HDL in humans with cardiovascular disease exhibits a proteomic signature.
ABSTRACT: Alterations in protein composition and oxidative damage of high density lipoprotein (HDL) have been proposed to impair the cardioprotective properties of HDL. We tested whether relative levels of proteins in HDL(2) could be used as biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD).Twenty control and eighteen CAD subjects matched for HDL-cholesterol, age, and sex were studied. HDL(2) isolated from plasma was digested with trypsin and analyzed by high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and pattern recognition analysis.Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of mass spectra clearly differentiated CAD from control subjects with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC(AUC)) of 0.94. Targeted tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the model's significant features revealed that HDL(2) of CAD subjects contained oxidized methionine residues of apolipoprotein A-I and elevated levels of apolipoprotein C-III. A proteomic signature composed of MALDI-MS signals from apoA-I, apoC-III, Lp(a) and apoC-I accurately classified CAD and control subjects (ROC(AUC)=0.82).HDL(2) of CAD subjects carries a distinct protein cargo and that protein oxidation helps generate dysfunctional HDL. Moreover, models based on selected identified peptides in MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the HDL may have diagnostic potential.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Concentrations of circulating apolipoproteins are strongly linked to risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative importance of the additional knowledge of apolipoprotein concentrations within specific lipoprotein species for CAD risk prediction is limited. OBJECTIVES:This study sought to evaluate the performance of a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoproteomic score, based on targeted mass spectrometry of HDL-associated apolipoproteins, for the detection of angiographic CAD and outcomes. METHODS:HDL-associated apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, apoC-1, apoC-2, apoC-3, and apoC-4 were measured in 943 participants without prevalent myocardial infarction (MI) referred for coronary angiography in the CASABLANCA (Catheter Sampled Blood Archive in Cardiovascular Diseases) study. A composite HDL apolipoproteomic score (pCAD) was associated with likelihood of obstructive CAD (?70% lesion in ?1 vessel) and with incident cardiovascular outcomes over 4-year follow-up. RESULTS:There were 587 (62.2%) patients with coronary stenosis. The pCAD score was associated with the presence of obstructive CAD (odds ratio: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 1.69; p < 0.001), independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors including circulating plasma apoA-1 and apoB. The C-index for pCAD was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.67) for the presence of obstructive CAD. Although pCAD was not associated with cardiovascular mortality among all individuals (hazard ratio: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.66; p = 0.15), there was evidence of association for individuals with obstructive CAD (hazard ratio: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.05; p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS:An HDL apolipoproteomic score is associated with the presence of CAD, independent of circulating apoA-1 and apoB concentrations and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Among individuals with CAD, this score may be independently associated cardiovascular death. (The CASABLANCA Study: Catheter Sampled Blood Archive in Cardiovascular Diseases [CASABLANCA]; NCT00842868).
