Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) assembles with substrates and misfolded membrane proteins into distinct oligomeric complexes.
ABSTRACT: SPP (signal peptide peptidase) is an aspartyl intramembrane cleaving protease, which processes a subset of signal peptides, and is linked to the quality control of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) membrane proteins. We analysed SPP interactions with signal peptides and other membrane proteins by co-immunoprecipitation assays. We found that SPP interacts specifically and tightly with a large range of newly synthesized membrane proteins, including signal peptides, preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins, but not with all co-expressed type II membrane proteins. Signal peptides are trapped by the catalytically inactive SPP mutant SPPD/A. Preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins interact with both SPP and the SPPD/A mutant, and are not substrates for SPP-mediated intramembrane proteolysis. Proteins interacting with SPP are found in distinct complexes of different sizes. A signal peptide is mainly trapped in a 200 kDa SPP complex, whereas a preprotein is predominantly found in a 600 kDa SPP complex. A misfolded membrane protein is detected in 200, 400 and 600 kDa SPP complexes. We conclude that SPP not only processes signal peptides, but also collects preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins that are destined for disposal.
Project description:Signal peptide peptidase (SPP), a member of the presenilin-like intra-membrane cleaving aspartyl protease family, migrates on Blue Native (BN) gels as 100 kDa, 200 kDa and 450 kDa species. SPP has recently been implicated in other non-proteolytic functions such as retro-translocation of MHC Class I molecules and binding of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These high molecular weight SPP complexes might contain additional proteins that regulate the proteolytic activity of SPP or support its non-catalytic functions.In this study, an unbiased iTRAQ-labeling mass spectrometry approach was used to identify SPP-interacting proteins. We found that vigilin, a ubiquitous multi-KH domain containing cytoplasmic protein involved in RNA binding and protein translation control, selectively enriched with SPP. Vigilin interacted with SPP and both proteins co-localized in restricted intracellular domains near the ER, biochemically co-fractionated and were part of the same 450 kDa complex on BN gels. However, vigilin does not alter the protease activity of SPP, suggesting that the SPP-vigilin interaction might be involved in the non-proteolytic functions of SPP.We have identified and validated vigilin as a novel interacting partner of SPP that could play an important role in the non-proteolytic functions of SPP. This data adds further weight to the idea that intramembrane-cleaving aspartyl proteases, such as presenilin and SPPs, could have other functions besides the proteolysis of short membrane stubs.
Project description:A signal peptide (SP) is cleaved off from presecretory proteins by signal peptidase during or immediately after insertion into the membrane. In metazoan cells, the cleaved SP then receives proteolysis by signal peptide peptidase, an intramembrane-cleaving protease (I-CLiP). However, bacteria lack any signal peptide peptidase member I-CLiP, and little is known about the metabolic fate of bacterial SPs. Here we show that Escherichia coli RseP, an site-2 protease (S2P) family I-CLiP, introduces a cleavage into SPs after their signal peptidase-mediated liberation from preproteins. A Bacillus subtilis S2P protease, RasP, is also shown to be involved in SP cleavage. These results uncover a physiological role of bacterial S2P proteases and update the basic knowledge about the fate of signal peptides in bacterial cells.
Project description:Misfolded or damaged proteins are typically targeted for destruction by proteasome-mediated degradation, but the mammalian ubiquitin machinery involved is incompletely understood. Here, using forward genetic screens in human cells, we find that the proteasome-mediated degradation of the soluble misfolded reporter, mCherry-CL1, involves two ER-resident E3 ligases, MARCH6 and TRC8. mCherry-CL1 degradation is routed via the ER membrane and dependent on the hydrophobicity of the substrate, with complete stabilisation only observed in double knockout MARCH6/TRC8 cells. To identify a more physiological correlate, we used quantitative mass spectrometry and found that TRC8 and MARCH6 depletion altered the turnover of the tail-anchored protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). These E3 ligases associate with the intramembrane cleaving signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and facilitate the degradation of HO-1 following intramembrane proteolysis. Our results highlight how ER-resident ligases may target the same substrates, but work independently of each other, to optimise the protein quality control of selected soluble and tail-anchored proteins.
