ABSTRACT: Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of gastroenteritis. On the basis of capsid protein (VP1) nucleotide sequences, SaV can be divided into 5 genogroups (GI-GV), of which the GI, GII, GIV, and GV strains infect humans. SaV is uncultivable, but expression of recombinant VP1 in insect cells results in formation of viruslike particles (VLPs) that are antigenically similar to native SaV. In this study, we newly expressed SaV GII and GIV VLPs to compare genetic and antigenic relationships among all human SaV genogroups. Hyperimmune antiserum samples against VLPs reacted strongly with homologous VLPs. However, several antiserum samples weakly cross-reacted against heterologous VLPs in an antibody ELISA. Conversely, an antigen ELISA showed that VLPs of SaV in all human genogroups were antigenically distinct. These findings indicate a likely correspondence between SaV antigenicity and VP1 genogrouping and genotyping.
Project description:Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis. They are diverse viruses, with at least six genogroups (GI-GVI) and multiple genotypes defined by differences in the major capsid protein, VP1. This diversity has challenged the development of broadly cross-reactive vaccines as well as efficient detection methods. Here, we report the characterization of a broadly cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against the capsid protein of a GII.3 norovirus strain. The MAb reacted with VLPs and denatured VP1 protein from GI, GII, GIV and GV noroviruses, and mapped to a linear epitope located in the inner shell domain. An alignment of all available VP1 sequences showed that the putative epitope (residues 52-56) is highly conserved across the genus Norovirus. This broadly cross-reactive MAb thus constitutes a valuable reagent for the diagnosis and study of these diverse viruses.
Project description:Sapoviruses (SAVs), including several genogroups (GI to GV), are one of the causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In this study, viral metagenomics revealed the presence of sapoviruses of different genogroups in stool from children with AGE. Eight different complete SAV genomes were determined, of which five belonged to GI and the other three belonged to GII, GIV and GV, respectively. Although they were highly similar to published sequences, the GIV and GV were the first complete genome sequences of these SAVs found in China. In a prevalence investigation, 19% of subjects with AGE were positive for SAVs, while none of the control group was positive.
Project description:Noroviruses are genetically diverse RNA viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in mammalian hosts. Phylogenetically, they can be segregated into different genogroups as well as P (polymerase)-groups and further into genotypes and P-types based on amino acid diversity of the complete VP1 gene and nucleotide diversity of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region of ORF1, respectively. In recent years, several new noroviruses have been reported that warrant an update of the existing classification scheme. Using previously described 2× standard deviation (sd) criteria to group sequences into separate clusters, we expanded the number of genogroups to 10 (GI-GX) and the number of genotypes to 49 (9 GI, 27 GII, 3 GIII, 2 GIV, 2 GV, 2 GVI and 1 genotype each for GVII, GVIII, GIX [formerly GII.15] and GX). Viruses for which currently only one sequence is available in public databases were classified into tentative new genogroups (GNA1 and GNA2) and genotypes (GII.NA1, GII.NA2 and GIV.NA1) with their definitive assignment awaiting additional related sequences. Based on nucleotide diversity in the RdRp region, noroviruses can be divided into 60 P-types (14?GI, 37 GII, 2 GIII, 1 GIV, 2 GV, 2 GVI, 1 GVII and 1 GX), 2 tentative P-groups and 14 tentative P-types. Future classification and nomenclature updates will be based on complete genome sequences and will be coordinated and disseminated by the international norovirus classification-working group.
Project description:Sapoviruses (SaVs) are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans, pigs, mink, dogs, sea lions, chimpanzees, and rats. They show a high level of diversity. A SaV genome commonly encodes seven nonstructural proteins (NSs), including the RNA polymerase protein NS7, and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2). We classified human and animal SaVs into 15 genogroups (G) based on available VP1 sequences, including three newly characterized genomes from this study. We sequenced the full length genomes of one new genogroup V (GV), one GVII and one GVIII porcine SaV using long range RT-PCR including newly designed forward primers located in the conserved motifs of the putative NS3, and also 5' RACE methods. We also determined the 5'- and 3'-ends of sea lion GV SaV and canine GXIII SaV. Although the complete genomic sequences of GIX-GXII, and GXV SaVs are unavailable, common features of SaV genomes include: 1) "GTG" at the 5'-end of the genome, and a short (9~14 nt) 5'-untranslated region; and 2) the first five amino acids (M [A/V] S [K/R] P) of the putative NS1 and the five amino acids (FEMEG) surrounding the putative cleavage site between NS7 and VP1 were conserved among the chimpanzee, two of five genogroups of pig (GV and GVIII), sea lion, canine, and human SaVs. In contrast, these two amino acid motifs were clearly different in three genogroups of porcine (GIII, GVI and GVII), and bat SaVs. Our results suggest that several animal SaVs have genetic similarities to human SaVs. However, the ability of SaVs to be transmitted between humans and animals is uncertain.
