Histophilus somni IbpA DR2/Fic in virulence and immunoprotection at the natural host alveolar epithelial barrier.
ABSTRACT: Newly recognized Fic family virulence proteins may be important in many bacterial pathogens. To relate cellular mechanisms to pathogenesis and immune protection, we studied the cytotoxicity of the Histophilus somni immunoglobulin-binding protein A (IbpA) direct repeat 2 Fic domain (DR2/Fic) for natural host target cells. Live virulent IbpA-producing H. somni strain 2336, a cell-free culture supernatant (CCS) of this strain, or recombinant DR2/Fic (rDR2/Fic) caused dramatic retraction and rounding of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells. IbpA-deficient H. somni strain 129Pt and a Fic motif His(298)Ala mutant rDR2/Fic protein were not cytotoxic. The cellular mechanism of DR2/Fic cytotoxicity was demonstrated by incubation of BAT2 cell lysates with strain 2336 CCS or rDR2/Fic in the presence of [alpha-(32)P]ATP, which resulted in adenylylation of Rho GTPases and cytoskeletal disruption. Since IbpA is not secreted by type III or type IV secretion systems, we determined whether DR2/Fic entered the host cytoplasm to access its Rho GTPase targets. Although H. somni did not invade BAT2 cells, DR2/Fic was internalized by cells treated with H. somni, CCS, or the rDR2/Fic protein, as shown by confocal immunomicroscopy. Transwell bacterial migration assays showed that large numbers of strain 2336 bacteria migrated between retracted BAT2 cells, but IbpA-deficient strain 129Pt did not cross a monolayer unless the monolayer was pretreated with strain 2336 CCS or rDR2/Fic protein. Antibody to rDR2/Fic or passively protective convalescent-phase serum blocked IbpA-mediated cytotoxicity and inhibited H. somni transmigration across BAT2 monolayers, confirming the role of DR2/Fic in pathogenesis and corresponding to the results for in vivo protection in previous animal studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pneumonia and myocarditis are the most commonly reported diseases due to Histophilus somni, an opportunistic pathogen of the reproductive and respiratory tracts of cattle. Thus far only a few genes involved in metabolic and virulence functions have been identified and characterized in H. somni using traditional methods. Analyses of the genome sequences of several Pasteurellaceae species have provided insights into their biology and evolution. In view of the economic and ecological importance of H. somni, the genome sequence of pneumonia strain 2336 has been determined and compared to that of commensal strain 129Pt and other members of the Pasteurellaceae. RESULTS:The chromosome of strain 2336 (2,263,857 bp) contained 1,980 protein coding genes, whereas the chromosome of strain 129Pt (2,007,700 bp) contained only 1,792 protein coding genes. Although the chromosomes of the two strains differ in size, their average GC content, gene density (total number of genes predicted on the chromosome), and percentage of sequence (number of genes) that encodes proteins were similar. The chromosomes of these strains also contained a number of discrete prophage regions and genomic islands. One of the genomic islands in strain 2336 contained genes putatively involved in copper, zinc, and tetracycline resistance. Using the genome sequence data and comparative analyses with other members of the Pasteurellaceae, several H. somni genes that may encode proteins involved in virulence (e.g., filamentous haemaggutinins, adhesins, and polysaccharide biosynthesis/modification enzymes) were identified. The two strains contained a total of 17 ORFs that encode putative glycosyltransferases and some of these ORFs had characteristic simple sequence repeats within them. Most of the genes/loci common to both the strains were located in different regions of the two chromosomes and occurred in opposite orientations, indicating genome rearrangement since their divergence from a common ancestor. CONCLUSIONS:Since the genome of strain 129Pt was ~256,000 bp smaller than that of strain 2336, these genomes provide yet another paradigm for studying evolutionary gene loss and/or gain in regard to virulence repertoire and pathogenic ability. Analyses of the complete genome sequences revealed that bacteriophage- and transposon-mediated horizontal gene transfer had occurred at several loci in the chromosomes of strains 2336 and 129Pt. It appears that these mobile genetic elements have played a major role in creating genomic diversity and phenotypic variability among the two H. somni strains.
