Quantitative analysis of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: The action of vasopressin in rodent collecting ducts to regulate water permeability depends in part on increases in phosphorylation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) at three sites: Ser256, Ser264, and Ser269. Previous studies of AQP2 phosphorylation have depended largely on qualitative data using protein mass spectrometry and phospho-specific antibodies. Here, we use a new method employing phospho-specific antibodies to determine the percentage of total AQP2 phosphorylated at each site in the presence and absence of the V2-receptor-selective vasopressin analog dDAVP in rat renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and cultured mpkCCD cells. Phosphorylation of Ser269, a site previously implicated in plasma membrane retention, was found to increase from 3 to 26% of total AQP2 in rat IMCD cells following dDAVP. Quantification of immunogold labeling of the opposite kidneys from the same rats estimated that 11% of total AQP2 is present in the apical plasma membrane (APM) without injection of dDAVP and 25% is present in the APM after dDAVP. Surprisingly, the baseline level of Ser256 phosphorylation was constitutively high, and there was no increase with dDAVP (confirmed in 2 more sets of rats). In general, Ser264 phosphorylation remained below 5% of total. The pattern of response was similar in cultured mpkCCD cells (large increase in Ser269 phosphorylation following dDAVP, but constitutively high levels of Ser256 phosphorylation). We suggest from these studies that Ser269 phosphorylation may be a more consistent indicator of vasopressin action and AQP2 membrane abundance than is Ser256 phosphorylation.
Project description:Vasopressin controls water excretion through regulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) trafficking in renal collecting duct cells. Using mass spectrometry, we previously demonstrated four phosphorylated serines (Ser256, Ser261, Ser264, and Ser269) in the carboxyl-terminal tail of rat AQP2. Here, we used phospho-specific antibodies and protein mass spectrometry to investigate the roles of vasopressin and cyclic AMP in the regulation of phosphorylation at Ser269 and addressed the role of this site in AQP2 trafficking. The V2 receptor-specific vasopressin analog dDAVP increased Ser(P)269-AQP2 abundance more than 10-fold, but at a rate much slower than the corresponding increase in Ser256 phosphorylation. Vasopressin-mediated changes in phosphorylation at both sites were mimicked by cAMP addition and inhibited by protein kinase A (PKA) antagonists. In vitro kinase assays, however, demonstrated that PKA phosphorylates Ser256, but not Ser269. Phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser269 did not occur when Ser256 was replaced by an unphosphorylatable amino acid, as seen in both S256L-AQP2 mutant mice and in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing an S256A mutant, suggesting that Ser269 phosphorylation depends upon prior phosphorylation at Ser256. Immunogold electron microscopy localized Ser(P)269-AQP2 solely in the apical plasma membrane of rat collecting duct cells, in contrast to the other three phospho-forms (found in both apical plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles). Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing an S269D "phosphomimic" AQP2 mutant showed constitutive localization at the plasma membrane. The data support a model in which vasopressin-mediated phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser269:(a) depends on prior PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser256 and (b) enhances apical plasma membrane retention of AQP2.
Project description:By phosphoproteome analysis, we identified a phosphorylation site, serine 264 (pS264), in the COOH terminus of the vasopressin-regulated water channel, aquaporin-2 (AQP2). In this study, we examined the regulation of AQP2 phosphorylated at serine 264 (pS264-AQP2) by vasopressin, using a phospho-specific antibody (anti-pS264). Immunohistochemical analysis showed pS264-AQP2 labeling of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) from control mice, whereas AQP2 knockout mice showed a complete absence of labeling. In rat and mouse, pS264-AQP2 was present throughout the collecting duct system, from the connecting tubule to the terminal IMCD. Immunogold electron microscopy, combined with double-labeling confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with organelle-specific markers, determined that the majority of pS264 resides in compartments associated with the plasma membrane and early endocytic pathways. In Brattleboro rats treated with [deamino-Cys-1, d-Arg-8]vasopressin (dDAVP), the abundance of pS264-AQP2 increased 4-fold over controls. Additionally, dDAVP treatment resulted in a time-dependent change in the distribution of pS264 from predominantly intracellular vesicles, to both the basolateral and apical plasma membranes. Sixty minutes after dDAVP exposure, a proportion of pS264-AQP2 was observed in clathrin-coated vesicles, early endosomal compartments, and recycling compartments, but not lysosomes. Overall, our results are consistent with a dynamic effect of AVP on the phosphorylation and subcellular distribution of AQP2.