Project description:The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether HDL glycoprotein composition affects HDL's immunomodulatory function. HDL were purified from healthy controls (n?=?13), subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n?=?13), and diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients (n?=?24). Concentrations of HDL-bound serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III), ?-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), and ?-2-HS-glycoprotein (A2HSG); and the site-specific glycovariations of ApoC-III, A1AT, and A2HSG were measured. Secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes was used as a prototypical assay of HDL's immunomodulatory capacity. HDL from HD patients were enriched in SAA, LBP, ApoC-III, di-sialylated ApoC-III (ApoC-III2) and desialylated A2HSG. HDL that increased IL-6 secretion were enriched in ApoC-III, di-sialylated glycans at multiple A1AT glycosylation sites and desialylated A2HSG, and depleted in mono-sialylated ApoC-III (ApoC-III1). Subgroup analysis on HD patients who experienced an infectious hospitalization event within 60 days (HD+) (n?=?12), vs. those with no event (HD-) (n?=?12) showed that HDL from HD+ patients were enriched in SAA but had lower levels of sialylation across glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that HDL glycoprotein composition, including the site-specific glycosylation, differentiate between clinical groups, correlate with HDL's immunomodulatory capacity, and may be predictive of HDL's ability to protect from infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plasma apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) levels are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. OBJECTIVE:To assess whether lipoprotein-associated apoC-III levels predict risk of CAD events. METHODS:apoC-III associated with apoB, apoAI, and Lp(a) (apoCIII-apoB, apoCIII-apoAI, and apoCIII-Lp(a), respectively) were measured using high-throughput chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunoassays in 2711 subjects (1879 controls and 832 cases with CAD) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk prospective population study with 7.4 years of follow-up. These measures were correlated with a variety of lipid measurements and the presence of CAD. The indices of "total apoCIII-apoB" and "total apoCIII-apoAI" were derived by multiplying plasma apoB and apoAI, respectively. RESULTS:apoCIII-apoB (P = .001), apoCIII-Lp(a) (P < .001), apoCIII-apoAI (P = .005) were higher in cases vs controls; tended to correlate positively with body mass index, hsCRP, apoC-III, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, LDL and high-density lipoprotein particle number and very low density lipoprotein size; but negatively with LDL and high-density lipoprotein particle size (P < .001 for all). apoCIII-apoB, apoCIII-apoAI, apoCIII-Lp(a), total apoCIII-Lp(a), and total apoCIII-apoB were predictors of CAD after adjustment of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertensive and lipid-lowering drug use, but they lost their significance after further adjustment of lipid and lipoprotein variables. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that enzyme-linked immunoassay-measured lipoprotein-associated apoC-III markers reflect atherogenic lipid particles but do not independently predict risk of CAD events.
Project description:Typically, apolipoproteins are individually measured in blood by immunoassay. In this report, we describe the development of a multiplexed selected reaction monitoring (SRM) based assay for a panel of apolipoproteins and its application to a clinical cohort of samples derived from acute stroke patients.An SRM assay for a panel of nine apolipoproteins was developed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Quantitative data for each apolipoprotein were analyzed to determine expression ratio and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) values for ischemic versus hemorrhagic stroke.The optimized SRM assay was used to interrogate a small cohort of well-characterized plasma samples obtained from patients with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The ROC analyses demonstrated good classification power for several single apolipoproteins, most notably apoC-III and apoC-I. When a novel multi-marker ROC algorithm was applied, the ischemic versus hemorrhagic groups were best differentiated by a combination of apoC-III and apoA-I with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.92.This proof-of-concept study provides interesting and provocative data for distinguishing ischemic versus hemorrhage within first week of symptom onset. However, the observations are based on one cohort of patient samples and further confirmation will be required.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>The serum/plasma proteome was explored for biomarkers to improve the diagnostic ability of CA19-9 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC).<h4>Methods</h4>A Training Set of serum samples from 20 resectable and 18 stage IV PC patients, 54 disease controls (DCs) and 68 healthy volunteers (HVs) were analysed by surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). The resulting protein panel was validated on 40 resectable PC, 21 DC and 19 HV plasma samples (Validation-1 Set) and further by ELISA on 33 resectable PC, 28 DC and 18 HV serum samples (Validation-2 Set). Diagnostic panels were derived using binary logistic regression incorporating internal cross-validation followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.