biological consequences of mutant IDH, rather than attempting to block 2HG production, by targeting the 2HG-dependent HR deficiency with PARP inhibition. Furthermore, our results uncover an unexpected link between oncometabolites, altered DNA repair, and genetic instability.
Project description:Gain-of-function mutations in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 frequently arise in human leukemias and other cancers and produce high levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). We expressed the R195H mutant of Drosophila Idh (CG7176), which is equivalent to the human cancer-associated IDH1-R132H mutant, in fly tissues using the UAS-Gal4 binary expression system. Idh-R195H caused a >25-fold elevation of D-2HG when expressed ubiquitously in flies. Expression of mutant Idh in larval blood cells (hemocytes) resulted in higher numbers of circulating blood cells. Mutant Idh expression in fly neurons resulted in neurologic and wing-expansion defects, and these phenotypes were rescued by genetic modulation of superoxide dismutase 2, p53, and apoptotic caspase cascade mediators. Idh-R163Q, which is homologous to the common leukemia-associated IDH2-R140Q mutant, resulted in moderately elevated D-2HG and milder phenotypes. We identified the fly homolog of D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid dehydrogenase (CG3835), which metabolizes D-2HG, and showed that coexpression of this enzyme with mutant Idh abolishes mutant Idh-associated phenotypes. These results provide a flexible model system to interrogate a cancer-related genetic and metabolic pathway and offer insights into the impact of IDH mutation and D-2HG on metazoan tissues.
Project description:Cancer-associated IDH mutations are characterized by neomorphic enzyme activity and resultant 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production. Mutational and epigenetic profiling of a large acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient cohort revealed that IDH1/2-mutant AMLs display global DNA hypermethylation and a specific hypermethylation signature. Furthermore, expression of 2HG-producing IDH alleles in cells induced global DNA hypermethylation. In the AML cohort, IDH1/2 mutations were mutually exclusive with mutations in the ?-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme TET2, and TET2 loss-of-function mutations were associated with similar epigenetic defects as IDH1/2 mutants. Consistent with these genetic and epigenetic data, expression of IDH mutants impaired TET2 catalytic function in cells. Finally, either expression of mutant IDH1/2 or Tet2 depletion impaired hematopoietic differentiation and increased stem/progenitor cell marker expression, suggesting a shared proleukemogenic effect.
Project description:Mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or its mitochondrial homolog IDH2 can lead to R(-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production. To date, mutations in three active site arginine residues, IDH1 R132, IDH2 R172 and IDH2 R140, have been shown to result in the neomorphic production of 2HG. Here we report on three additional 2HG-producing IDH1 mutations: IDH1 R100, which is affected in adult glioma, IDH1 G97, which is mutated in colon cancer cell lines and pediatric glioblastoma, and IDH1 Y139. All these new mutants stereospecifically produced 2HG's (R) enantiomer. In contrast, we find that the IDH1 SNPs V71I and V178I, as well as a number of other single-sample reports of IDH non-synonymous mutation, did not elevate cellular 2HG levels in cells and retained the wild-type ability for isocitrate-dependent NADPH production. Finally, we report the existence of additional rare, but recurring mutations found in lymphoma and thyroid cancer, which while failing to elevate 2HG nonetheless displayed loss of function, indicating a possible tumorigenic mechanism for a non-2HG-producing subset of IDH mutations in some malignancies. These data broaden our understanding of how IDH mutations may contribute to cancer through either neomorphic R(-)-2HG production or reduced wild-type enzymatic activity, and highlight the potential value of metabolite screening in identifying IDH-mutated tumors associated with elevated oncometabolite levels.
