Distinctive properties of the hyaluronan-binding domain in the lymphatic endothelial receptor Lyve-1 and their implications for receptor function.
ABSTRACT: The lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan (HA) receptor Lyve-1 is a member of the Link protein superfamily most similar to the leukocyte HA receptor CD44. However, the structure of Lyve-1 and the nature of its interaction with ligand are obscure. Here we present new evidence that Lyve-1 is functionally distinct from CD44. Using truncation mutagenesis we confirm that Lyve-1 in common with CD44 contains an extended HA-binding unit, comprising elements flanking the N and C termini of the consensus lectin-like Link module, bridged by a third conserved disulfide linkage that is critical for HA binding. In addition, we identify six essential residues Tyr-87, Ile-97, Arg-99, Asn-103, Lys-105, and Lys-108 that define a compact HA-binding surface on Lyve-1, encompassing the epitope for an adhesion-blocking monoclonal antibody 3A, in an analogous position to the HA-binding surface in CD44. The overtly electrostatic character of HA binding in Lyve-1 and its sensitivity to ionic strength (IC(50) of 150 mm NaCl) contrast markedly with CD44 (IC(50) > 2 m NaCl) in which HA binding is mediated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, unlike the extended Link module in CD44, which binds HA efficiently when expressed as a soluble monomer (K(d) = 65.7 mum), that of Lyve-1 requires artificial dimerization, although the full ectodomain is active as a monomer (K(d) = 35.6 mum). Finally, full-length Lyve-1 did not form stable dimers in binding-competent 293T transfectants when assessed using bioluminescent resonance energy transfer. These results reveal that elements additional to the extended Link module are required to stabilize HA binding in Lyve-1 and indicate important structural and functional differences with CD44.
Project description:The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant component of skin and mesenchymal tissues where it facilitates cell migration during wound healing, inflammation, and embryonic morphogenesis. Both during normal tissue homeostasis and particularly after tissue injury, HA is mobilized from these sites through lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes where it is degraded before entering the circulation for rapid uptake by the liver. Currently, however, the identities of HA binding molecules which control this pathway are unknown. Here we describe the first such molecule, LYVE-1, which we have identified as a major receptor for HA on the lymph vessel wall. The deduced amino acid sequence of LYVE-1 predicts a 322-residue type I integral membrane polypeptide 41% similar to the CD44 HA receptor with a 212-residue extracellular domain containing a single Link module the prototypic HA binding domain of the Link protein superfamily. Like CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule binds both soluble and immobilized HA. However, unlike CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule colocalizes with HA on the luminal face of the lymph vessel wall and is completely absent from blood vessels. Hence, LYVE-1 is the first lymph-specific HA receptor to be characterized and is a uniquely powerful marker for lymph vessels themselves.
Project description:Lymphatic vascular endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) is a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium and a homolog of CD44, the hyaluronan (HA) receptor. HA in the extracellular matrix plays roles in tissue remodeling, development, and homeostasis, and as an HA receptor, LYVE-1 mediated HA metabolism might regulate these events. Currently, little is known about the lymphatic character within the human placenta. This study therefore determined LYVE-1 and other lymphatic markers in human placentas.Placentas and villous tissue were fixed and immunostained for human LYVE-1 and CD44 and examined by RT-PCR. LYVE-1 was expressed at both protein and mRNA levels in trophoblast cells (TC) and in villous core endothelium (VCE). Predominant protein expression for LYVE-1 was observed in syncytiotrophoblast cells (TCs) of preterm placentas. Neither mRNA or protein for CD44 was expressed. Other blood and lymphatic-lineage molecules (VEGF-A, -C, and -D, Flt-1, KDR, Flt-4, and Prox-1) were examined by RT-PCR. VEGF-A, VEGF-D, and Flt-1 mRNA were observed in TCs and VCEs, while mRNA for VEGF-C, KDR, and Flt-4 was mainly observed in VCEs. Prox-1 was found at the mRNA, but not protein level in TCs and VCEs. Our findings indicate (1) the importance of LYVE-1, but not CD44, in regulation of HA metabolism in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal circulation, and (2) possible dual blood and lymphatic phenotypic characteristics in fetal endothelium. These results provide new insights into HA metabolism and lymphatic-lineage molecule expression in the human placenta.