Project description:Genome structural annotation, i.e., identification and demarcation of the boundaries for all the functional elements in a genome (e.g., genes, non-coding RNAs, proteins and regulatory elements), is a prerequisite for systems level analysis. Current genome annotation programs do not identify all of the functional elements of the genome, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). Whole genome transcriptome analysis is a complementary method to identify "novel" genes, small RNAs, regulatory regions, and operon structures, thus improving the structural annotation in bacteria. In particular, the identification of non-coding RNAs has revealed their widespread occurrence and functional importance in gene regulation, stress and virulence. However, very little is known about non-coding transcripts in Histophilus somni, one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) as well as bovine infertility, abortion, septicemia, arthritis, myocarditis, and thrombotic meningoencephalitis. In this study, we report a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of H. somni strain 2336 using RNA-Seq method.The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map identified 94 sRNAs in the H. somni genome of which 82 sRNAs were never predicted or reported in earlier studies. We also identified 38 novel potential protein coding open reading frames that were absent in the current genome annotation. The transcriptome map allowed the identification of 278 operon (total 730 genes) structures in the genome. When compared with the genome sequence of a non-virulent strain 129Pt, a disproportionate number of sRNAs (?30%) were located in genomic region unique to strain 2336 (?18% of the total genome). This observation suggests that a number of the newly identified sRNAs in strain 2336 may be involved in strain-specific adaptations.
Project description:A new family of adenylyltransferases, defined by the presence of a Fic domain, was recently discovered to catalyze the addition of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to Rho GTPases (Yarbrough, M. L., Li, Y., Kinch, L. N., Grishin, N. V., Ball, H. L., and Orth, K. (2009) Science 323, 269-272; Worby, C. A., Mattoo, S., Kruger, R. P., Corbeil, L. B., Koller, A., Mendez, J. C., Zekarias, B., Lazar, C., and Dixon, J. E. (2009) Mol. Cell 34, 93-103). This adenylylation event inactivates Rho GTPases by preventing them from binding to their downstream effectors. We reported that the Fic domain(s) of the immunoglobulin-binding protein A (IbpA) from the pathogenic bacterium Histophilus somni adenylylates mammalian Rho GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, thereby inducing host cytoskeletal collapse, which allows H. somni to breach alveolar barriers and cause septicemia. The IbpA-mediated adenylylation occurs on a functionally critical tyrosine in the switch 1 region of these GTPases. Here, we conduct a detailed characterization of the IbpA Fic2 domain and compare its activity with other known Fic adenylyltransferases, VopS (Vibrio outer protein S) from the bacterial pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the human protein HYPE (huntingtin yeast interacting protein E; also called FicD). We also included the Fic domains of the secreted protein, PfhB2, from the opportunistic pathogen Pasteurella multocida, in our analysis. PfhB2 shares a common domain architecture with IbpA and contains two Fic domains. We demonstrate that the PfhB2 Fic domains also possess adenylyltransferase activity that targets the switch 1 tyrosine of Rho GTPases. Comparative kinetic and phylogenetic analyses of IbpA-Fic2 with the Fic domains of PfhB2, VopS, and HYPE reveal important aspects of their specificities for Rho GTPases and nucleotide usage and offer mechanistic insights for determining nucleotide and substrate specificities for these enzymes. Finally, we compare the evolutionary lineages of Fic proteins with those of other known adenylyltransferases.
