Identification of a conserved membrane localization domain within numerous large bacterial protein toxins.
ABSTRACT: Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Many virulence factors contribute to intestinal colonization and disease including the Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX toxin (MARTX(Vc)). The Rho-inactivation domain (RID) of MARTX(Vc) is responsible for inactivating the Rho-family of small GTPases, which leads to depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. Based on a deletion analysis of RID to determine the minimal functional domain, we have identified a subdomain at the N terminus of RID that is homologous to the membrane targeting C1 domain of Pasteurella multocida toxin. A GFP fusion to this subdomain from RID colocalized with a plasma membrane marker when transiently expressed within HeLa cells and can be found in the membrane fraction following subcellular fractionation. This C1-like subdomain is present in multiple families of bacterial toxins, including all of the clostridial glucosyltransferase toxins and various MARTX toxins. GFP-fusions to these homologous domains are also membrane associated, indicating that this is a conserved membrane localization domain (MLD). We have identified three residues (Y23, S68, R70) as necessary for proper localization of one but not all MLDs. In addition, we found that substitution of the RID MLD with the MLDs from two different effector domains from the Vibrio vulnificus MARTX toxin restored RID activity, indicating that there is functional overlap between these MLDs. This study describes the initial recognition of a family of conserved plasma membrane-targeting domains found in multiple large bacterial toxins.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. For V. cholerae to colonize the intestinal epithelium, accessory toxins such as the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX(Vc)) toxin are required. MARTX toxins are composite toxins comprised of arrayed effector domains that carry out distinct functions inside the host cell. Among the three effector domains of MARTX(Vc) is the Rho inactivation domain (RID(Vc)) known to cause cell rounding through inactivation of small RhoGTPases. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis in the activity subdomain of RID(Vc), four residues, His-2782, Leu-2851, Asp-2854, and Cys-3022, were identified as impacting RID(Vc) function in depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and inactivation of RhoA. Tyr-2807 and Tyr-3015 were identified as important potentially for forming the active structure for substrate contact but are not involved in catalysis or post translational modifications. Finally, V. cholerae strains modified to carry a catalytically inactive RID(Vc) show that the rate and efficiency of MARTX(Vc) actin cross-linking activity does not depend on a functional RID(Vc), demonstrating that these domains function independently in actin depolymerization. Overall, our results indicate a His-Asp-Cys catalytic triad is essential for function of the RID effector domain family shared by MARTX toxins produced by many Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Membrane localization domain (MLD) was first proposed for a 4-helix-bundle motif in the crystal structure of the C1 domain of Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT). This structure motif is also found in the crystal structures of several clostridial glycosylating toxins (TcdA, TcdB, TcsL, and TcnA). The Ras/Rap1-specific endopeptidase (RRSP) module of the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxins (MARTX) toxin produced by Vibrio vulnificus has sequence homology to the C1-C2 domains of PMT, including a putative MLD. We have determined the solution structure for the MLDs in PMT and in RRSP using solution state NMR. We conclude that the MLDs in these two toxins assume a 4-helix-bundle structure in solution.
Project description:(1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments are presented for the isolated four-helical bundle membrane localization domain from the domain of unknown function 5 (DUF5) effector (MLD(VvDUF5)) of the MARTX toxin from Vibrio vulnificus in its solution state. We have assigned 97% of all backbone and side-chain carbon atoms, including 96% of all backbone residues. Secondary chemical shift analysis using TALOS+ demonstrates four helices that align with those predicted by structure homology modeling using the MLDs of Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) and the clostridial TcdB and TcsL toxins as templates. Future studies will be towards solving the structure and determining the dynamics in the solution state.
Project description:The multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins are bacterial protein toxins that serve as delivery platforms for cytotoxic effector domains. The domain of unknown function in position 5 (DUF5) effector domain is present in at least six different species' MARTX toxins and as a hypothetical protein in Photorhabdus spp. Its presence increases the potency of the Vibrio vulnificus MARTX toxin in mouse virulence studies, indicating DUF5 directly contributes to pathogenesis. In this work, DUF5 is shown to be cytotoxic when transiently expressed in HeLa cells. DUF5 localized to the plasma membrane dependent upon its C1 domain and the cells become rounded dependent upon its C2 domain. Both full-length DUF5 and the C2 domain caused growth inhibition when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A structural model of DUF5 was generated based on the structure of Pasteurella multocida toxin facilitating localization of the cytotoxic activity to a 186 amino acid subdomain termed C2A. Within this subdomain, an alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed aspartate-3721 and arginine-3841 as residues critical for cytotoxicity. These residues were also essential for HeLa cell intoxication when purified DUF5 fused to anthrax toxin lethal factor was delivered cytosolically. Thermal shift experiments indicated that these conserved residues are important to maintain protein structure, rather than for catalysis. The Aeromonas hydrophila MARTX toxin DUF5(Ah) domain was also cytotoxic, while the weakly conserved C1-C2 domains from P. multocida toxin were not. Overall, this study is the first demonstration that DUF5 as found in MARTX toxins has cytotoxic activity that depends on conserved residues in the C2A subdomain.