Project description:Monoallelic point mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and its mitochondrial homolog IDH2 can lead to elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in multiple cancers. Here we report that cellular 2HG production from cytosolic IDH1 mutation is dependent on the activity of a retained wild-type IDH1 allele. In contrast, expression of mitochondrial IDH2 mutations led to robust 2HG production in a manner independent of wild-type mitochondrial IDH function. Among the recurrent IDH2 mutations at Arg-172 and Arg-140, IDH2 Arg-172 mutations consistently led to greater 2HG accumulation than IDH2 Arg-140 mutations, and the degree of 2HG accumulation correlated with the ability of these mutations to block cellular differentiation. Cytosolic IDH1 Arg-132 mutations, although structurally analogous to mutations at mitochondrial IDH2 Arg-172, were only able to elevate intracellular 2HG to comparable levels when an equivalent level of wild-type IDH1 was co-expressed. Consistent with 2HG production from cytosolic IDH1 being limited by substrate production from wild-type IDH1, we observed 2HG levels to increase in cancer cells harboring an endogenous monoallelic IDH1 mutation when mitochondrial IDH flux was diverted to the cytosol. Finally, expression of an IDH1 construct engineered to localize to the mitochondria rather than the cytosol resulted in greater 2HG accumulation. These data demonstrate that allelic and subcellular compartment differences can regulate the potential for IDH mutations to produce 2HG in cells. The consequences of 2HG elevation are dose-dependent, and the non-equivalent 2HG accumulation resulting from IDH1 and IDH2 mutations may underlie their differential prognosis and prevalence in various cancers.
Project description:Approximately 20% of unselected cases and 30% cytogenetically diploid cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 80% of grade II-III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas carry mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. IDH1/2 mutations prevent oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) and modulate the function of IDH (neomorphic activity) thereby facilitating reduction of ?-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), a putative oncometabolite. D-2HG is thought to act as a competitive inhibitor of ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases that include prolyl hydroxylases and chromatin-modifying enzymes. The end result is a global increase of cellular DNA hypermethylation and alterations of the cellular epigenetic state, which has been proposed to play a role in the development of a variety of tumors. In this review, we provide an update on potential molecular mechanisms linking IDH1/2 mutations and the resulting oncometabolite, D-2HG, with malignant transformation. In addition, in patients with AML and glioma we focus on the associations between IDH1/2 mutations and clinical, morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics.
Project description:Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells produce the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) to induce epigenetic alteration and block hematopoietic differentiation. However, the effect of R-2HG released by IDH-mutated AML cells on the bone marrow microenvironment is unclear. Here, we report that R-2HG induces I?B kinase-independent activation of NF-?B in bone marrow stromal cells. R-2HG acts via a reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway to phosphorylate NF-?B on the Thr254 residue. This phosphorylation enhances the interaction of NF-?B and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1 and increases the protein stability and transcriptional activity of NF-?B. As a consequence, R-2HG enhances NF-?B-dependent expression of cytokines including IL-6, IL-8 and complement 5a to stimulate proliferation of AML cells. In addition, R-2HG also upregulates vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 and CXCR4 in stromal cells to enhance the contact between AML and stromal cells and attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. More importantly, we validated the R-2HG-activated gene signature in the primary bone marrow stromal cells isolated from IDH-mutated AML patients. Collectively, our results suggest that AML cell-derived R-2HG may be helpful for the establishment of a supportive bone marrow stromal niche to promote AML progression via paracrine stimulation.
Project description:Recently identified isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations lead to the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), an oncometabolite aberrantly elevated in selected cancers. We developed a facile and inexpensive fluorimetric microplate assay for the quantitation of 2HG and performed an unbiased small-molecule screen in live cells to identify compounds capable of perturbing 2HG production. Zaprinast, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, was identified as an efficacious modulator of 2HG production and confirmed to lower 2HG levels in vivo. The mechanism of action was not due to cGMP stabilization, but rather, profiling of metabolites upstream of mutant IDH1 pointed to targeted inhibition of the enzyme glutaminase (GLS). Zaprinast treatment reversed histone hypermethylation and soft-agar growth of IDH1-mutant cells, and treatment of glutamine-addicted pancreatic cancer cells reduced growth and sensitized cells to oxidative damage. Thus, Zaprinast is efficacious against glutamine metabolism and further establishes the therapeutic linkages between GLS and 2HG-mediated oncogenesis.Gain-of-function IDH mutations are common events in glioma, acute myelogenous leukemia, and other cancer types, which lead to the accumulation of the oncometabolite 2HG. We show that the drug Zaprinast is capable of reducing cellular 2HG levels by inhibiting the upstream enzyme GLS, thus identifying a new strategy to target 2HG production in selected IDH-mutant cancers.