Significant and sustained antitumor activity in post-docetaxel, castration-resistant prostate cancer with the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone acetate.
ABSTRACT: The principal objective of this trial was to evaluate the antitumor activity of abiraterone acetate, an oral, specific, irreversible inhibitor of CYP17 in docetaxel-treated patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).In this multicenter, two-stage, phase II study, abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg was administered once daily continuously. The primary end point was achievement of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline of > or = 50% in at least seven of 35 patients. Per an attained phase II design, more than 35 patients could be enrolled if the primary end point was met. Secondary objectives included: PSA declines of > or = 30% and > or = 90%; rate of RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) responses and duration on study; time to PSA progression; safety and tolerability; and circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration.Docetaxel-treated patients with CRPC (N = 47) were enrolled. PSA declines of > or = 30%, > or = 50% and > or = 90% were seen in 68% (32 of 47), 51% (24 of 47), and 15% (seven of 47) of patients, respectively. Partial responses (by RECIST) were reported in eight (27%) of 30 patients with measurable disease. Median time to PSA progression was 169 days (95% CI, 113 to 281 days). The median number of weeks on study was 24, and 12 (25.5%) of 47 patients remained on study > or = 48 weeks. CTCs were enumerated in 34 patients; 27 (79%) of 34 patients had at least five CTCs at baseline. Eleven (41%) of 27 patients had a decline from at least five to less than 5 CTCs, and 18 (67%) of 27 had a > or = 30% decline in CTCs after starting treatment with abiraterone acetate. Abiraterone acetate was well tolerated.Abiraterone acetate has significant antitumor activity in post-docetaxel patients with CRPC. Randomized, phase III trials of abiraterone acetate are underway to define the future role of this agent.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Abiraterone is a CYP17A1 inhibitor that improves survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Abiraterone is licensed in combination with prednisone 5?mg twice daily to prevent a syndrome of secondary mineralocorticoid excess. We hypothesised that a 'steroid switch' from prednisone to dexamethasone would induce secondary responses in patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisone 5?mg b.i.d. METHODS:We performed a 'steroid switch' in patients with CRPC at PSA progression on abiraterone and prednisolone. Patients were monitored for secondary declines in PSA, radiological tumour regression and toxicity. RESULTS:A retrospective analysis of 30 CRPC patients who underwent a steroid switch from prednisolone to dexamethasone while on abiraterone was performed. A total of six patients (20%) had a ?50% PSA decline that was confirmed by a second PSA level at least 3 weeks later. In all, 11 patients (39.2%) had a confirmed ?30% PSA decline. Median time to PSA progression on abiraterone and dexamethasone was 11.7 weeks (95% CI: 8.6-14.8 weeks) in the whole cohort and 27.6 weeks (95% CI: 14.5-40.7 weeks) in patients who achieved a confirmed 50% PSA decline. Nine patients had RECIST evaluable disease: two of these patients had RECIST partial response, six patients had stable disease and one patient had progressive disease at the first imaging assessment. Treatment was well tolerated, with no grade 3 and grade 4 adverse events. One patient had to be reverted to prednisolone because of grade 2 hypotension. CONCLUSIONS:Durable PSA responses occur in up to 40% of patients following a 'steroid switch' for PSA progression on abiraterone and prednisone. Studies are ongoing to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this response.
Project description:PURPOSE:Persistence of ligand-mediated androgen receptor signaling has been documented in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CYP17, which is required for androgen biosynthesis in the testes, adrenal glands, and prostate tissue. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of AA in combination with prednisone to reduce the symptoms of secondary hyperaldosteronism that can occur with AA monotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Fifty-eight men with progressive metastatic CRPC who experienced treatment failure with docetaxel-based chemotherapy received AA (1,000 mg daily) with prednisone (5 mg twice daily). Twenty-seven (47%) patients had received prior ketoconazole. The primary outcome was > or = 50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline, with objective response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria, and changes in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) numbers. Safety was also evaluated. RESULTS:A > or = 50% decline in PSA was confirmed in 22 (36%) patients, including 14 (45%) of 31 ketoconazole-naïve and seven (26%) of 27 ketoconazole-pretreated patients. Partial responses were seen in four (18%) of 22 patients with RECIST-evaluable target lesions. Improved ECOG PS was seen in 28% of patients. Median time to PSA progression was 169 days (95% CI, 82 to 200 days). CTC conversions with treatment from > or = 5 to < 5 were noted in 10 (34%) of 29 patients. The majority of AA-related adverse events were grade 1 to 2, and no AA-related grade 4 events were seen. CONCLUSION:AA plus prednisone was well tolerated, with encouraging antitumor activity in heavily pretreated CRPC patients. The incidence of mineralocorticoid-related toxicities (hypertension or hypokalemia) was reduced by adding low-dose prednisone. The combination of AA plus prednisone is recommended for phase III investigations.