Project description:Multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins are pore-forming bacterial toxins that translocate multiple functionally independent effector domains into a target eukaryotic cell. Vibrio cholerae colonizes intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and uses a MARTX toxin with three effector domains-an actin cross-linking domain (ACD), a Rho inactivation domain (RID), and an ?/? hydrolase domain (ABH)-to suppress innate immunity and enhance colonization. We investigated whether these multiple catalytic enzymes delivered from a single toxin functioned in a coordinated manner to suppress intestinal innate immunity. Using cultured human IECs, we demonstrated that ACD-induced cytoskeletal collapse activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling to elicit a robust proinflammatory response characterized by the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8; also called CXCL8) and the expression of CXCL8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and other proinflammatory genes. However, RID and ABH, which are naturally delivered together with ACD, blocked MAPK activation through Rac1 and thus prevented ACD-induced inflammation. RID also abolished IL-8 secretion induced by heat-killed bacteria, TNF, or latrunculin A. Thus, MARTX toxins use enzymatic multifunctionality to silence the host response to bacterial factors and to the damage caused by the toxins. Furthermore, these data show how V. cholerae MARTX toxin suppresses intestinal inflammation and contributes to cholera being classically defined as a noninflammatory diarrheal disease.
Project description:The objective of this study was to analyze multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin domain organization within the aquatic species Vibrio vulnificus as well as to study the evolution of the rtxA1 gene. The species is subdivided into three biotypes that differ in host range and geographical distribution. We have found three different types (I, II, and III) of V. vulnificus MARTX (MARTX(Vv)) toxins with common domains (an autocatalytic cysteine protease domain [CPD], an ?/?-hydrolase domain, and a domain resembling that of the LifA protein of Escherichia coli O127:H6 E2348/69 [Efa/LifA]) and specific domains (a Rho-GTPase inactivation domain [RID], a domain of unknown function [DUF], a domain resembling that of the rtxA protein of Photorhabdus asymbiotica [rtxA(PA)], and an actin cross-linking domain [ACD]). Biotype 1 isolates harbor MARTX(Vv) toxin types I and II, biotype 2 isolates carry MARTX(Vv) toxin type III, and biotype 3 isolates have MARTX(Vv) toxin type II. The analyzed biotype 2 isolates harbor two identical copies of rtxA1, one chromosomal and the other plasmidic. The evolutionary history of the gene demonstrates that MARTX(Vv) toxins are mosaics, comprising pieces with different evolutionary histories, some of which have been acquired by intra- or interspecific horizontal gene transfer. Finally, we have found evidence that the evolutionary history of the rtxA1 gene for biotype 2 differs totally from the gene history of biotypes 1 and 3.
Project description:A Rho GTPase inactivation domain (RID) has been discovered in the multifunctional, autoprocessing RTX toxin RtxA from Vibrio cholerae. The RID domain causes actin depolymerization and rounding of host cells through inactivation of the small Rho GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42. With only a few toxin proteins containing RID domains in the current sequence database, the structure and molecular mechanisms of this domain are unknown. Using comparative sequence and structural analyses, we report homology inference, fold recognition, and active site prediction for RID domains. Remote homologs of RID domains were identified in two other experimentally characterized bacterial virulence factors: IcsB of Shigella flexneri and BopA of Burkholderia pseudomallei, as well as in a group of uncharacterized bacterial membrane proteins. IcsB plays an important role in helping Shigella to evade the host autophagy defense system. RID domain homologs share a conserved diad of cysteine and histidine residues, and are predicted to adopt a circularly permuted papain-like thiol protease fold. RID domains from MARTX toxins and virulence factors IcsB and BopA thus could function as proteases or acyltransferases acting on host molecules. Our results provide structural and mechanistic insights into several important proteins functioning in bacterial pathogenesis.
Project description:MARTX toxins are large single polypeptide bacterial toxins that translocate multiple cytotoxic and functionally independent effector domains into the cytosol of a target eukaryotic cell. Pandemic Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 strains secrete a MARTX toxin with three effector domains — the actin crosslinking domain (ACD), the Rho inactivation domain (RID), and the alpha/beta-hydrolase domain (ABH) — to regulate innate immunity and enhance colonization. The goal of this study was to compare changes in the transcriptome of human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) treated with V. cholerae modified to secret a toxin with only one effector domain to the transcriptome of cells treated with V. cholerae secreting the wild type MARTX toxin that delivers all three effector domains simultaneously. We demonstrate that when all three effectors are delivered there is no change in transcriptional response of IECs compared to untreated cells. However, when only ACD is delivered, transcriptional profiling revealed a significant proinflammatory response is activated. These data suggests that V. cholerae may utilize co-delivery of RID and/or ABH to silence the intestinal immune response to ACD activity. These data provide insight into how the V. cholerae MARTX toxin effector domains function together to alter the innate immune response of IECs during bacterial infection.
Project description:(1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments are presented for the isolated four-helical bundle membrane localization domain (MLD) from Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) in its solution state. We have assigned 99% of all backbone and side-chain carbon atoms, including 99% of all backbone residues excluding proline amide nitrogens. Secondary chemical shift analysis using TALOS+ demonstrates four helices, which align with those observed within the MLD in the crystal structure of the C-terminus of PMT (PDB 2EBF) and confirm the use of the available crystal structures as templates for the isolated MLDs.
Project description:Multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins are a heterogeneous group of toxins found in a number of Vibrio species and other Gram-negative bacteria. The toxins are composed of conserved repeat regions and an autoprocessing protease domain that together function as a delivery platform for transfer of cytotoxic and cytopathic domains into target eukaryotic cell cytosol. Within the cells, the effectors can alter biological processes such as signaling or cytoskeletal structure, presumably to the benefit of the bacterium. Ten effector domains are found in the various Vibrio MARTX toxins, although any one toxin carries only two to five effector domains. The specific toxin variant expressed by a species can be modified by homologous recombination to acquire or lose effector domains, such that different strains within the same species can express distinct variants of the toxins. This review examines the conserved structural elements of the MARTX toxins and details the different toxin arrangements carried by Vibrio species and strains. The catalytic function of domains and how the toxins are linked to pathogenesis of human and animals is described.