Phenotype-specific CpG island methylation events in a murine model of prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT: Aberrant DNA methylation plays a significant role in nearly all human cancers and may contribute to disease progression to advanced phenotypes. Study of advanced prostate cancer phenotypes in the human disease is hampered by limited availability of tissues. We therefore took advantage of the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model to study whether three different phenotypes of TRAMP tumors (PRIM, late-stage primary tumors; AIP, androgen-independent primary tumors; and MET, metastases) displayed specific patterns of CpG island hypermethylation using Restriction Landmark Genomic Scanning. Each tumor phenotype displayed numerous hypermethylation events, with the most homogeneous methylation pattern in AIP and the most heterogeneous pattern in MET. Several loci displayed a phenotype-specific methylation pattern; the most striking pattern being loci methylated at high frequency in PRIM and AIP but rarely in MET. Examination of the mRNA expression of three genes, BC058385, Goosecoid, and Neurexin 2, which exhibited nonpromoter methylation, revealed increased expression associated with downstream methylation. Only methylated samples showed mRNA expression, in which tumor phenotype was a key factor determining the level of expression. The CpG island in the human orthologue of BC058385 was methylated in human AIP but not in primary androgen-stimulated prostate cancer or benign prostate. The clinical data show a proof-of-principle that the TRAMP model can be used to identify targets of aberrant CpG island methylation relevant to human disease. In conclusion, phenotype-specific hypermethylation events were associated with the overexpression of different genes and may provide new markers of prostate tumorigenesis.
Project description:14-3-3sigma proteins regulate numerous cellular processes that are important to cancer development. One of its biological roles involves G2 cell-cycle arrest following DNA damage. It has also been reported that the loss of 14-3-3sigma expression via CpG methylation may contribute to malignant transformation by impairing the G2 cell-cycle checkpoint function, thereby allowing an accumulation of genetic defects. However, how the CpG methylation-dependent silencing mechanism works in relation to promoter methylation associated with methyl-CpG-binding proteins (MeCPs) is still unclear. To better understand the mechanism, we first examined the methylation status of the 14-3-3sigma promoter-associated CpG islands and 14-3-3sigma gene expression in a subset of prostate cancer cell lines using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), an HhaI-based DNA methylation assay, and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). We found that the 14-3-3sigma expression is lost in LNCaP and Tramp-C1 prostate cancer cell lines and that this expression is restored after treatment with epigenetic silencing modifiers 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza) and trichostatin A (TSA). These results imply transcriptional silencing via promoter-associated CpG methylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MBD2) is associated preferentially to the methylated CpG island in the 14-3-3sigma promoter in LNCaP and Tramp-C1 cells but not in 14-3-3sigma-expressing PC3 and DU145 cells, which contain an unmethylated CpG island in the 14-3-3sigma promoter region. The 14-3-3sigma gene silencing because of CpG methylation correlates with binding of MBD2. In addition, the activation of 14-3-3sigma gene expression by a combination of 5-aza and TSA also involves the release of the MBD2 from the 14-3-3sigma promoter-methylated CpG island in LNCaP and Tramp-C1 cells. Furthermore, MBD2 knockdown by siRNA stimulated 14-3-3sigma expression in LNCaP cells. We also investigated whether the loss of 14-3-3sigma expression in LNCaP and Tramp-C1 cells affects cell proliferation by MTT assays. Interestingly, we observed that 14-3-3sigma-inactivated LNCaP and Tramp-C1 cells had markedly decreased cell proliferation and protein expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after restoration of 14-3-3sigma expression with 5-aza and TSA treatment. On the other hand, the same treatment did not significantly affect 14-3-3sigma-active PC3 and DU145 cells, which normally express 14-3-3sigma. Finally, 14-3-3sigma knockdown by siRNA resulted in increased proliferation in PC3 and DU145 cells. These findings suggest that the transcriptional silencing of the 14-3-3sigma gene is caused by promoter CpG island methylation associated with MBD2, and that this may play an important role in prostate cancer progression during the invasive and metastatic stages of the disease.