Project description:The interaction between the renal water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein LIP5 targets AQP2 to multivesicular bodies and facilitates lysosomal degradation. This interaction is part of a process that controls AQP2 apical membrane abundance in a vasopressin-dependent manner, allowing for urine volume adjustment. Vasopressin regulates phosphorylation at four sites within the AQP2 C terminus (Ser256, Ser261, Ser264, and Thr269), of which Ser256 is crucial and sufficient for AQP2 translocation from storage vesicles to the apical membrane. However, whether AQP2 phosphorylation modulates AQP2-LIP5 complex affinity is unknown. Here we used far-Western blot analysis and microscale thermophoresis to show that the AQP2 binds LIP5 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We constructed five phospho-mimicking mutants (S256E, S261E, S264E, T269E, and S256E/T269E) and a C-terminal truncation mutant (?P242) that lacked all phosphorylation sites but retained a previously suggested LIP5-binding site. CD spectroscopy indicated that wild-type AQP2 and the phospho-mimicking mutants had similar overall structure but displayed differences in melting temperatures possibly arising from C-terminal conformational changes. Non-phosphorylated AQP2 bound LIP5 with the highest affinity, whereas AQP2-?P242 had 20-fold lower affinity as determined by microscale thermophoresis. AQP2-S256E, S261E, T269E, and S256E/T269E all had reduced affinity. This effect was most prominent for AQP2-S256E, which fits well with its role in apical membrane targeting. AQP2-S264E had affinity similar to non-phosphorylated AQP2, possibly indicating a role in exosome excretion. Our data suggest that AQP2 phosphorylation allosterically controls its interaction with LIP5, illustrating how altered affinities to interacting proteins form the basis for regulation of AQP2 trafficking by post-translational modifications.
Project description:Internalization of receptor proteins after interacting with specific ligands has been proposed to facilitate siRNA delivery into the target cells via receptor-mediated siRNA transduction. In this study, we demonstrated a novel method of vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R)-mediated siRNA delivery against AQP2 in primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells of rat kidney. We synthesized the dDAVP conjugated with nine D-arginines (dDAVP-9r) as a peptide carrier for siRNA delivery. The structure of synthetic peptide carrier showed two regions (i.e., ligand domain to V2R (dDAVP) and siRNA carrying domain (nine D-arginine)) bisected with a spacer of four glycines. The results revealed that 1) synthesized dDAVP-9r peptides formed a stable polyplex with siRNA; 2) siRNA/dDAVP-9r polyplex could bind to the V2R of IMCD cells and induced AQP2 phosphorylation (Ser 256); 3) siRNA/dDAVP-9r polyplex was stable in response to the wide range of different osmolalities, pH levels, or to the RNases; 4) fluorescein-labeled siRNA was delivered into V2R-expressing MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells by siRNA/dDAVP-9r polyplex, but not into the V2R-negative Cos-7 cells; and 5) AQP2-siRNA/dDAVP-9r polyplex effectively delivered siRNA into the IMCD cells, resulting in the significant decrease of protein abundance of AQP2, but not AQP4. Therefore, for the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrated that V2R-mediated siRNA delivery could be exploited to deliver specific siRNA to regulate abnormal expression of target proteins in V2R-expressing kidney cells. The methods could be potentially used in vivo to regulate abnormal expression of proteins associated with disease conditions in the V2R-expressing kidney cells.
Project description:Vasopressin binding to the V2 receptor in renal principal cells leads to activation of protein kinase A, phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) at Ser256, and the translocation of AQP2 to the apical membrane, resulting in concentration of the urine. In contrast, phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C pathway leads to ubiquitination of AQP2 at Lys270 and its internalization to multivesicular bodies, where it is targeted for lysosomal degradation or stored for recycling. Because little is known about the regulation of AQP2 trafficking, we used the carboxy-terminal tail of constitutively nonphosphorylated AQP2 (S256A) as a bait for interacting proteins in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We isolated lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein 5 (LIP5) and found that LIP5 interacted with the proximal carboxy-terminal tail (L230-D243) of AQP2 in vitro but not with AQP3 or AQP4, which are also expressed in principal cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LIP5 co-localized with AQP2 in principal cells. LIP5 binding occurred independent of the state of Ser256 phosphorylation or Lys270 ubiquitination. LIP5 has been shown to facilitate degradation of the EGF receptor; here, LIP5 seemed to bind this receptor. Knockdown of LIP5 in mouse renal cells (mpkCCD) reduced the phorbol ester-induced degradation of AQP2 approximately two-fold. In summary, LIP5 binds cargo proteins and, considering the role of LIP5 in protein sorting to multivesicular bodies, plays a role in the degradation of AQP2, possibly by reducing the formation of late endosomes.