Project description:CRSBP-1 (mammalian LYVE-1) is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). It has multiple ligands, including hyaluronic acid (HA) and growth factors/cytokines (e.g., PDGF-BB and VEGF-A) containing CRS motifs (clusters of basic amino-acid residues). The ligand binding activities are mediated by Link module and acidic-amino-acid-rich (AAAR) domains, respectively. These CRSBP-1/LYVE-1 ligands have been shown to induce opening of lymphatic intercellular junctions in LEC monolayers and in lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. We hypothesize that CRSBP-1/LYVE-1 ligands, particularly CRS-containing growth factors/cytokines, are secreted by immune and cancer cells for lymphatic entry during adaptive immune responses and lymphatic metastasis. We have looked into the origin of the Link module and AAAR domain of LYVE-1 in evolution and its association with the development of lymph nodes and efficient adaptive immunity. Lymph nodes represent the only major recent innovation of the adaptive immune systems in evolution particularly to mammals and bird. Here we demonstrate that the development of the LYVE-1 gene with the AAAR domain in evolution is associated with acquisition of lymph nodes and adaptive immunity. LYVE-1 from other species, which have no lymph nodes, lack the AAAR domain and efficient adaptive immunity. Synthetic CRSBP-1 ligands PDGF and VEGF peptides, which contain the CRS motifs of PDGF-BB and VEGF-A, respectively, specifically bind to CRSBP-1 but do not interact with either PDGFβR or VEGFR2. These peptides function as adjuvants by enhancing adaptive immunity of pseudorabies virus (PRV) vaccine in pigs. These results support the notion that LYVE-1 is involved in adaptive immunity in mammals.
Project description:Hyaluronan (HA), a large nonsulfated glycosaminogycan in the extracellular matrix, whose degraded fragments termed as low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA), has been reported as an important regulator of angiogenesis. However, little is known about the influence of LMW-HA on lymphangiogenesis. In this study, we try to explore the in vitro effects of LMW-HA on lymphangiogenesis and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that LMW-HA stimulation significantly increased lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Further experiments demonstrated that LMW-HA altered actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and increased the formation of intense stress fibers, lamellipodia and filopodia. Mechanistically, LMW-HA stimulation resulted in rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase C ?/?II (PKC?/?II) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), a homologue of CD44, is the main cell surface receptor for HA in LECs. Blocking the binding interaction of LMW-HA with LYVE-1 using neutralizing anti-LYVE-1 antibodies significantly inhibited LECs proliferation, migration, tube formation and signal transduction induced by LMW-HA, suggesting that LMW-HA may play a critical role in the processes required for lymphangiogenesis through interactions with its receptor LYVE-1 and triggering intracellular signal cascades.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) is an inflammation-associated hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein that contributes to remodeling of HA-rich extracellular matrices during inflammatory processes and ovulation. The HA-binding domain of TSG-6 consists solely of a Link module, making it a prototypical member of the superfamily of proteins that interacts with this high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharides of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Previously we modeled a complex of the TSG-6 Link module in association with an HA octasaccharide based on the structure of the domain in its HA-bound conformation. Here we have generated a refined model for a HA/Link module complex using novel restraints identified from NMR spectroscopy of the protein in the presence of 10 distinct HA oligosaccharides (from 4- to 8-mers); the model was then tested using unique sugar reagents, i.e. chondroitin/HA hybrid oligomers and an octasaccharide in which a single sugar ring was (13)C-labeled. The HA chain was found to make more extensive contacts with the TSG-6 surface than thought previously, such that a D-glucuronic acid ring makes stacking and ionic interactions with a histidine and lysine, respectively. Importantly, this causes the HA to bend around two faces of the Link module (resembling the way that HA binds to CD44), potentially providing a mechanism for how TSG-6 can reorganize HA during inflammation. However, the HA-binding site defined here may not play a role in TSG-6-mediated transfer of heavy chains from inter-?-inhibitor onto HA, a process known to be essential for ovulation.
Project description:The lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor LYVE-1 is implicated in the uptake of hyaluronan (HA) and trafficking of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes. Yet LYVE-1 has only weak affinity for hyaluronan and depends on receptor clustering and higher order ligand organization for durable binding in lymphatic endothelium. An unusual feature of LYVE-1 not found in other HA receptors is the potential to form disulfide-linked homodimers. However, their influence on function has not been investigated. Here we show LYVE-1 homodimers are the predominant configuration in lymphatic endothelium in vitro and in vivo, and formation solely requires the unpaired cysteine residue Cys-201 within the membrane-proximal domain, yielding a 15-fold higher HA binding affinity and an ?67-fold slower off-rate than the monomer. Moreover, we show non-dimerizing LYVE-1 mutants fail to bind HA even when expressed at high densities in lymphatic endothelial cells or artificially cross-linked with antibody. Consistent with these findings, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicates the Cys-201 interchain disulfide forms a hinge that maintains the homodimer in an "open scissors" conformation, likely allowing arrangement of the two HA binding domains for mutual engagement with ligand. Finally, we demonstrate the Cys-201 interchain disulfide is highly labile, and selective reduction with TCEP-HCl disrupts LYVE-1 homodimers, ablating HA binding. These findings reveal binding is dependent not just on clustering but also on the biochemical properties of LYVE-1 homodimers. They also mark LYVE-1 as the first Link protein superfamily member requiring covalent homodimerization for function and suggest the interchain disulfide acts as a redox switch in vivo.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Hyaluronic acid (HA), a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Since HA is involved in many phases of wound healing and may play a key role in tissue repair and regeneration, this study was intended to understand temporal and spatial expression of HA and HA receptors (HARs) during the course of bladder regeneration in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial cystectomy followed by augmentation with porcine small intestinal submucosal (SIS) prepared from distal sections of the small intestine. SIS-augmented bladders were harvested between postoperative days 2 and 56. RESULTS:Bladder regeneration proceeded without complications. All augmented bladders had complete urothelial lining and smooth muscle bundles by day 56 post-augmentation. Temporal and spatial distributions of HA and HARs were studied by immunohistochemistry in regenerating bladders. The strongest HA immunoreactivity was observed in the ECM on postoperative days 28 and 56. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) immunoreactivity was detected in the cytoplasm of urothelial cells on day 56; and LYVE-1 immunoreactivity was exclusively limited to lymphatic vessels on days 28 and 56. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that HA was synthesized throughout the course of bladder wound healing and regeneration; and HA deposition coincided with urothelial differentiation. Expression of CD44 and LYVE-1 followed the same temporal pattern as HA deposition. Therapeutic modalities through local delivery of exogenous HA to improve the outcome of SIS-mediated bladder regeneration might need to be coordinated with HAR expression in order to achieve maximal regenerative responses as opposed to fibrosis.