Project description:Cancer is characterised by DNA hypermethylation and gene silencing of CpG island-associated promoters, including tumour suppressor genes The methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family of proteins bind to methylated DNA and can aid in the meditation of gene silencing by interaction with histone deacetylases and histone methyltransferases. However the mechanisms responsible for eliciting CpG island hypermethylation in cancer, and the potential role that MBD may proteins play in modulation of the methylome remain unclear. Our previous work demonstrated that MBD2 preferentially binds to the hypermethylated GSTP1 promoter CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Here, we use functional genetic approaches to investigate if MBD2 plays an active role in promoting DNA methylation. First, we show that loss of MBD2 results in inhibition of both maintenance and spread of de novo methylation of a transfected construct containing the GSTP1 promoter CpG island in prostate cancer cells and Mbd2-/- mouse fibroblasts. De novo methylation was rescued by transient expression of Mbd2 in Mbd2-/- cells. Second, we show that MBD2 depletion triggers significant hypomethylation genome-wide in prostate cancer cells with concomitant loss of MBD2 binding at promoter and enhancer regulatory regions. Finally, CpG islands and shores that become hypomethylated after MBD2 depletion in LNCaP cancer cells show significant hypermethylation in clinical prostate cancer, highlighting a potential active role of MBD2 in promoting cancer specific hypermethylation. Importantly, co-immunoprecipiation of MBD2 reveals that MBD2 associates with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes 1 and 3A. Together our results demonstrate that MBD2 plays a critical role in â??rewritingâ?? the cancer methylome at specific regulatory regions. LNCaP prostate cancer cell line clones with reduced MBD2 expression were establised by using shRNA to MBD2 and scrambled control clones were established with scrambled control shRNA. To interrogate methylation changes induced by MBD2 knock-down we profiled three stably transfected scrambled control clones and three MBD2 knockdown clones on Illumina HumanMethylation450K arrays. Differential methylation analysis was carried out to identified CpG sites hypo-/hyper-methylated as a result of MBD2 knockdown.
Project description:Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor which regulates the expression of many cytoprotective genes. In the present study, we found that the expression of Nrf2 was suppressed in prostate tumor of the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. Similarly, the expression of Nrf2 and the induction of NQO1 were also substantially suppressed in tumorigenic TRAMP C1 cells but not in non-tumorigenic TRAMP C3 cells. Examination of the promoter region of the mouse Nrf2 gene identified a CpG island, which was methylated at specific CpG sites in prostate TRAMP tumor and in TRAMP C1 cells but not in normal prostate or TRAMP C3 cells, as shown by bisulfite genomic sequencing. Reporter assays indicated that methylation of these CpG sites dramatically inhibited the transcriptional activity of the Nrf2 promoter. Chromatin immunopreceipitation (ChIP) assays revealed increased binding of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MBD2) and trimethyl-histone H3 (Lys9) proteins to these CpG sites in the TRAMP C1 cells as compared to TRAMP C3 cells. In contrast, the binding of RNA Pol II and acetylated histone H3 to the Nrf2 promoter was decreased. Furthermore, treatment of TRAMP C1 cells with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) restored the expression of Nrf2 as well as the induction of NQO1 in TRAMP C1 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the expression of Nrf2 is suppressed epigenetically by promoter methylation associated with MBD2 and histone modifications in the prostate tumor of TRAMP mice. Our present findings reveal a novel mechanism by which Nrf2 expression is suppressed in TRAMP prostate tumor, shed new light on the role of Nrf2 in carcinogenesis and provide potential new directions for the detection and prevention of prostate cancer.
Project description:DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene expression. Genome hypermethylation has been proposed as a critical mechanism in human malignancies. However, whole-genome quantification of DNA methylation of human malignancies has rarely been investigated, and the significance of the genome distribution of CpG methylation is unclear. We performed whole-genome methylation sequencing to investigate the methylation profiles of 13 prostate samples: 5 prostate cancers, 4 matched benign prostate tissues adjacent to tumor, and 4 age-matched organ-donor prostate tissues. Alterations of methylation patterns occurred in prostate cancer and in benign prostate tissues adjacent to tumor, in comparison with age-matched organ-donor prostates. More than 95% alterations of genome methylation occurred in sequences outside CpG islands. Only a small fraction of the methylated CpG islands had any effect on RNA expression. Both intragene and promoter CpG island methylations negatively affected gene expression. However, suppressions of RNA expression did not correlate with levels of CpG island methylation, suggesting that CpG island methylation alone might not be sufficient to shut down gene expression. Motif analysis revealed a consensus sequence containing Sp1 binding motif significantly enriched in the effective CpG islands.