Project description:Transient receptor potential channels TRPC3 and TRPC6 are expressed in principal cells of the collecting duct (CD) along with the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) both in vivo and in the cultured mouse CD cell line IMCD-3. The channels are primarily localized to intracellular vesicles, but upon stimulation with the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), TRPC3 and AQP2 translocate to the apical membrane. In the present study, the effect of various activators and inhibitors of the adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade on channel trafficking was examined using immunohistochemical techniques and by biotinylation of surface membrane proteins. Both in vivo in rat kidney and in IMCD-3 cells, translocation of AQP2 and TRPC3 (but not TRPC6) was stimulated by [deamino-Cys(1), d-Arg(8)]-vasopressin (dDAVP), a specific V2-receptor agonist, and blocked by [adamantaneacetyl(1), O-Et-d-Tyr(2), Val(4), aminobutyryl(6), Arg(8,9)]-vasopressin (AEAVP), a specific V2-receptor antagonist. In IMCD-3 cells, translocation of TRPC3 and AQP2 was activated by forskolin, a direct activator of AC, or by dibutyryl-cAMP, a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. AVP-, dDAVP-, and forskolin-induced translocation in IMCD-3 cells was blocked by SQ22536 and H89, specific inhibitors of AC and PKA, respectively. Translocation stimulated by dibutyryl-cAMP was unaffected by AEAVP but could be blocked by H89. AVP- and forskolin-induced translocation of TRPC3 in IMCD-3 cells was also blocked by two additional inhibitors of PKA, specifically Rp-cAMPS and the myristoylated inhibitor of PKA (m-PKI). Quantification of TRPC3 membrane insertion in IMCD-3 cells under each assay condition using a surface membrane biotinylation assay, confirmed the translocation results observed by immunofluorescence. Importantly, AVP-induced translocation of TRPC3 as estimated by biotinylation was blocked on average 95.2 +/- 1.0% by H89, Rp-cAMPS, or m-PKI. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AVP stimulation of V2 receptors in principal cells of the CD causes translocation of TRPC3 to the apical membrane via stimulation of the AC/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade.
Project description:Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), a PDZ (Postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/Zonula occludens 1) domain-containing protein, cooperates with a retromer complex, which regulates intracellular trafficking and the abundance of membrane proteins. Since the carboxyl terminus of aquaporin-2 (AQP2c) has a class I PDZ-interacting motif (X-T/S-X-?), the role of SNX27 in the regulation of AQP2 was studied. Co-immunoprecipitation assay of the rat kidney demonstrated an interaction of SNX27 with AQP2. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays revealed an interaction of the PDZ domain of SNX27 with AQP2c. Immunocytochemistry of HeLa cells co-transfected with FLAG-SNX27 and hemagglutinin (HA)-AQP2 also revealed co-localization throughout the cytoplasm. When the PDZ domain was deleted, punctate HA-AQP2 labeling was localized in the perinuclear region. The labeling was intensively overlaid by Lysotracker staining but not by GM130 labeling, a cis-Golgi marker. In rat kidneys and primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells, the subcellular redistribution of SNX27 was similar to AQP2 under 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) stimulation/withdrawal. Cell surface biotinylation assay showed that dDAVP-induced AQP2 translocation to the apical plasma membrane was unaffected after SNX27 knockdown in mpkCCD cells. In contrast, the dDAVP-induced AQP2 protein abundance was significantly attenuated without changes in AQP2 mRNA expression. Moreover, the AQP2 protein abundance was markedly declined during the dDAVP withdrawal period after stimulation under SNX27 knockdown, which was inhibited by lysosome inhibitors. Autophagy was induced after SNX27 knockdown in mpkCCD cells. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in rats revealed a significant downregulation of SNX27 in the kidney inner medulla. Taken together, the PDZ domain-containing SNX27 interacts with AQP2 and depletion of SNX27 contributes to the autophagy-lysosomal degradation of AQP2.