<h4>Results</h4>A seven-protein panel from the training set PC vs DC and from PC vs HV samples gave the ROC area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90 and 0.90 compared with 0.87 and 0.91 for CA19-9. The AUC was greater (0.97 and 0.99, P<0.05) when CA19-9 was added to the panels and confirmed on the validation-1 samples. A simplified panel of apolipoprotein C-I (ApoC-I), apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) and CA19-9 was tested on the validation-2 set by ELISA, in which the ROC AUC was greater than that of CA19-9 alone for PC vs DC (0.90 vs 0.84) and for PC vs HV (0.96 vs 0.90).<h4>Conclusions</h4>A simplified diagnostic panel of CA19-9, ApoC-I and ApoA-II improves the diagnostic ability of CA19-9 alone and may have clinical utility.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pancreaticoduodenectomy remains a major undertaking. A preoperative blood test, which could confidently predict the benefits of surgery would improve the selection of pancreatic cancer patients for surgery. This study aimed to identify protein biomarkers prognostic for long-term survival and to validate them with clinico-pathological information.<h4>Methods</h4>Serum from 40 preoperative patients was used to train for predictive biomarkers using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI), and the results were verified on 21 independent samples. Two predictive proteins were identified by tryptic peptide mass fingerprinting and sequencing, and validated on serum from another 57 patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The influence of these proteins on growth and invasion of two cancer cell lines was tested in-vitro.<h4>Results</h4>The SELDI panel of m/z 3700, 8222 and 11 522 peaks predicted <12 months' survival (ROC AUC: 0.79, 0.64-0.90; P<0.039). When CA19-9 was added, the ROC AUC increased to 0.95 (0.84-0.99; P<0.0001). The six subjects in the verification group who died within 12 months were correctly classified. The m/z 8222 and 11 522 proteins were identified as Serum ApoC-II and SAA-1, respectively. In the validation samples, ELISA results confirmed that ApoC-II was predictive of survival (Kaplan-Meier P<0.009), but not SAA-I. ApoC-II, CA19-9 and major-vessel involvement independently predicted survival. ApoC-II and SAA-1 increased cell growth and invasion of both cancer cell lines.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Serum ApoC-II, CA19-9 and major-vessel invasion independently predict survival and improves selection of patients for pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), a small proinflammatory protein present on 6% to 7% of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, defines a subspecies of HDL adversely associated with coronary heart disease in primarily white cohorts. In a multi-ethnic population free of clinical cardiovascular disease, we evaluated the relationship between apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies and subclinical markers of atherosclerotic pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS:We investigated cross-sectional associations between apolipoprotein A-I concentrations of apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies, measured via ELISA and imaging measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, among 4659 participants in the MESA (The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) at baseline (2000-2002). HDL particles containing and lacking apoC-III were divergently associated with coronary artery calcification in women (P-heterogeneity=0.002) but not in men (P-heterogeneity=0.31) and with carotid plaque score (P-heterogeneity=0.02) and intima-media thickness (P-heterogeneity=0.06) in the overall study population. HDL lacking apoC-III was inversely associated with all outcome measures (coronary artery calcification, women: odds ratio per SD=0.81 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.90]; carotid plaque, overall: odds ratio per SD=0.92 [95% CI, 0.84-1.00]; intima-media thickness, overall: mean difference per SD=-14.0 µm [95% CI, -21.1 to -6.7 ?m]), whereas HDL containing apoC-III was positively associated (coronary artery calcification, women: odds ratio=1.10 [95% CI, 0.99-1.22]; plaque, overall: odds ratio=1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.19]) or unassociated. Neither total HDL nor HDL subspecies was associated with changes in subclinical atherosclerosis measures up to 10 years later. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of apoC-III defined a subspecies of HDL not inversely associated with baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, supporting a role of apoC-III in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Human HDLs have highly heterogeneous composition. Plasma concentrations of HDL with apoC-III and of apoE in HDL predict higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). The concentrations of HDL-apoA-I containing apoE, apoC-III, or both and their distribution across HDL sizes are unknown. We studied 20 normal weight and 20 obese subjects matched by age, gender, and race. Plasma HDL was separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography (anti-apoA-I, anti-apoC-III, anti-apoE), followed by nondenaturing-gel electrophoresis. Mean HDL-cholesterol concentrations in normal weight and obese subjects were 65 and 50 mg/dl (P = 0.009), and total apoA-I concentrations were 119 and 118 mg/dl, respectively. HDL without apoE or apoC-III was the most prevalent HDL type representing 89% of apoA-I concentration in normal weight and 77% in obese (P = 0.01) individuals; HDL with apoE-only was 5% versus 8% (P = 0.1); HDL with apoC-III-only was 4% versus 10% (P = 0.009); and HDL with apoE and apoC-III was 1.5% versus 4.6% (P = 0.004). Concentrations of apoE and apoC-III in HDL were 1.5-2× higher in obese subjects (P ? 