ANALYSIS OF MINNESOTA COLON AND RECTUM CANCER POINT PATTERNS WITH SPATIAL AND NONSPATIAL COVARIATE INFORMATION.
ABSTRACT: Colon and rectum cancer share many risk factors, and are often tabulated together as "colorectal cancer" in published summaries. However, recent work indicating that exercise, diet, and family history may have differential impacts on the two cancers encourages analyzing them separately, so that corresponding public health interventions can be more efficiently targeted. We analyze colon and rectum cancer data from the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System from 1998-2002 over the 16-county Twin Cities (Minneapolis-St. Paul) metro and exurban area. The data consist of two marked point patterns, meaning that any statistical model must account for randomness in the observed locations, and expected positive association between the two cancer patterns. Our model extends marked spatial point pattern analysis in the context of a log Guassian Cox process to accommodate spatially referenced covariates (local poverty rate and location within the metro area), individual-level risk factors (patient age and cancer stage), and related interactions. We obtain smoothed maps of marginal log-relative intensity surfaces for colon and rectum cancer, and uncover significant age and stage differences between the two groups. This encourages more aggressive colon cancer screening in the inner Twin Cities and their southern and western exurbs, where our model indicates higher colon cancer relative intensity.
Project description:The relationship among the lysyl oxidase (LOX) G473A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), cigarette smoking and lung, colorectal, colon and rectum cancer susceptibility was studied in 200 cases of lung cancer, 335 cases of colorectal cancer including 130 cases of colon cancer and 205 cases of rectum cancer, and 335 healthy people in Tangshan, China. Peripheral blood DNA samples were collected, DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In comparison to LOX473GG genotype carriers, individuals with LOX473AA exhibited a higher susceptibility to lung, colon-rectum, colon, and rectum cancers with OR values amounting to 3.84-, 2.74-, 2.75-, and 2.74-fold of the control, respectively. In the LOX 473AA-positive population, females were more susceptible than males to carcinogenesis with OR values (female vs. male): 5.25 vs. 3.23, 2.29 vs. 1.51, 2.27 vs. 1.45, and 2.25 vs. 1.53, respectively, for lung, colon-rectum combined, colon, and rectum cancers. LOX G473A polymorphism apparently elevated human sensitivity to cigarette smoking carcinogens for eliciting cancers in the lung and colon only. Thus, LOX G473A polymorphism positively correlates with carcinogenesis and it may be used as an ideal intrinsic biomarker for prediction or diagnosis of carcinogenesis in humans.
Project description:Colorectal cancer studies typically include both colon and rectum tumors as a common entity, though this assumption is controversial and only minor differences have been reported at the molecular and epidemiologic level. We conducted a molecular study based on gene expression data of tumors from colon and rectum to assess the degree of similarity between these cancer sites at transcriptomic level.A pooled analysis of 460 colon tumors and 100 rectum tumors from four data sets belonging to three independent studies was conducted. Microsatellite instable tumors were excluded as these are known to have a different expression profile and have a preferential proximal colon location. Expression differences were assessed with linear models, and significant genes were identified using adjustment for multiple comparisons.Minor differences at a gene expression level were found between tumors arising in the proximal colon, distal colon, or rectum. Only several HOX genes were found to be associated with tumor location. More differences were found between proximal and distal colon than between distal colon and rectum.Microsatellite stable colorectal cancers do not show major transcriptomic differences for tumors arising in the colon or rectum. The small but consistent differences observed are largely driven by the HOX genes. These results may have important implications in the design and interpretation of studies in colorectal cancer.