Project description:Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is an aspartic protease with two active sites, YD and GXGD, in the transmembrane domain. SPP cleaves signal peptides, and the released fragments play key roles in the immune system, embryo development and protein turnover in cells. Despite SPP having an important function, a general system to identify the requirements of intramembrane proteolysis by SPP has not been developed because proteolysis occurs in the membrane. In this study, we first established a reporter assay system in yeast to verify the cleavage activity of the Arabidopsis thaliana SPP (AtSPP). Next, we screened candidate substrates of AtSPP from A. thaliana pollen and roots. In the pollen, 13 signal peptides with 'pollen' and 'cell wall' as gene ontology terms were selected. In the roots, mutants overexpressing AtSPP were constructed, and gene expression changes were compared with the wild-type. Nine signal peptides expressed in the roots were selected. Then we used the candidate substrates in our reporter assay system to determine the requirements for proteolysis by AtSPP. Fifteen of 22 signal peptides were cleaved by AtSPP. The absence of the positively charged amino acids, His and Lys on the C terminus of the signal sequence, was observed in cleaved substrates. Moreover, mutation of a helix breaker-to-Leu substitution in the intramembrane region in substrates prevented cleavage by AtSPP. These results indicated that substrates of AtSPP required the helix breaker structure to be cleaved.
Project description:The regulated turnover of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident membrane proteins requires their extraction from the membrane lipid bilayer and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Cleavage within the transmembrane domain provides an attractive mechanism to facilitate protein dislocation but has never been shown for endogenous substrates. To determine whether intramembrane proteolysis, specifically cleavage by the intramembrane-cleaving aspartyl protease signal peptide peptidase (SPP), is involved in this pathway, we generated an SPP-specific somatic cell knockout. In a stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based proteomics screen, we identified HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to biliverdin, as a novel SPP substrate. Intramembrane cleavage by catalytically active SPP provided the primary proteolytic step required for the extraction and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation of HO-1, an ER-resident tail-anchored protein. SPP-mediated proteolysis was not limited to HO-1 but was required for the dislocation and degradation of additional tail-anchored ER-resident proteins. Our study identifies tail-anchored proteins as novel SPP substrates and a specific requirement for SPP-mediated intramembrane cleavage in protein turnover.
Project description:Secretory proteins are only temporary cytoplasmic residents. They are typically synthesized as preproteins, carrying signal peptides N-terminally fused to their mature domains. In bacteria secretion largely occurs posttranslationally through the membrane-embedded SecA-SecYEG translocase. Upon crossing the plasma membrane, signal peptides are cleaved off and mature domains reach their destinations and fold. Targeting to the translocase is mediated by signal peptides. The role of mature domains in targeting and secretion is unclear. We now reveal that mature domains harbor their own independent targeting signals (mature domain targeting signals [MTSs]). These are multiple, degenerate, interchangeable, linear or 3D hydrophobic stretches that become available because of the unstructured states of targeting-competent preproteins. Their receptor site on the cytoplasmic face of the SecYEG-bound SecA is also of hydrophobic nature and is located adjacent to the signal peptide cleft. Both the preprotein MTSs and their receptor site on SecA are essential for protein secretion. Evidently, mature domains have their own previously unsuspected distinct roles in preprotein targeting and secretion.
Project description:Intramembrane proteolysis describes the cleavage of substrate proteins within their hydrophobic transmembrane segments. Several families of intramembrane proteases have been identified including the aspartyl proteases Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) and its homologues, the SPP-like (SPPL) proteases SPPL2a, SPPL2b, SPPL2c and SPPL3. As presenilin homologues, they employ a similar catalytic mechanism as the well-studied ?-secretase. However, SPP/SPPL proteases cleave transmembrane proteins with a type II topology. The characterisation of SPP/SPPL-deficient mouse models has highlighted a still growing spectrum of biological functions and also promoted the substrate discovery of these proteases. In this review, we will summarise the current hypotheses how phenotypes of these mouse models are linked to the molecular function of the enzymes. At the cellular level, SPP/SPPL-mediated cleavage events rather provide specific regulatory switches than unspecific bulk proteolysis. By this means, a plethora of different cell biological pathways is influenced including signal transduction, membrane trafficking and protein glycosylation.