Project description:Abiraterone acetate (AA) is an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor shown to prolong life in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) already treated with chemotherapy. AA treatment results in dramatic declines in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in some patients and no declines in others, suggesting the presence of molecular determinants of sensitivity in tumors.To study the role of transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) fusion, an androgen-dependent growth factor, in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a biomarker of sensitivity to AA.The predictive value of TMPRSS2-ERG status was studied in 41 of 48 men with postchemotherapy-treated CRPC enrolled in sequential phase 2 AA trials.Patients received AA 1000 mg daily and continuously.TMPRSS2-ERG status was characterized by a sensitive, analytically valid reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay in CTCs enriched from ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulated blood obtained prior to AA treatment. Outcomes were measured by PSA Working Group 1 criteria.Standard procedures for specimen acquisition, processing, and testing using the validated TMPRSS2-ERG assay on a multiplex platform gave intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation <7%. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was present in 15 of 41 patients (37%), who had a median baseline CTC count of 17 (interquartile range: 7-103 cells per 7.5 ml). A PSA decline ?50% was observed in 7 of 15 patients (47%) with the fusion and in 10 of 26 patients (38%) without the fusion. Although limited by the low number of patients, a posttherapy CTC count of less than five per 7.5 ml was prognostic for longer survival relative to a CTC count five or more. TMPRSS2-ERG status did not predict a decline in PSA or other clinical outcomes.Molecular profiles of CTCs with an analytically valid assay identified the presence of the prostate cancer-specific TMPRSS2-ERG fusion but did not predict for response to AA treatment. This finding demonstrates the role of CTCs as surrogate tissue that can be obtained in a routine practice setting.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00474383 (COU-AA-003), NCT00485303 (COU-AA-004).
Project description:Abiraterone acetate is a prodrug of abiraterone, a selective inhibitor of CYP17, the enzyme catalyst for two essential steps in androgen biosynthesis. In castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs), extragonadal androgen sources may sustain tumor growth despite a castrate environment. This phase I dose-escalation study of abiraterone acetate evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on steroidogenesis and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men with CPRC with or without prior ketoconazole therapy.Thirty-three men with chemotherapy-naïve progressive CRPC were enrolled. Nineteen patients (58%) had previously received ketoconazole for CRPC. Bone metastases were present in 70% of patients, and visceral involvement was present in 18%. Three patients (9%) had locally advanced disease without distant metastases. Fasted or fed cohorts received abiraterone acetate doses of 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 mg daily. Single-dose pharmacokinetic analyses were performed before continuous daily dosing.Adverse events were predominantly grade 1 or 2. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Hypertension (grade 3, 12%) and hypokalemia (grade 3, 6%; grade 4, 3%) were the most frequent serious toxicities and responded to medical management. Confirmed > or = 50% PSA declines at week 12 were seen in 18 (55%) of 33 patients, including nine (47%) of 19 patients with prior ketoconazole therapy and nine (64%) of 14 patients without prior ketoconazole therapy. Substantial declines in circulating androgens and increases in mineralocorticoids were seen with all doses.Abiraterone acetate was well tolerated and demonstrated activity in CRPC, including in patients previously treated with ketoconazole. Continued clinical study is warranted.
Project description:We previously showed that detection of androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) was associated with primary resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone therapy, but the relevance of AR-V7 status in the context of chemotherapy is unknown.To investigate whether AR-V7-positive patients would retain sensitivity to taxane chemotherapy and whether AR-V7 status would have a differential impact on taxane-treated men compared with enzalutamide- or abiraterone-treated men.We examined CTCs for AR-V7 mRNA using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. From January 2013 to July 2014, we prospectively enrolled patients with metastatic CRPC initiating taxane chemotherapy (docetaxel or cabazitaxel) at a single academic institution (Johns Hopkins). Our prespecified statistical plan required a sample size of 36 taxane-treated men.We evaluated associations between AR-V7 status and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rates, PSA progression-free survival (PSA PFS), and clinical and/or radiographic progression-free survival (PFS). After incorporating updated data from our prior study of 62 patients treated with enzalutamide or abiraterone, we also investigated the interaction between AR-V7 status (positive or negative) and treatment type (taxane vs enzalutamide or abiraterone).Of 37 taxane-treated patients enrolled, 17 (46%) had detectable AR-V7 in CTCs. Prostate-specific antigen responses were achieved in both AR-V7-positive and AR-V7-negative men (41% vs 65%; P?=?.19). Similarly, PSA PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7, 95% CI, 0.6-5.0; P?=?.32) and PFS (HR, 2.7, 95% CI, 0.8-8.8; P?=?.11) were comparable in AR-V7-positive and AR-V7-negative patients. A significant interaction was observed between AR-V7 status and treatment type (P?<?.001). Clinical outcomes were superior with taxanes compared with enzalutamide or abiraterone therapy in AR-V7-positive men, whereas outcomes did not differ by treatment type in AR-V7-negative men. In AR-V7-positive patients, PSA responses were higher in taxane-treated vs enzalutamide- or abiraterone-treated men (41% vs 0%; P?<?.001), and PSA PFS and PFS were significantly longer in taxane-treated men (HR, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.07-0.52] for PSA PFS, P?=?.001; HR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.07-0.59] for PFS, P?=?.003).Detection of AR-V7 in CTCs from men with metastatic CRPC is not associated with primary resistance to taxane chemotherapy. In AR-V7-positive men, taxanes appear to be more efficacious than enzalutamide or abiraterone therapy, whereas in AR-V7-negative men, taxanes and enzalutamide or abiraterone may have comparable efficacy. Circulating tumor cell-based AR-V7 detection may serve as a treatment selection biomarker in CRPC.
