Human host factors required for influenza virus replication.
ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus is an RNA virus that encodes up to 11 proteins and this small coding capacity demands that the virus use the host cellular machinery for many aspects of its life cycle. Knowledge of these host cell requirements not only informs us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus but also provides further targets that could be pursued for antiviral drug development. Here we use an integrative systems approach, based on genome-wide RNA interference screening, to identify 295 cellular cofactors required for early-stage influenza virus replication. Within this group, those involved in kinase-regulated signalling, ubiquitination and phosphatase activity are the most highly enriched, and 181 factors assemble into a highly significant host-pathogen interaction network. Moreover, 219 of the 295 factors were confirmed to be required for efficient wild-type influenza virus growth, and further analysis of a subset of genes showed 23 factors necessary for viral entry, including members of the vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) and COPI-protein families, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) proteins, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-beta. Furthermore, 10 proteins were confirmed to be involved in post-entry steps of influenza virus replication. These include nuclear import components, proteases, and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) IIbeta (CAMK2B). Notably, growth of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus is also dependent on the identified host factors, and we show that small molecule inhibitors of several factors, including vATPase and CAMK2B, antagonize influenza virus replication.
Project description:Influenza A virus causes considerable morbidity and mortality largely because of a lack of effective antiviral drugs. Viral neuraminidase inhibitors, which inhibit viral release from the infected cell, are currently the only approved drugs for influenza, but have recently been shown to be less effective than previously thought. Growing resistance to therapies that target viral proteins has led to increased urgency in the search for novel anti-influenza compounds. However, discovery and development of new drugs have been restricted because of differences in susceptibility to influenza between animal models and humans and a lack of translation between cell culture and in vivo measures of efficacy. To circumvent these limitations, we developed an experimental approach based on ex vivo infection of human bronchial tissue explants and optimized a method of flow cytometric analysis to directly quantify infection rates in bronchial epithelial tissues. This allowed testing of the effectiveness of TVB024, a vATPase inhibitor that inhibits viral replication rather than virus release, and to compare efficacy with the current frontline neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir. The study showed that the vATPase inhibitor completely abrogated epithelial cell infection, virus shedding, and the associated induction of proinflammatory mediators, whereas oseltamivir was only partially effective at reducing these mediators and ineffective against innate responses. We propose, therefore, that this explant model could be used to predict the efficacy of novel anti-influenza compounds targeting diverse stages of the viral replication cycle, thereby complementing animal models and facilitating progression of new drugs into clinical trials.
Project description:Host factors required for viral replication are ideal drug targets because they are less likely than viral proteins to mutate under drug-mediated selective pressure. Although genome-wide screens have identified host proteins involved in influenza virus replication, limited mechanistic understanding of how these factors affect influenza has hindered potential drug development. We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and validate host factors that associate with influenza virus proteins and affect viral replication. After identifying over 1,000 host factors that coimmunoprecipitate with specific viral proteins, we generated a network of virus-host protein interactions based on the stage of the viral life cycle affected upon host factor downregulation. Using compounds that inhibit these host factors, we validated several proteins, notably Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) and JAK1, as potential antiviral drug targets. Thus, virus-host interactome screens are powerful strategies to identify targetable host factors and guide antiviral drug development.
Project description:In recent years genome-wide RNAi screens have revealed hundreds of cellular factors required for influenza virus infections in human cells. The long-term goal is to establish some of them as drug targets for the development of the next generation of antivirals against influenza. We found that several members of the polo-like kinases (PLK), a family of serine/threonine kinases with well-known roles in cell cycle regulation, were identified as hits in four different RNAi screens and we therefore studied their potential as drug target for influenza. We show that knockdown of PLK1, PLK3, and PLK4, as well as inhibition of PLK kinase activity by four different compounds, leads to reduced influenza virus replication, and we map the requirement of PLK activity to early stages of the viral replication cycle. We also tested the impact of the PLK inhibitor BI2536 on influenza virus replication in a human lung tissue culture model and observed strong inhibition of virus replication with no measurable toxicity. This study establishes the PLKs as potential drug targets for influenza and contributes to a more detailed understanding of the intricate interactions between influenza viruses and their host cells.
Project description:Infection with influenza A and B viruses results in a mild to severe respiratory tract infection. It is widely accepted that many factors affect the severity of influenza disease, including viral replication, host adaptation, innate immune signalling, pre-existing immunity, and secondary infections. In this review, we will focus on the interplay between influenza virus RNA synthesis and the detection of influenza virus RNA by our innate immune system. Specifically, we will discuss the generation of various RNA species, host pathogen receptors, and host shut-off. In addition, we will also address outstanding questions that currently limit our knowledge of influenza virus replication and host adaption. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these factors is essential for assessing the pandemic potential of future influenza virus outbreaks.
Project description:Influenza A viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) is responsible for transcription and replication of the viral genome in infected cells and depends on host factors for its functions. Identification of the host factors interacting with vRNP not only improves understanding of virus-host interactions but also provides insights into novel mechanisms of viral pathogenicity and the development of new antiviral strategies. Here, we have identified 80 host factors that copurified with vRNP using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry. LYAR, a cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein, has been shown to be important for influenza A virus replication. During influenza A virus infection, LYAR expression is increased and partly translocates from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Furthermore, LYAR interacts with RNP subunits, resulting in enhancing viral RNP assembly, thereby facilitating viral RNA synthesis. Taken together, our studies identify a novel vRNP binding host partner important for influenza A virus replication and further reveal the mechanism of LYAR regulating influenza A viral RNA synthesis by facilitating viral RNP assembly.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Influenza A virus (IAV) must utilize the host cell machinery to replicate, but many of the mechanisms of IAV-host interaction remain poorly understood. Improved understanding of interactions between host factors and vRNP not only increases our basic knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenicity but also provides insights into possible novel antiviral targets that are necessary due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant IAV strains. Here, we have identified LYAR, a cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein, which interacts with viral RNP components and is important for efficient replication of IAVs and whose role in the IAV life cycle has never been reported. In addition, we further reveal the role of LYAR in viral RNA synthesis. Our results extend and improve current knowledge on the mechanisms of IAV transcription and replication.
