Rational design of a macrocyclic-based chemosensor for anions.
ABSTRACT: A macrocyclic-based fluorescence chemosensor has been designed and synthesized from the reaction of dansyl chloride and a hexaaminomacrocycle containing four secondary and two tertiary amines. The new chemosensor has been examined for its binding ability toward phosphate, sulfate, nitrate, iodide, bromide, chloride, and fluoride by fluorescence spectroscopy in DMSO. The results indicate that the compound binds each of the anions with a 1:1 stoichiometry, showing high affinity for the oxoanions, chloride and iodide with the binding constants up to four orders of magnitude. Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) suggest that the ligand is deformed in order to encapsulate an anion, and each anion, except fluoride, is bonded to the macrocycle through two NH…X(-) and four CH…X(-) interactions.
Project description:A novel fluorescence chemosensor array composed of pyrenylboronic acid-based probes for multi- anion detection has been developed. The pyrenylboronic acid derivatives showed fluorescence quenching or enhancement due to photoinduced electron transfer originating from anion binding. The recognition ability was assessed by fluorescence titrations and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Because the array is constructed with cross-reactive probes, the combination of differential binding affinities for anions (i.e., fluoride, acetate, oxalate, malonate, citrate, dihydrogen phosphate, and pyrophosphate) and pattern recognitions, such as linear discriminant analysis, offered a successful simultaneous anion detection with a classification rate of 100%. Furthermore, the chemosensor array allowed for quantitative prediction of oxalate, malonate, and citrate in mixtures using a support vector machine. Importantly, the array system employs low-cost and commercially available reagents as probes. Thus, this study could lead to the development of user-friendly and high-throughput methods to detect a variety of analytes in complicated systems.
Project description:A thiophene-based tripodal copper(II) complex has been synthesized as a new colorimetric and optical chemosensor for naked-eye discrimination of halides in acetonitrile and an acetonitrile-water mixture. The binding interactions of the new receptor with several anions were analyzed by UV-Vis titrations, electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results from UV-Vis titrations indicate that the coordinative unsaturated copper(II) complex strongly binds a halide at its vacant copper(II) centre via a metal-ligand bond forming a 1:1 complex, exhibiting binding affinities in the order of fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide. The interactions of the receptor with halides were further confirmed by ESI-MS, showing a distinct signal corresponding to a 1:1 complex for each halide, suggesting that the noncovalent interactions also exist in the gas phase. In addition, time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were also carried out to understand the excited-state properties of the chemosensor complexes. A detailed analysis of the TD-DFT calculations shows a consistent red-shift in the first optically-allowed transition, consistent with the observed colorimetric experiments.
Project description:Colorimetry is an advantageous method for detecting fluoride in drinking water in a resource-limited context, e. g., in parts of the developing world where excess fluoride intake leads to harmful health effects. Here we report a selective colorimetric chemosensor for fluoride that employs an azulene as the reporter motif and a pinacolborane as the receptor motif. The chemosensor, NAz-6-Bpin, is prepared using the Nozoe azulene synthesis, which allows for its rapid and low-cost synthesis. The chemosensor gives a visually observable response to fluoride both in pure organic solvent and also in water/alcohol binary solvent mixtures.
Project description:A new dansyl-based chemosensor (2-(4-((5-(dimethylamino)naphthalen-1-yl)sulfonyl)piperazin-1-yl)-N-(quinolin-8-yl)acetamide) (DC) for detecting Cu2+ was synthesized and characterized. DC showed great selectivity to Cu2+ by a fluorescent "on-off" detection method. Job plot, ESI-mass spectroscopy, and 1H NMR titration suggested a 1 to 1 binding mode between DC and Cu2+. The detection limit was determined to be 43 nM, which is greatly below the WHO guidelines. In addition, DC can be applied to real samples and zebrafish imaging. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was proposed as the enhancement of intramolecular charge transfer with calculations.