Project description:DNA hypermethylation is a common epigenetic abnormality in cancer and may serve as a useful marker to clone cancer-related genes as well as a marker of clinical disease activity. To identify CpG islands methylated in prostate cancer, we used methylated CpG island amplification (MCA) coupled with representational difference analysis (RDA) on prostate cancer cell lines. We isolated 34 clones that corresponded to promoter CpG islands, including 5 reported targets of hypermethylation in cancer. We confirmed the data for 17 CpG islands by COBRA and/or pyrosequencing. All 17 genes were methylated in at least 2 cell lines of a 21-cancer cell line panel containing prostate cancer, colon cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer. Based on methylation in primary tumors compared to normal adjacent tissues, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS and NSE1 are candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer (methylation range 50%-85%). The combination of NSE1 or SPOCK2 hypermethylation showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 95% in differentiating cancer from normal. Similarly NKX2-5, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS and GALR2 are candidate biomarkers for colon cancer (methylation range 60%-95%) and GALR2 hypermethylation showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 95%. Finally, SLC16A12, GALR2, TOX, SPOCK2, EGFR5 and DPYS are candidate biomarkers for breast cancer (methylation range 33%-79%) with the combination of EGFR5 or TOX hypermethylation showing a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 92%. Expression analysis for eight genes that had the most hypermethylation confirmed the methylation associated silencing and reactivation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment. Our data identify new targets of transcriptional silencing in cancer, and provide new biomarkers that could be useful in screening for prostate cancer and other cancers.
Project description:Cancer is characterised by DNA hypermethylation and gene silencing of CpG island-associated promoters, including tumour suppressor genes The methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family of proteins bind to methylated DNA and can aid in the meditation of gene silencing by interaction with histone deacetylases and histone methyltransferases. However the mechanisms responsible for eliciting CpG island hypermethylation in cancer, and the potential role that MBD may proteins play in modulation of the methylome remain unclear. Our previous work demonstrated that MBD2 preferentially binds to the hypermethylated GSTP1 promoter CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Here, we use functional genetic approaches to investigate if MBD2 plays an active role in promoting DNA methylation. First, we show that loss of MBD2 results in inhibition of both maintenance and spread of de novo methylation of a transfected construct containing the GSTP1 promoter CpG island in prostate cancer cells and Mbd2-/- mouse fibroblasts. De novo methylation was rescued by transient expression of Mbd2 in Mbd2-/- cells. Second, we show that MBD2 depletion triggers significant hypomethylation genome-wide in prostate cancer cells with concomitant loss of MBD2 binding at promoter and enhancer regulatory regions. Finally, CpG islands and shores that become hypomethylated after MBD2 depletion in LNCaP cancer cells show significant hypermethylation in clinical prostate cancer, highlighting a potential active role of MBD2 in promoting cancer specific hypermethylation. Importantly, co-immunoprecipiation of MBD2 reveals that MBD2 associates with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes 1 and 3A. Together our results demonstrate that MBD2 plays a critical role in ârewritingâ the cancer methylome at specific regulatory regions. LNCaP prostate cancer cell line clones with reduced MBD2 expression were establised by using shRNA to MBD2 and scrambled control clones were established with scrambled control shRNA. To interrogate expression changes induced by MBD2 knock-down we profiled three stably transfected scrambled control clones and three MBD2 knockdown clones on Affymetrix HuGene 1.0ST expression arrays. Differential expression analysis was carried out to identified genes up-/down-regulated by MBD2 knockdown.