Project description:Host signaling pathways play important roles in the replication of influenza virus, but their functional effects remain to be characterized at the molecular level. Here we identify two receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) of the tyrphostin class that exhibit robust antiviral activity against influenza A virus replication in cultured cells. One of these (AG879) is a selective inhibitor of the nerve growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (TrkA/HER2) signaling; the other, tyrphostin A9 (A9), inhibits the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) pathway. We find that each inhibits at least three postentry steps of the influenza virus life cycle: AG879 and A9 both strongly inhibit the synthesis of all three influenza virus RNA species, block Crm1-dependent nuclear export, and also prevent the release of viral particles through a pathway that is modulated by the lipid biosynthesis enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS). Tests of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown and additional small-molecule inhibitors confirmed that interventions targeting TrkA can suppress influenza virus replication. Our study suggests that host cell receptor tyrosine kinase signaling is required for maximal influenza virus RNA synthesis, viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) nuclear export, and virus release and that specific RTKIs hold promise as novel anti-influenza virus therapeutics.
Project description:Influenza A viruses cause infections in the human respiratory tract and give rise to annual seasonal outbreaks, as well as more rarely dreaded pandemics. Influenza A viruses become quickly resistant to the virus-directed antiviral treatments, which are the current main treatment options. A promising alternative approach is to target host cell factors that are exploited by influenza viruses. To this end, we characterized the phosphoproteome of influenza A virus infected primary human macrophages to elucidate the intracellular signaling pathways and critical host factors activated upon influenza infection. We identified 1675 phosphoproteins, 4004 phosphopeptides and 4146 nonredundant phosphosites. The phosphorylation of 1113 proteins (66%) was regulated upon infection, highlighting the importance of such global phosphoproteomic profiling in primary cells. Notably, 285 of the identified phosphorylation sites have not been previously described in publicly available phosphorylation databases, despite many published large-scale phosphoproteome studies using human and mouse cell lines. Systematic bioinformatics analysis of the phosphoproteome data indicated that the phosphorylation of proteins involved in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway (such as TRIM22 and TRIM25) and antiviral responses (such as MAVS) changed in infected macrophages. Proteins known to play roles in small GTPase-, mitogen-activated protein kinase-, and cyclin-dependent kinase- signaling were also regulated by phosphorylation upon infection. In particular, the influenza infection had a major influence on the phosphorylation profiles of a large number of cyclin-dependent kinase substrates. Functional studies using cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors showed that the cyclin-dependent kinase activity is required for efficient viral replication and for activation of the host antiviral responses. In addition, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors protect IAV-infected mice from death. In conclusion, we provide the first comprehensive phosphoproteome characterization of influenza A virus infection in primary human macrophages, and provide evidence that cyclin-dependent kinases represent potential therapeutic targets for more effective treatment of influenza infections.
Project description:Influenza virus is reliant on numerous host cell functions during its replication cycle. RNA interference technology, applied on a genome-wide level, has identified human host factors that are necessary for efficient virus replication and provides new insight into how influenza virus interacts with its host at the molecular level.
Project description:Influenza viruses cause epidemics and pandemics. Like all viruses, influenza viruses rely on the host cellular machinery to support their life cycle. Accordingly, identification of the host functions co-opted for viral replication is of interest to understand the mechanisms of the virus life cycle and to find new targets for the development of antiviral compounds. Among the various approaches used to explore host factor involvement in the influenza virus replication cycle, perhaps the most powerful is RNAi-based genome-wide screening, which has shed new light on the search for host factors involved in virus replication. In this review, we examine the cellular genes identified to date as important for influenza virus replication in genome-wide screens, assess pathways that were repeatedly identified in these studies, and discuss how these pathways might be involved in the individual steps of influenza virus replication, ultimately leading to a comprehensive understanding of the virus life cycle.
Project description:To support their replication, viruses take advantage of numerous cellular factors and processes. Recent large-scale screens have identified hundreds of such factors, yet little is known about how viruses exploit any of these. Influenza virus infection post-translationally activates P58(IPK), a cellular inhibitor of the interferon-induced, dsRNA-activated eIF2alpha kinase, PKR. Here, we report that infection of P58(IPK) knockout mice with influenza virus resulted in increased lung pathology, immune cell apoptosis, PKR activation, and mortality. Analysis of lung transcriptional profiles, including those induced by the reconstructed 1918 pandemic virus, revealed increased expression of genes associated with the cell death, immune, and inflammatory responses. These experiments represent the first use of a mammalian infection model to demonstrate the role of P58(IPK) in the antiviral response. Our results suggest that P58(IPK) represents a new class of molecule, a cellular inhibitor of the host defense (CIHD), as P58(IPK) is activated during virus infection to inhibit virus-induced apoptosis and inflammation to prolong host survival, even while prolonging viral replication.