Project description:Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1) mediates the docking and entry of dendritic cells to lymphatic vessels through selective adhesion to its ligand hyaluronan in the leukocyte surface glycocalyx. To bind hyaluronan efficiently, LYVE-1 must undergo surface clustering, a process that is induced efficiently by the large cross-linked assemblages of glycosaminoglycan present within leukocyte pericellular matrices but is induced poorly by the shorter polymer alone. These properties suggested that LYVE-1 may have limited mobility in the endothelial plasma membrane, but no biophysical investigation of these parameters has been carried out to date. Here, using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy combined with biochemical analyses of the receptor in primary lymphatic endothelial cells, we provide the first evidence that LYVE-1 dynamics are indeed restricted by the submembranous actin network. We show that actin disruption not only increases LYVE-1 lateral diffusion but also enhances hyaluronan-binding activity. However, unlike the related leukocyte HA receptor CD44, which uses ERM and ankyrin motifs within its cytoplasmic tail to bind actin, LYVE-1 displays little if any direct interaction with actin, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Instead, as shown by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, LYVE-1 diffusion is restricted by transient entrapment within submembranous actin corrals. These results point to an actin-mediated constraint on LYVE-1 clustering in lymphatic endothelium that tunes the receptor for selective engagement with hyaluronan assemblages in the glycocalyx that are large enough to cross-bridge the corral-bound LYVE-1 molecules and thereby facilitate leukocyte adhesion and transmigration.
Project description:Lymphatic vessels play a key role in maintaining tissue-fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance and metastasis. The hyaluronan receptor, LYVE-1, is widely used as a molecular marker for adult and embryonic lymphatic endothelium, but its physiological functions have not yet been established in vivo. In agreement with a recent report, LYVE-1(-/-) mice, which are healthy and fertile, do not display any defects related to congenital abnormalities of the lymphatic system. One hypothesis for the absence of a phenotype in LYVE-1 null mice is that other hyaluronan receptors, such as CD44, may compensate for LYVE-1. To test this hypothesis, we created LYVE-1/CD44 double knockout mice with appropriate littermate controls. Lymphatic vessel structure and function, as determined by histological methods and intravital microscopy, show that LYVE-1(-/-), CD44(-/-) and LYVE-1(-/-)/CD44(-/-) mice are indistinguishable from wild-type mice under normal conditions. Furthermore, resolution of carrageenan-induced paw edema is comparable in all genotypes. However, LYVE-1(-/-)/CD44(-/-) mice exhibit increased edema formation in a carrageenan-induced paw inflammation model compared to wild-type mice, but not to LYVE(-/-) or CD44(-/-) mice. These data suggest that LYVE-1 and CD44 are not required for the formation or function of lymphatics, but do not rule out a role for LYVE-1 in inflammation.
Project description:Hyaluronan (HA) is associated with innate immune response activation and may be a marker of allograft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients. This was a prospective, single center study comparing levels of bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum HA and the HA immobilizer LYVE-1 in lung transplant recipients with and without acute cellular rejection (ACR). Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD)-free survival was also evaluated based on HA and LYVE-1 levels. 78 recipients were enrolled with a total of 115 diagnostic biopsies and 1.5 years of median follow-up. Serum HA was correlated with BAL HA (r = 0.25, p = 0.01) and with serum LYVE-1 (r = 0.32, p = 0.002). There was significant variation in HA and LYVE-1 over time, regardless of ACR status. Levels of serum HA (median 74.7 vs 82.7, p = 0.69), BAL HA (median 149.4 vs 134.5, p = 0.39), and LYVE-1 (mean 190.2 vs 183.8, p = 0.72) were not associated with ACR. CLAD-free survival was not different in recipients with any episode of elevated serum HA (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.3-7.7, p = 0.61) or BAL HA (HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.2-3.6, p = 0.93). These results did not differ when stratified by bilateral transplant status. In this small cohort, serum HA, BAL HA, and LYVE-1 levels are not associated with ACR or CLAD-free survival in lung transplant recipients.