0.004). HDL with apoE or apoC-III occurred in all sizes among groups. Obese subjects had higher prevalence of HDL containing apoE or apoC-III, subfractions associated with CHD, whereas normal weight subjects had higher prevalence of HDL without apoE or apoC-III, subfractions with protective association against CHD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. Elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoC-III levels are causally linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The mechanism(s) through which apoC-III increases CAD risk remains largely unknown. The aim was to confirm the association between apoC-III plasma levels and CAD risk and to explore which lipoprotein subfractions contribute to this relationship between apoC-III and CAD risk. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Plasma apoC-III levels were measured in baseline samples from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The study comprised 2711 apparently healthy study participants, of whom 832 subsequently developed CAD. We studied the association of baseline apoC-III levels with incident CAD risk, lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and inflammatory biomarkers. ApoC-III levels were significantly associated with CAD risk (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.48 for highest compared with lowest quintile), retaining significance after adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.94). ApoC-III levels were positively correlated with triglyceride levels, (r=0.39), particle numbers of very-low-density lipoprotein (r=0.25), intermediate-density lipoprotein (r=0.23), small dense low-density lipoprotein (r=0.26), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r=0.15), whereas an inverse correlation was observed with large low-density lipoprotein particle number (r=-0.11), P<0.001 for each. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between apoC-III and CAD risk could be explained by triglyceride elevation (triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein, and intermediate-density lipoprotein particles), small low-density lipoprotein particle size, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS:ApoC-III levels are significantly associated with incident CAD risk. Elevated levels of remnant lipoproteins, small dense low-density lipoprotein, and low-grade inflammation may explain this association.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Routine apolipoprotein (apo) measurements for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are restricted to apoA-I and apoB. Here, the authors measured an unprecedented range of apolipoproteins in a prospective, population-based study and relate their plasma levels to risk of CVD. OBJECTIVES:This study sought to measure apolipoproteins directly by mass spectrometry and compare their associations with incident CVD and to obtain a system-level understanding of the correlations of apolipoproteins with the plasma lipidome and proteome. METHODS:Associations of 13 apolipoproteins, 135 lipid species, and 211 other plasma proteins with incident CVD (91 events), defined as stroke, myocardial infarction, or sudden cardiac death, were assessed prospectively over a 10-year period in the Bruneck Study (N = 688) using multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Changes in apolipoprotein and lipid levels following treatment with volanesorsen, a second-generation antisense drug targeting apoC-III, were determined in 2 human intervention trials, one of which was randomized. RESULTS:The apolipoproteins most significantly associated with incident CVD were apoC-II (hazard ratio per 1 SD [HR/SD]: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17 to 1.67), apoC-III (HR/SD: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.63), and apoE (HR/SD: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.52). Associations were independent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol, and extended to stroke and myocardial infarction. Lipidomic and proteomic profiles implicated these 3 very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-associated apolipoproteins in de novo lipogenesis, glucose metabolism, complement activation, blood coagulation, and inflammation. Notably, apoC-II/apoC-III/apoE correlated with a pattern of lipid species previously linked to CVD risk. ApoC-III inhibition by volanesorsen reduced plasma levels of apoC-II, apoC-III, triacylglycerols, and diacylglycerols, and increased apoA-I, apoA-II, and apoM (all p < 0.05 vs. placebo) without affecting apoB-100 (p = 0.73). CONCLUSIONS:The strong associations of VLDL-associated apolipoproteins with incident CVD in the general community support the concept of targeting triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins to reduce risk of CVD.