Microassay for glucose-induced preproinsulin mRNA expression to assess islet functional potency for islet transplantation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The capacity for insulin synthesis in islets is important for islet transplantation to succeed. We developed a microassay that evaluates the potency of human islets by measuring changes in glucose-induced human insulin gene (INS) expression using a single islet in octuplicate samples. METHODS:Poly (A) messenger RNA (mRNA) was purified from a set of single handpicked human islets. Glucose-induced mature (postspliced) and premature (prespliced) insulin mRNA were quantified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using several insulin mRNA primers designed at different locations including, intron, exon, and an exon-intron junction. RESULTS:The synthesis of premature INS mRNA was significantly increased in islets exposed to high glucose for 16 vs. 4 hr (P<0.01), whereas mature INS mRNA showed no difference. Glucose-induced premature INS mRNA synthesis was attenuated in heat-damaged islets. Stimulation index (SI) calculated by normalizing premature by mature INS mRNA (SI_INS mRNA) positively correlated with SI of insulin release (SI_16h insulin) from the same set of islets during 16-hr incubation in high or low glucose media, and SI of glucose-mediated insulin release obtained from the same islet lot in a perifusion system (n=12). Furthermore, linear multiple regression analysis using SI_INS mRNA and SI_16h insulin predicted islet transplantation outcome in nonobese diabetic (NOD) scid mice (n=8). CONCLUSION:The measurement of glucose-induced premature INS mRNA normalized by mature INS mRNA can be used to assess the functional quality of human islets and may predict islet function after transplantation in type 1 diabetic patients.
Project description:In vitro differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into functional islets holds immense potential to create an unlimited source of islets for diabetes research and treatment. A continuous challenge in this field is to generate glucose-responsive mature islets. We herein report a previously undiscovered angiopoietin signal for in vitro islet development. We revealed, for the first time, that angiopoietins, including angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) permit the generation of islets from iPSCs with elevated glucose responsiveness, a hallmark of mature islets. Angiopoietin-stimulated islets exhibited glucose synchronized calcium ion influx in repetitive glucose challenges. Moreover, Ang2 augmented the expression of all islet hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide; and β cell transcription factors, including NKX6.1, MAFA, UCN3, and PDX1. Furthermore, we showed that the Ang2 stimulated islets were able to regulate insulin exocytosis through actin-filament polymerization and depolymerization upon glucose challenge, presumably through the CDC42-RAC1-gelsolin mediated insulin secretion signaling pathway. We also discovered the formation of endothelium within the islets under Ang2 stimulation. These results strongly suggest that angiopoietin acts as a signaling molecule to endorse in vitro islet development from iPSCs.
Project description:Prolactin (PRL) induces beta-cell proliferation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and counteracts the effects of glucocorticoids on insulin production. The mechanisms by which PRL up-regulates GSIS are unknown. We used rat islets and insulinoma (INS-1) cells to explore the interactions of PRL, glucose, and dexamethasone (DEX) in the regulation of beta-cell pyruvate carboxylase (PC), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs), which catalyze the phosphorylation and inactivation of PDH. PRL increased GSIS by 37% (P < 0.001) in rat islets. Glucose at supraphysiological concentrations (11 mm) increased PC mRNA in islets; in contrast, PRL suppressed PC mRNA levels in islets and INS-1 cells, whereas DEX was without effect. Neither PRL nor DEX altered PC protein or activity levels. In INS-1 cells, PRL increased PDH activity 1.4- to 2-fold (P < 0.05-0.001) at glucose concentrations ranging from 2.5-11 mm. DEX reduced PDH activity; this effect was reversed by PRL. PDK1, -2, -3, and -4 mRNAs were detected in both islets and insulinoma cells, but the latter expressed trivial amounts of PDK4. PRL reduced PDK2 mRNA and protein levels in rat islets and INS-1 cells and PDK4 mRNA in islets; DEX increased PDK2 mRNA in islets and INS-1 cells; this effect was reversed by PRL. Our findings suggest that PRL induction of GSIS is mediated by increases in beta-cell PDH activity; this is facilitated by suppression of PDKs. PRL counteracts the effects of DEX on PDH and PDK expression, suggesting novel roles for the lactogens in the defense against diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>Our understanding of the transcription factors that control the development and function of rodent islet beta cells is advancing rapidly, yet less is known of the role they play in similar processes in human islets.<h4>Methods</h4>To characterise the abundance and regulation of key proteins involved in glucose-regulated insulin secretion in human islets, we examined the expression of MAFA, MAFB, GLUT2 (also known as SLC2A2), ?GK (also known as GCK) and PDX1 in isolated, highly purified human islets with an intact insulin secretory pattern. We also assessed these features in islets from two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and FVB).<h4>Results</h4>Compared with mouse islets, human islets secreted more insulin at baseline glucose (5.6 mmol/l), but less upon stimulation with high glucose (16.7 mmol/l) or high glucose plus 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine. Human islets had relatively more MAFB than PDX1 mRNA, while mouse islets had relatively more Pdx1 than Mafb mRNA. However, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue (MAF) B protein was found in human islet alpha and beta cells. This is unusual as this regulator is only produced in islet alpha cells in adult mice. The expression of insulin, MAFA, ?GK and PDX1 was not glucose-regulated in human islets with an intact insulin secretory pattern.<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>Our results suggest that human islets have a distinctive distribution and function of key regulators of the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion pathway, emphasising the urgent need to understand the processes that regulate human islet beta cell function.