Project description:Extra-cytoplasmic polypeptides are usually synthesized as 'preproteins' carrying amino-terminal, cleavable signal peptides and secreted across membranes by translocases. The main bacterial translocase comprises the SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the peripheral ATPase motor SecA. Most proteins destined for the periplasm and beyond are exported post-translationally by SecA. Preprotein targeting to SecA is thought to involve signal peptides and chaperones like SecB. Here we show that signal peptides have a new role beyond targeting: they are essential allosteric activators of the translocase. On docking on their binding groove on SecA, signal peptides act in trans to drive three successive states: first, 'triggering' that drives the translocase to a lower activation energy state; second, 'trapping' that engages non-native preprotein mature domains docked with high affinity on the secretion apparatus; and third, 'secretion' during which trapped mature domains undergo several turnovers of translocation in segments. A significant contribution by mature domains renders signal peptides less critical in bacterial secretory protein targeting than currently assumed. Rather, it is their function as allosteric activators of the translocase that renders signal peptides essential for protein secretion. A role for signal peptides and targeting sequences as allosteric activators may be universal in protein translocases.
Project description:Protein secretion is essential, but how it is managed is poorly understood. In bacteria, most secreted proteins require release from the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane by type I signal peptidase (SPase), which cleaves the mature protein from its membrane-bound N-terminal signal peptide. As the first step that occurs outside the protected cytoplasmic environment and because insufficient activity can rapidly result in the toxic accumulation of preproteins, the activity of SPase is expected to be closely monitored and perhaps supplemented when insufficient. Indeed, we previously demonstrated that inhibition of SPase in Staphylococcus aureus results in derepression of the ayrRABC operon, which encodes an alternate mechanism to release proteins. However, in this case, the proteins are released with partially intact signal peptides, with the exception of IsaA, which is released with a virtually intact signal peptide. Here we show that mutation of AyrA [ayrA(R233K)] results in constitutive derepression of ayrRABC and that mutation of IsaA's signal peptide [isaA(K2Q)] results in hyperderepression upon SPase inhibition, which also requires AyrA. Further studies demonstrate that the inducing signal for ayrRABC derepression is accumulation of a subset of preproteins with signal peptides that are stable toward further processing and that the signal is critically amplified by the K2Q mutation and relayed to AyrR by AyrA. These results elucidate the mechanism by which S. aureus monitors and responds to secretion stress. The presence of ayrRA in other bacteria suggests that it may represent a general strategy linking membrane stress to appropriate transcriptional responses.IMPORTANCE Bacteria interact with their environment by secreting proteins that perform a myriad of functions, and the final step is the release of the mature protein from the cell surface via the activity of type I signal peptidase (SPase). While the bacterial response to many stresses is understood in some detail, almost nothing is known about how cells respond to secretion stress, such as insufficient SPase activity, which would eventually result in cell death. We previously demonstrated that the inhibition of SPase in Staphylococcus aureus results in the derepression of the ayrRABC operon, which can functionally replace SPase, but which is normally repressed by AyrR. We now demonstrate that the inducing signal for derepression is accumulation of a subset of preproteins with signal peptides that are stable to further processing and that the signal is relayed to AyrR via AyrA.
Project description:Signal peptide peptidase (SPP), its homologs, the SPP-like proteases SPPL2a/b/c and SPPL3, as well as presenilin, the catalytic subunit of the ?-secretase complex, are intramembrane-cleaving aspartyl proteases of the GxGD type. In this study, we identified the 18-kDa leader peptide (LP18) of the foamy virus envelope protein (FVenv) as a new substrate for intramembrane proteolysis by human SPPL3 and SPPL2a/b. In contrast to SPPL2a/b and ?-secretase, which require substrates with an ectodomain shorter than 60 amino acids for efficient intramembrane proteolysis, SPPL3 cleaves mutant FVenv lacking the proprotein convertase cleavage site necessary for the prior shedding. Moreover, the cleavage product of FVenv generated by SPPL3 serves as a new substrate for consecutive intramembrane cleavage by SPPL2a/b. Thus, human SPPL3 is the first GxGD-type aspartyl protease shown to be capable of acting like a sheddase, similar to members of the rhomboid family, which belong to the class of intramembrane-cleaving serine proteases.