Project description:Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus.
Project description:Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), a major etiopathologic cause of pediatric hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, has been reported to have caused several fatalities. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of CV-A16 across time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential.In this study, we isolated six CV-A16 strains in China's Jilin province and construct a maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree for CV-A16 VP1 gene by the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method using 708 strains from GenBank with epidemiological information. The evolution characteristics of CV-A16 VP1 gene was also analysed dynamicly through Bayesian skyline plot.All CV-A16 strains identified could be classified into five major genogroups, denoted by GI-GV. GIV and GV have co-circulated in China since 2007, and the CV-A16 epidemic strain isolated in the Jilin province, China, can be classified as GIV-3. The CV-A16 genogroups circulating recently in China have the same ancestor since 2007. The genetic diversity of the CV-A16 VP1 gene shows a continuous increase since the mid-1990s, with sharp increases in genetic diversity in 1997 and 2007 and reached peak in 2007. Very low genetic diversity existed after 2010. The CV-A16 VP1 gene evolutionary rate was 6.656E-3 substitutions per site per year.We predicted the dynamic phylogenetic trends, which indicate outbreak trends of CV-A16, and provide theoretical foundations for clinical prevention and treatment of HFMD which caused by a CV-A16.
Project description:Sapovirus enteric disease affects people of all ages across the globe, in both sporadic cases and outbreak settings. Sapovirus is seldom assessed in Germany and its epidemiology in the country is essentially unknown. Thus, sapovirus occurrence and genetic diversity were studied by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial sequencing of major viral structural protein (VP1) gene in two different sets of stool samples: 1) a selection of 342 diarrheal stools collected from inpatient children during 2008-2009, and 2) 5555 stool samples collected during 2010-2018 from inpatients of all age groups with gastrointestinal complaints. Results showed year-round circulation of sapoviruses, with peaks during cooler months. In total, 30 samples (8.8%) of the first and 112 samples of the second set of samples (2.0%) were sapovirus positive. Capsid gene sequencing was successful in 134/142 samples (94.4%) and showed circulation of all known human pathogenic genogroups. Genotype GI.1 predominated (31.8%), followed by GII.1 (16.7%), GII.3 (14.5%), GI.2 (13.8%) and GV.1 (12.3%). Additionally, minor circulation of GI.3, GI.6, GII.2, GII.4, GII.6 and GIV.1 was shown. Consequently, sapovirus diagnostics need broadly reactive RT-PCR protocols and should particularly be considered in infants and young children. Further studies from other sampling sites are essential to extend our knowledge on sapovirus epidemiology in Germany.
Project description:Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis.
Project description:Noroviruses (NoVs) commonly cause acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. Broadly reactive diagnostic assays are essential for rapid detection of NoV infections. We previously generated a panel of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We characterized MAb reactivities by use of virus-like particles (VLPs) from 16 different NoV genotypes (6 from genogroup I [GI], 9 from GII, and 1 from GIV) coating a microtiter plate (direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and by Western blotting. MAbs were genotype specific or recognized multiple genotypes within a genogroup and between genogroups. We next applied surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis to measure MAb dissociation constants (Kd) as a surrogate for binding affinity; a Kd level of <10 nM was regarded as indicating strong binding. Some MAbs did not interact with the VLPs by SPR analysis. To further assess this lack of MAb-VLP interaction, the MAbs were evaluated for the ability to identify NoV VLPs in a capture ELISA. Those MAbs for which a Kd could not be measured by SPR analysis also failed to capture the NoV VLPs; in contrast, those with a measurable Kd gave a positive signal in the capture ELISA. Thus, some broadly cross-reactive epitopes in the VP1 protruding domain may be partially masked on intact particles. One MAb, NV23, was able to detect genogroup I, II, and IV VLPs from 16 genotypes tested by sandwich ELISA, and it successfully detected NoVs in stool samples positive by real-time reverse transcription-PCR when the threshold cycle (CT) value was <31. Biochemical analyses of MAb reactivity, including SPR analysis, identified NV23 as a broadly reactive ligand for application in norovirus diagnostic assays.
Project description:Norovirus is an important human pathogen that is now recognized as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis globally. Six viral genogroups have been described, although only genogroups GI, GII, and GIV are known to infect humans, with the GII viruses most commonly identified in both outbreak and sporadic settings. In contrast, infections by GIV viruses are rarely reported, and their overall prevalence in the community is unknown. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the human GIV.1 strain Lake Macquarie virus, which caused two linked outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in aged-care facilities in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. The Lake Macquarie virus genome was 7,527 nucleotides (nt) in length and shared highest identity (70%) with the recently completed feline GIV.2 virus genome.