Project description:A urea-based tripodal receptor L substituted with p-cyanophenyl groups has been studied for halide anions using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and X-ray crystallography. The (1)H NMR titration studies suggest that the receptor forms a 1:1 complex with an anion, showing a binding trend in the order of fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide. The interaction of a fluoride anion with the receptor was further confirmed by 2D NOESY and (19)F NMR spectroscopy in DMSO-d(6). DFT calculations indicate that the internal halide anion is held by six NH···X interactions with L, showing the highest binding energy for the fluoride complex. Structural characterization of the chloride, bromide, and silicon hexafluoride complexes of [LH(+)] reveals that the anion is externally located via hydrogen bonding interactions. For the bromide or chloride complex, two anions are bridged with two receptors to form a centrosymmetric dimer, while for the silicon hexafluoride complex, the anion is located within a cage formed by six ligands and two water molecules.
Project description:A new fluorescent chemosensor for copper (II) and subsequent anion sensing was designed and fully characterized. The sensor consisted of a 1,8-naphthalimide core, bearing two terminal dipicolylamine (DPA) receptor units for binding metal cations, and an ethoxyethanol moiety for enhanced water solubility. The DPA units are connected to position 4 of the fluorophore via a triazine-ethylenediamine spacer. Fluorescence titration studies of the chemosensor revealed a high selectivity for Cu2+ over other divalent ions, the emissions were strongly quenched upon binding, and a stability constant of 5.52 log units was obtained. Given the distance from DPA chelating units and the fluorophore, quenching from the Cu2+ complexation suggests an electron transfer or an electronic energy transfer mechanism. Furthermore, the Cu2+-sensor complex proved to be capable of sensing anionic phosphate derivatives through the displacement of the Cu2+ cation, which translated into a full recovery of the luminescence from the naphthalimide. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy studies performed in HeLa cells showed there was a high intracellular uptake of the chemosensor. Incubation in Cu2+ spiked media revealed a strong fluorescent signal from mitochondria and cell membranes, which is consistent with a high concentration of ATP at these intracellular sites.
Project description:Fluoride, nature's smallest anion, is capable of covalently coordinating to eight silicon atoms. The setting is a simple and common motif in zeolite chemistry: the box-shaped silicate double-four-ring (D4R). Fluoride seeks its center. It is the strain of box deformation that keeps fluoride in the middle of the box, and freezes what would be a transition state in its absence. Hypervalent bonding ensues. Fluoride's compactness works to its advantage in stabilizing the cage; chloride, bromide, and iodide do not bring about stabilization due to greater steric repulsion with the box frame. The combination of strain and hypervalent bonding, and the way they work in concert to yield this unusual case of multiple hypervalence, has potential for extension to a broader range of solid-state compounds.
Project description:A new highly sensitive luminescent iridium(III) chemosensor, 1, was designed and synthesized for tandem detection of fluoride ions (F-) and aluminum ions (Al3+). This sensor 1 exhibited obvious luminesce quenching by hydrogen bond interactions with F-. In addition, the resulting 1-F complex can be further used to detect Al3+ through a luminesce enhancement. The detection limit (0.02 ?M) of 1-F for Al3+ is far lower than the World Health Organization (7.41 ?M) limit for drinking water. Importantly, chemosensor 1-F could be used to detect and quantify F- and Al3+ reversibly. This sensor achieved rapid detection of two ions, which relies on only one probe.
Project description:The synthesis of the first halogen bonding rotaxane host system containing a bis-iodo triazolium-bis-naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo-triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion-rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding rotaxane complexes corroborate the (1) H?NMR anion binding results.
Project description:A fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor L based on rhodamine 6G was designed, synthesized, and characterized. Based on a two-step reaction, the chemosensor L effectively recognized Hg2+. The interaction between the chemosensor and Hg2+ was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and frontier molecular orbital calculations. The chemosensor L was also incorporated into test strips and silica gel plates, which demonstrated good selectivity and high sensitivity for Hg2+.