Project description:Phosphorylation and lysine (K)-acetylation are dynamic posttranslational modifications of proteins. Previous proteomic studies have identified over 170,000 phosphorylation sites and 15,000 K-acetylation sites in mammals. We recently reported that the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), which functions in the regulation of water-reabsorption, via the actions of vasopressin, expresses many of the enzymes that can modulated K-acetylation. The purpose of this study was to determine the K-acetylated or phosphorylated proteins expressed in IMCD cells. Second we questioned whether vasopressin V2 receptor activation significantly affects the IMCD acetylome or phosphoproteome? K-acetylated or serine-, threonine-, or tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides were identified from native rat IMCDs by proteomic analysis with four different enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, ASP-N, or Glu-C) to generate a high-resolution proteome. K-acetylation was identified in 431 unique proteins, and 64% of the K-acetylated sites were novel. The acetylated proteins were expressed in all compartments of the cell and were enriched in pathways including glycolysis and vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption. In the vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption pathway, eight proteins were acetylated, including the novel identification of the basolateral water channel, AQP3, acetylated at K282; 215 proteins were phosphorylated in this IMCD cohort, including AQP2 peptides that were phosphorylated at four serines: 256, 261, 264, and 269. Acute dDAVP did not significantly affect the IMCD acetylome; however, it did significantly affect previously known vasopressin-regulated phosphorylation sites. In conclusion, presence of K-acetylated proteins involved in metabolism, ion, and water transport in the IMCD points to multiple roles of K-acetylation beyond its canonical role in transcriptional regulation.
Project description:AIM: Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel located in the collecting tubule and collecting duct cells of mammalian kidney. The aim of this study is to investigate whether PKC? plays a role in vasopressin-induced AQP2 trafficking in mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) cells. METHODS: AQP2-mIMCD3 stable cell line was constructed by transfection of mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) cells with AQP2-GFP construct. Then the cells were transfected with PKC? shRNA, PKC? A/25E, or PKC? scrambled shRNA. The expression levels of PKC?, AQP2, and phospho-S256-AQP2 were analyzed using Western blot. The interaction between AQP2 and PKC? was examined using immunoprecipitation. The distribution of AQP2 and microtubules was studied using immunocytochemistry. The AQP2 trafficking was examined using the biotinylation of surface membranes. RESULTS: Treatment of AQP2-mIMCD3 cells with 100 ?mol/L of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DdAVP) for 30 min stimulated the translocation of AQP2 from the cytoplasm to plasma membrane through influencing the microtubule assembly. Upregulation of active PKC? by transfection with PKC? A/25E plasmids resulted in de-polymerization of ?-tubulin and redistributed AQP2 in the cytoplasm. Down-regulation of PKC? by PKC? shRNA partially inhibited DdAVP-stimulated AQP2 trafficking without altering ?-tubulin distribution. Although 100 ?mol/L of DdAVP increased AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256, down-regulation of PKC? by PKC? shRNA did not influence DdAVP-induced AQP2 phosphorylation, suggesting that AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256 was independent of PKC?. Moreover, PKC? did not physically interact with AQP2 in the presence or absence of DdAVP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that PKC? regulates AQP2 trafficking induced by DdAVP via microtubule assembly.
Project description:Vasopressin, a peptide hormone, controls renal water excretion, largely through regulation of water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the renal collecting duct. There are two regulatory mechanisms of AQP2: 1) short-term regulation by membrane trafficking of AQP2; and 2) long-term regulation involving vasopressin-induced changes of protein abundance of AQP2 through regulation of gene transcription and protein half-life. Vasopressin binds a G protein-coupled receptor (V2R) activating several downstream signaling pathways. At downstream of V2R activation, many of transcription factors involve gene transcription process associated with status of chromatin structure. ATAC-Seq (Assay for Transpoase-Accessible Chromatin using Sequencing) is a recent technique to study chromatin accessibility (Buenrostro et al. Nat Methods 2013). We carried out ATAC-Seq following standard an ATAC-Seq protocol in mpkCCD cells treated with vehicle or dDAVP for 30 minutes. Overall design: To identify Tn5-accessible chromatin regions where transcription factors may bind, we carried out ATAC-seq . Observations were made both after 30 minutes treatment with the vasopressin analog dDAVP or vehicle (n=2 for each group).