Project description:Background:Abiraterone acetate is an androgen synthesis inhibitor approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although co-administration of either prednisone or prednisolone at 10?mg/d has been recommended to reduce the risk of abiraterone-induced hyperaldosteronism (notably hypokalemia) and to give adjunctive pain relief effects, whether these glucocorticoids can be substituted by dexamethasone remains unknown. Methods:We performed a retrospective review of medical records of patients who were given abiraterone for the treatment of CRPC with either prednisolone (ABI/PSL) 10?mg/d or dexamethasone (ABI/DEX) 0.5 or 1?mg/d between 2014 and 2017 in Juntendo University Nerima Hospital. Demographic and biochemical data including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level were retrieved from the electronic medical records. Results:Fifty-three eligible patients (27 in ABI/PSL group and 26 in ABI/DEX group) were extracted from the records. Both groups showed no significant changes in serum potassium level before and after starting treatment. In the ABI/PSL group, 12 patients (46%) showed elevations of PSA and 7 patients (27%) discontinued treatment within 3?months. In contrast, in the ABI/DEX group, only 6 patients (25%) showed elevations of PSA and 3 patients (13%, all were given dexamethasone 1?mg/d) discontinued treatment. Conclusions:Dexamethasone and prednisolone may be equally effective in preventing abiraterone-induced hypokalemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Abiraterone is a standard treatment for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We evaluated the antitumour activity of abiraterone following the synthetic oestrogen diethylstilboestrol (DES). METHODS:Castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone were identified. Demographics, response variables and survival data were recorded. RESULTS:Two-hundred and seventy-four patients received abiraterone, 114 (41.6%) after DES. Pre-chemotherapy abiraterone resulted in ?50% PSA declines in 35/41 (85.4%) DES-naïve and 20/27 (74.1%) DES-treated patients. Post-docetaxel abiraterone resulted in ?50% PSA declines in 40/113 (35.4%) DES-naïve and 23/81 (28.4%) DES-treated patients. Time to PSA progression was similar regardless of prior DES. CONCLUSION:Abiraterone has important antitumour activity in men with CRPC even after DES exposure.
Project description:Purpose:The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP17A1, CYB5A and the efficacy of abiraterone acetate treatment in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Patients and Methods:Data were collected from 58 CRPC patients who had been treated with abiraterone acetate/prednisone (AA/P). The SNPs rs743572 and rs10883783 on CYP17A1 and SNPs rs1790834 and rs1790858 on CYB5A were assayed, and their relationship with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response in patients after AA/P treatment, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by logistic regression, Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier and Log rank analyses. Results:The SNP rs1790834 on CYB5A showed significant association with PSA response in CRPC patients treated with AA/P (P < 0.05), but rs743572, rs10883783 and rs1790858 did not. The rs1790834 variant significantly decreased both PFS and OS (P < 0.05). Conclusion:The CYB5A rs790834 genotype is a novel SNP related to CRPC and may be used as a biomarker for CRPC treatment.
Project description:PURPOSE:Trials in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) need new clinical end points that are valid surrogates for survival. We evaluated circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration as a surrogate outcome measure. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Examining CTCs alone and in combination with other biomarkers as a surrogate for overall survival was a secondary objective of COU-AA-301, a multinational, randomized, double-blind phase III trial of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in patients with metastatic CRPC previously treated with docetaxel. The biomarkers were measured at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 weeks, with 12 weeks being the primary measure of interest. The Prentice criteria were applied to test candidate biomarkers as surrogates for overall survival at the individual-patient level. RESULTS:A biomarker panel using CTC count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was shown to satisfy the four Prentice criteria for individual-level surrogacy. Twelve-week surrogate biomarker data were available for 711 patients. The abiraterone acetate plus prednisone and prednisone-alone groups demonstrated a significant survival difference (P = .034); surrogate distribution at 12 weeks differed by treatment (P < .001); the discriminatory power of the surrogate to predict mortality was high (weighted c-index, 0.81); and adding the surrogate to the model eliminated the treatment effect on survival. Overall, 2-year survival of patients with CTCs < 5 (low risk) versus patients with CTCs ? 5 cells/7.5 mL of blood and LDH > 250 U/L (high risk) at 12 weeks was 46% and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSION:A biomarker panel containing CTC number and LDH level was shown to be a surrogate for survival at the individual-patient level in this trial of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone for patients with metastatic CRPC. Additional trials are ongoing to validate the findings.