Project description:Glutathione-S-transferase (Gst) genes are downregulated in human prostate cancer, and GSTP1 silencing is mediated by promoter DNA hypermethylation in this malignancy. We examined Gst gene expression and Gst promoter DNA methylation in normal murine prostates and Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) tumors.Primary and metastatic tumors were obtained from TRAMP mice, and normal prostates were obtained from strain-matched WT mice (n = 15/group). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to measure GstA4, GstK1, GstM1, GstO1, and GstP1 mRNA expression, and Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining was used to measure GstM1 and GstP1 protein expression. MassARRAY Quantitative Methylation Analysis was used to measure DNA methylation of the 5' CpG islands of GstA4, GstK1, GstM1, GstO1, and GstP1. TRAMP-C2 cells were treated with the epigenetic remodeling drugs decitabine and trichostatin A (TSA) alone and in combination, and Gst gene expression was measured.Of the genes analyzed, GstM1 and GstP1 were expressed at highest levels in normal prostate. All five Gst genes showed greatly reduced expression in primary tumors compared to normal prostate, but not in tumor metastases. Gst promoter methylation was unchanged in TRAMP tumors compared to normal prostate. Combined decitabine + TSA treatment significantly enhanced the expression of 4/5 Gst genes in TRAMP-C2 cells.Gst genes are extensively downregulated in primary but not metastatic TRAMP tumors. Promoter DNA hypermethylation does not appear to drive Gst gene repression in TRAMP primary tumors; however, pharmacological studies using TRAMP cells suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in Gst gene repression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Genetic changes have been widely reported in association with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), while epigenetic changes are poorly characterised. We aimed to further evaluate CpG-island hypermethylation in CCA at candidate loci, which may have potential as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers.<h4>Methods</h4>We analysed methylation of 26 CpG-islands in 102 liver fluke related-CCA and 29 adjacent normal samples using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Methylation of interest loci was confirmed using pyrosequencing and/or combined bisulfite restriction analysis, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry.<h4>Results</h4>A number of CpG-islands (OPCML, SFRP1, HIC1, PTEN and DcR1) showed frequency of hypermethylation in >28% of CCA, but not adjacent normal tissues. The results showed that 91% of CCA were methylated in at least one CpG-island. The OPCML was the most frequently methylated locus (72.5%) and was more frequently methylated in less differentiated CCA. Patients with methylated DcR1 had significantly longer overall survival (Median; 41.7 vs 21.7 weeks, P=0.027). Low-protein expression was found in >70% of CCA with methylation of OPCML or DcR1.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Aberrant hypermethylation of certain loci is a common event in liver fluke-related CCA and may potentially contribute to cholangiocarcinogenesis. The OPCML and DcR1 might serve as methylation biomarkers in CCA that can be readily examined by MSP.
Project description:Hypermethylation of CpG island (CGI) sequences is a nearly universal somatic genome alteration in cancer. Rapid and sensitive detection of DNA hypermethylation would aid in cancer diagnosis and risk stratification. We present a novel technique, called COMPARE-MS, that can rapidly and quantitatively detect CGI hypermethylation with high sensitivity and specificity in hundreds of samples simultaneously. To quantitate CGI hypermethylation, COMPARE-MS uses real-time PCR of DNA that was first digested by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and then precipitated by methyl-binding domain polypeptides immobilized on a magnetic solid matrix. We show that COMPARE-MS could detect five genome equivalents of methylated CGIs in a 1000- to 10,000-fold excess of unmethylated DNA. COMPARE-MS was used to rapidly quantitate hypermethylation at multiple CGIs in >155 prostate tissues, including benign and malignant prostate specimens, and prostate cell lines. This analysis showed that GSTP1, MDR1 and PTGS2 CGI hypermethylation as determined by COMPARE-MS could differentiate between malignant and benign prostate with sensitivities >95% and specificities approaching 100%. This novel technology could significantly improve our ability to detect CGI hypermethylation.
Project description:The vast majority of fragile-X full mutations are heavily methylated throughout the expanded CGG repeat and the surrounding CpG island. Hypermethylation initiates and/or stabilizes transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene, which causes the fragile X-syndrome phenotype characterized, primarily, by mental retardation. The relation between repeat expansion and hypermethylation is not well understood nor is it absolute, as demonstrated by the identification of nonretarded males who carry hypomethylated full mutations. To better characterize the methylation pattern in a patient who carries a hypomethylated full mutation of approximately 60-700 repeats, we have evaluated methylation with the McrBC endonuclease, which allows analysis of numerous sites in the FMR1 CpG island, including those located within the CGG repeat. We report that the expanded-repeat region is completely free of methylation in this full-mutation male. Significantly, this lack of methylation appears to be specific to the expanded FMR1 CGG-repeat region, because various linked and unlinked repetitive-element loci are methylated normally. This finding demonstrates that the lack of methylation in the expanded CGG-repeat region is not associated with a global defect in methylation of highly repeated DNA sequences. We also report that de novo methylation of the expanded CGG-repeat region does not occur when it is moved via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer into a de novo methylation-competent mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line.