Project description:Colon and rectal tumors, often referred to as colorectal cancer, show different gene expression patterns in studies that analyze whole tissue biopsies containing a mix of tumor and non-tumor cells. To better characterize colon and rectal tumors, we investigated the gene expression profile of organoids generated from endoscopic biopsies of rectal tumors and adjacent normal colon and rectum mucosa from therapy-naive rectal cancer patients. We also studied the effect of vitamin D on these organoid types. Gene profiling was performed by RNA-sequencing. Organoids from a normal colon and rectum had a shared gene expression profile that profoundly differed from that of rectal tumor organoids. We identified a group of genes of the biosynthetic machinery as rectal tumor organoid-specific, including those encoding the RNA polymerase II subunits POLR2H and POLR2J. The active vitamin D metabolite 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3/calcitriol upregulated stemness-related genes (LGR5, LRIG1, SMOC2, and MSI1) in normal rectum organoids, while it downregulated differentiation marker genes (TFF2 and MUC2). Normal colon and rectum organoids share similar gene expression patterns and respond similarly to calcitriol. Rectal tumor organoids display distinct and heterogeneous gene expression profiles, with differences with respect to those of colon tumor organoids, and respond differently to calcitriol than normal rectum organoids.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is typically classified into proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer. Tumour genetic and epigenetic features differ by tumour location. Considering a possible role of bowel contents (including microbiome) in carcinogenesis, this study hypothesised that tumour molecular features might gradually change along bowel subsites, rather than change abruptly at splenic flexure.Utilising 1443 colorectal cancers in two US nationwide prospective cohort studies, the frequencies of molecular features (CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability (MSI), LINE-1 methylation and BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations) were examined along bowel subsites (rectum, rectosigmoid junction, sigmoid, descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon and caecum). The linearity and non-linearity of molecular relations along subsites were statistically tested by multivariate logistic or linear regression analysis.The frequencies of CIMP-high, MSI-high and BRAF mutations gradually increased from the rectum (<2.3%) to ascending colon (36-40%), followed by falls in the caecum (12-22%). By linearity tests, these molecular relations were significantly linear from rectum to ascending colon (p<0.0001), and there was little evidence of non-linearity (p>0.09). Caecal cancers exhibited the highest frequency of KRAS mutations (52% vs 27-35% in other sites; p<0.0001).The frequencies of CIMP-high, MSI-high and BRAF mutations in cancer increased gradually along colorectum subsites from the rectum to ascending colon. These novel data challenge the common conception of discrete molecular features of proximal versus distal colorectal cancers, and have a substantial impact on clinical, translational and epidemiology research, which has typically been performed with the dichotomous classification of proximal versus distal tumours.
Project description:We investigated the association of colorectal cancer risk factors with different colorectal cancer subsites to assess etiological differences for cancers of the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. Included in this study were 869,725 men and 395,501 women who participated in a health examination provided by the Korean National Health System between 1996 and 1997. During up to 7 years of follow-up, 4,144 incident colorectal cancer cases were detected (3,051 men and 1,093 women). Greater height was associated with elevated risk for distal colon cancer and rectal cancer in both men and women. Family history of cancer was associated with higher risk for cancers of the proximal colon in men and distal colon in both men and women. Frequent alcohol consumption and consuming high amounts of alcohol were associated with elevated risk for distal colon cancer in men and higher risk for rectal cancer in women. Frequent meat consumption was associated with risk for proximal colon cancer in men and for rectal cancer in women. Our findings suggest that risk factors for colorectal cancer are different by subsites of colon and rectum, as well as by sex.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) includes tumors in the right colon, left colon, and rectum, although they differ significantly from each other in aspects such as prognosis and treatment. Few previous mass spectrometry-based studies have analyzed differences in protein expression depending on the tumor location. In this study, we have used mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze plasma samples from 83 CRC patients to study if differences in plasma protein expression can be seen depending on primary tumor location (right colon, left colon, or rectum). Differences were studied between the groups both regardless of and according to tumor stage (II or III). Large differences in plasma protein expression were seen, and we found that plasma samples from patients with rectal cancer separated from samples from patients with colon cancer when analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. Samples from patients with cancer in the right and left colon also tended to separate from each other. Pathway analysis discovered canonical pathways involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation to be enriched. This study will help to further define CRC as distinct entities depending on tumor location, as shown by the widespread differences in plasma protein profile and dysregulated pathways.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and is a heterogeneous disease, with differences between cancer in the right colon, left colon, and rectum. In this study, plasma samples from CRC patients with varying stage (II or III), primary tumor location (right colon, left colon, or rectum) and survival (survived or died due to CRC) were studied with quantitative label-free proteomics using ultra-definition MSE. Patients were also divided into subgroups based on preoperative radiotherapy status and gender. Further analysis subsequently identified multiple plasma proteins whose expression differed depending on tumor stage, location, patient survival, preoperative radiotherapy status, or gender.