Project description:HMG20A (also known as iBRAF) is a chromatin factor involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation. Recently small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HMG20A gene have been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) yet neither expression nor function of this T2DM candidate gene in islets is known. Herein we demonstrate that HMG20A is expressed in both human and mouse islets and that levels are decreased in islets of T2DM donors as compared to islets from non-diabetic donors. In vitro studies in mouse and human islets demonstrated that glucose transiently increased HMG20A transcript levels, a result also observed in islets of gestating mice. In contrast, HMG20A expression was not altered in islets from diet-induced obese and pre-diabetic mice. The T2DM-associated rs7119 SNP, located in the 3' UTR of the HMG20A transcript reduced the luciferase activity of a reporter construct in the human beta 1.1E7 cell line. Depletion of Hmg20a in the rat INS-1E cell line resulted in decreased expression levels of its neuronal target gene NeuroD whereas Rest and Pax4 were increased. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction of HMG20A with the Pax4 gene promoter. Expression levels of Mafa, Glucokinase, and Insulin were also inhibited. Furthermore, glucose-induced insulin secretion was blunted in HMG20A-depleted islets. In summary, our data demonstrate that HMG20A expression in islet is essential for metabolism-insulin secretion coupling via the coordinated regulation of key islet-enriched genes such as NeuroD and Mafa and that depletion induces expression of genes such as Pax4 and Rest implicated in beta cell de-differentiation. More importantly we assign to the T2DM-linked rs7119 SNP the functional consequence of reducing HMG20A expression likely translating to impaired beta cell mature function.
Project description:Islets of Langerhans contain multiple hormone-producing endocrine cells controlling glucose homeostasis. Transcription establishes and maintains islet cellular fates and identities. Genetic and environmental disruption of islet transcription triggers cellular dysfunction and disease. Early transcriptional regulation studies of specific islet genes, including insulin (INS) and the transcription factor PDX1, identified the first cis-regulatory DNA sequences and trans-acting factors governing islet function. Here, we review how human islet "omics" studies are reshaping our understanding of transcriptional regulation in islet (dys)function and diabetes. First, we highlight the expansion of islet transcript number, form, and function and of DNA transcriptional regulatory elements controlling their production. Next, we cover islet transcriptional effects of genetic and environmental perturbation. Finally, we discuss how these studies' emerging insights should empower our diabetes research community to build mechanistic understanding of diabetes pathophysiology and to equip clinicians with tailored, precision medicine options to prevent and treat islet dysfunction and diabetes.
Project description:We found that in rodents, postnatal beta-cell maturation is associated with changes in the expression of several islet microRNAs and discovered that these modifications are driven by changes in the nutrient supply. Mimicking the microRNA changes observed during β-cell maturation in newborn rat islet cells was sufficient to promote glucose-induced insulin release and to achieve a mature β-cell secretory phenotype. Moreover, the modifications in the level of some of these microRNAs reduced the proliferation of newborn β-cells, suggesting that they contribute to the limited proliferative capacity of adult β-cells. These findings demonstrated that miRNAs contribute to postnatal beta-cell maturation and development. Their role is likely to promote beta-cell adaptation to fule supply and to maintain glucose homeostasis by regulating insulin release and proliferation. Islets from 10-day-old rats (P10) (n=3) or 3-month-old male rat (n=3) were taken. Total RNA was extracted and mRNA profiling via Illumina single-end sequencing of mRNA-seq libraries was performed.