Project description:Several disease processes of the colon and rectum, including constipation and incontinence, have been associated with abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system. However, the autonomic innervation to the colon and rectum are not fully understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of stimulation of vagus nerves, pelvic nerves (PN) and hypogastric nerves (HGN) on colorectal motility in rats.Four strain gauge transducers were implanted on the proximal colon, mid colon, distal colon and rectum to record circular muscle contractions in rats. Electrical stimulation was administered to the efferent distal ends of the cervical vagus nerve, PN and HGN. Motility index (MI) was evaluated before and during stimulation.Electrical stimulation (5-20 Hz) of the cervical vagus elicited significant contractions in the mid colon and distal colon, whereas less pronounced contractions were observed in the proximal colon. Pelvic nerves stimulation elicited significant contractions in the rectum as well as the mid colon and distal colon. Atropine treatment almost completely abolished the contractions induced by vagus nerve and PN stimulation. Hypogastric nerves stimulation caused relaxations in the rectum, mid colon and distal colon. The relaxations in response to HGN stimulation were abolished by propranolol.Vagal innervation extends to the distal colon, while the PN has projections in the distribution of the rectum through the mid colon. This suggests a pattern of dual parasympathetic innervation in the left colon. Parasympathetic fibers regulate colorectal contractions via muscarinic receptors. The HGN mainly regulates colorectal relaxations via beta-adrenoceptors.
Project description:Tumor sidedness has emerged as an important prognostic and predictive factor in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Recent studies demonstrate that patients with advanced right-sided colon cancers have a worse prognosis than those with left-sided colon or rectal cancers, and these patient subgroups respond differently to biological therapies. Historically, management of patients with metastatic colon and rectal cancers has been similar, and colon and rectal cancer patients have been grouped together in large clinical trials. Clearly, the differences in molecular biology among right-sided colon, left-sided colon, and rectal cancers should be further studied in order to account for disparities in clinical outcomes. We profiled 10,570 colorectal tumors (of which 2,413 were identified as arising from the left colon, right colon, or rectum) using next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in-situ hybridization, and fragment analysis (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ). Right-sided colon cancers had higher rates of microsatellite instability, more frequent aberrant activation of the EGFR pathway including higher BRAF and PIK3CA mutation rates, and increased mutational burden compared to left-sided colon and rectal cancers. Rectal cancers had higher rates of TOPO1 expression and Her2/neu amplification compared to both left- and right-sided colon cancers. Molecular variations among right-sided colon, left-sided colon, and rectal tumors may contribute to differences in clinical behavior. The site of tumor origin (left colon, right colon, or rectum) should certainly be considered when selecting treatment regimens and stratifying patients for future clinical trials.
Project description:Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 5991 incident CRC cases, of which 3897 were in the colon and 2094 were in the rectum. Polyphenol intake was estimated using validated centre/country specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, a doubling in total dietary polyphenol intake was not associated with CRC risk in women (HRlog2?=?1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14) or in men (HRlog2?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.05), respectively. Phenolic acid intake, highly correlated with coffee consumption, was inversely associated with colon cancer in men (HRlog2?=?0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97) and positively associated with rectal cancer in women (HRlog2?=?1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19); although associations did not exceed the Bonferroni threshold for significance. Intake of other polyphenol classes was not related to colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risks. Our study suggests a possible inverse association between phenolic acid intake and colon cancer risk in men and positive with rectal cancer risk in women.