Project description:Glucose stimulates both insulin secretion and hydrolysis of arachidonic acid (AA) esterified in membrane phospholipids of pancreatic islet beta-cells, and these processes are amplified by muscarinic agonists. Here we demonstrate that nonesterified AA regulates the biophysical activity of the pancreatic islet beta-cell-delayed rectifier channel, Kv2.1. Recordings of Kv2.1 currents from INS-1 insulinoma cells incubated with AA (5 mum) and subjected to graded degrees of depolarization exhibit a significantly shorter time-to-peak current interval than do control cells. AA causes a rapid decay and reduced peak conductance of delayed rectifier currents from INS-1 cells and from primary beta-cells isolated from mouse, rat, and human pancreatic islets. Stimulating mouse islets with AA results in a significant increase in the frequency of glucose-induced [Ca(2+)] oscillations, which is an expected effect of Kv2.1 channel blockade. Stimulation with concentrations of glucose and carbachol that accelerate hydrolysis of endogenous AA from islet phosphoplipids also results in accelerated Kv2.1 inactivation and a shorter time-to-peak current interval. Group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) hydrolyzes beta-cell membrane phospholipids to release nonesterified fatty acids, including AA, and inhibiting iPLA(2)beta prevents the muscarinic agonist-induced accelerated Kv2.1 inactivation. Furthermore, glucose and carbachol do not significantly affect Kv2.1 inactivation in beta-cells from iPLA(2)beta(-/-) mice. Stably transfected INS-1 cells that overexpress iPLA(2)beta hydrolyze phospholipids more rapidly than control INS-1 cells and also exhibit an increase in the inactivation rate of the delayed rectifier currents. These results suggest that Kv2.1 currents could be dynamically modulated in the pancreatic islet beta-cell by phospholipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to yield non-esterified fatty acids, such as AA, that facilitate Ca(2+) entry and insulin secretion.
Project description:We previously isolated islet stellate cells (ISCs) from healthy Wistar rat islets. In the present study, we isolated "already primed by diabetic environment" ISCs from islets of Goto-Kakizaki rats, determined the gene profile of these cells, and assessed the effects of these ISCs on beta-cell function and survival. We detected gene expression of ISCs by digital gene expression. INS-1 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and insulin production were measured after being treated with ISCs supernatant (SN). We observed the similar expression pattern of ISCs and PSCs, but 1067 differentially expressed genes. Insulin production in INS-1 cells cultured with ISC-SN was significantly reduced. The 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-positive INS-1 cells treated with ISC-SN were decreased. Propidium iodide- (PI-) positive INS-1 cells were 2.6-fold higher than those in control groups. Caspase-3 activity was increased. In conclusion, ISCs presented in fibrotic islet of GK rats might be special PSCs, which impaired beta-cell function and proliferation and increased beta-cell apoptosis.
Project description:We found that in rodents, postnatal beta-cell maturation is associated with changes in the expression of several islet microRNAs and discovered that these modifications are driven by changes in the nutrient supply. Mimicking the microRNA changes observed during β-cell maturation in newborn rat islet cells was sufficient to promote glucose-induced insulin release and to achieve a mature β-cell secretory phenotype. Moreover, the modifications in the level of some of these microRNAs reduced the proliferation of newborn β-cells, suggesting that they contribute to the limited proliferative capacity of adult β-cells. These findings demonstrated that miRNAs contribute to postnatal beta-cell maturation and development. Their role is likely to promote beta-cell adaptation to fule supply and to maintain glucose homeostasis by regulating insulin release and proliferation. Islets from 10-day-old rats (P10) were taken, dispersed and transfected with control miRNA mimic or miR-17-5p. Total RNA was extracted and mRNA profiling via Illumina single-end sequencing of mRNA-seq libraries was performed. In parallel, Ago2 immunoprecipitation with RNA recovery and mRNA-seq was performed (RISC-seq).
Project description:One complication to comparing ?-cell function among islet preparations, whether from genetically identical or diverse animals or human organ donors, is the number of islets required per assay. Islet numbers can be limiting, meaning that fewer conditions can be tested; other islet measurements must be excluded; or islets must be pooled from multiple animals/donors for each experiment. Furthermore, pooling islets negates the possibility of performing single-islet comparisons. Our aim was to validate a 96-well plate-based single islet insulin secretion assay that would be as robust as previously published methods to quantify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse and human islets. First, we tested our new assay using mouse islets, showing robust stimulation of insulin secretion 24 or 48 h after islet isolation. Next, we utilized the assay to quantify mouse islet function on an individual islet basis, measurements that would not be possible with the standard pooled islet assay methods. Next, we validated our new assay using human islets obtained from the Integrated Islet Distribution Program (IIDP). Human islets are known to have widely varying insulin secretion capacity, and using our new assay we reveal biologically relevant factors that are significantly correlated with human islet function, whether displayed as maximal insulin secretion response or fold-stimulation of insulin secretion. Overall, our results suggest this new microplate assay will be a useful tool for many laboratories, expert or not in islet techniques, to be able to precisely quantify islet insulin secretion from their models of interest.