Project description:We show that the secreted antigen, IbpA, of the respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni induces cytotoxicity in mammalian cells via its Fic domains. Fic domains are defined by a core HPFxxGNGR motif and are conserved from bacteria to humans. We demonstrate that the Fic domains of IbpA catalyze a unique reversible adenylylation event that uses ATP to add an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) moiety to a conserved tyrosine residue in the switch I region of Rho GTPases. This modification requires the conserved histidine of the Fic core motif and renders Rho GTPases inactive. We further demonstrate that the only human protein containing a Fic domain, huntingtin yeast-interacting protein E (HYPE), also adenylylates Rho GTPases in vitro. Thus, we classify Fic domain-containing proteins as a class of enzymes that mediate bacterial pathogenesis as well as a previously unrecognized eukaryotic posttranslational modification that may regulate key signaling events.
Project description:The Fic family of adenylyltransferases, defined by a core HPFx(D/E)GN(G/K)R motif, consists of over 2,700 proteins found in organisms from bacteria to humans. The immunoglobulin-binding protein A (IbpA) from the bacterial pathogen Histophilus somni contains two Fic domains that adenylylate the switch1 tyrosine residue of Rho-family GTPases, allowing the bacteria to subvert host defenses. Here we present the structure of the second Fic domain of IbpA (IbpAFic2) in complex with its substrate, Cdc42. IbpAFic2-bound Cdc42 mimics the GDI-bound state of Rho GTPases, with both its switch1 and switch2 regions gripped by IbpAFic2. Mutations disrupting the IbpAFic2-Cdc42 interface impair adenylylation and cytotoxicity. Notably, the switch1 tyrosine of Cdc42 is adenylylated in the structure, providing the first structural view for this post-translational modification. We also show that the nucleotide-binding mechanism is conserved among Fic proteins and propose a catalytic mechanism for this recently discovered family of enzymes.
Project description:Increasing demand for the low-cost production of valuable proteins has stimulated development of novel expression systems. Many challenges faced by existing technology may be overcome by using unicellular microalgae as an expression platform due to their ability to be cultivated rapidly, inexpensively, and in large scale. Diatoms are a particularly productive type of unicellular algae showing promise as production organisms. Here, we report the development of an expression system in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana by expressing the protective IbpA DR2 antigen from Histophilus somni for the production of a vaccine against bovine respiratory disease. The utilization of diatoms with their typically silicified cell walls permitted development of silicon-responsive transcription elements to induce protein expression. Specifically, we demonstrate that transcription elements from the silicon transporter gene SIT1 are sufficient to drive high levels of IbpA DR2 expression during silicon limitation and growth arrest. These culture conditions eliminate the flux of cellular resources into cell division processes, yet do not limit protein expression. In addition to improving protein expression levels by molecular manipulations, yield was dramatically increased through cultivation enhancement including elevated light and CO2 supplementation. We substantially increased recombinant protein production over starting levels to 1.2% of the total sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein in T. pseudonana, which was sufficient to conduct preliminary immunization trials in mice. Mice exposed to 5 μg of diatom-expressed DR2 in whole or sonicated cells (without protein purification) exhibited a modest immune response without the addition of adjuvant.
Project description:Histophilus somni, a causative agent of the bovine respiratory disease complex, can also cause a variety of systemic disorders, including bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, pericarditis, arthritis, pleuritis, and infectious thrombotic meningoencephalitis. The purpose of this study was to determine if currently circulating strains differ from those of the 1980s by identifying genomic changes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (INDEL) sites were examined by whole-genome sequencing in 12 samples, 6 old and 6 new. The 31 028 SNP/INDELs recorded were compared against the reference genome sequence of the pathogenic H. somni strain 2336. The distribution of about 75% of these SNPs within a specified gene differed between old and new isolates and did not follow any particular pattern. The other 25% clustered into 2 groups containing the same SNPs in various genes: group I included 5 old isolates and 1 new isolate; group II included 5 new isolates and 1 old isolate. For putative virulence genes there were more SNPs in group I compared with strain 2336, itself an older isolate, than in group II. Although only 25% of all the SNPs formed 2 clusters, the results suggest some genetic difference in various genes between old and new strains.
Project description:We used RNA-Seq to experimentally annotate H. somni strain 2336 and construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map. Novel expressed elements were identified, and where appropriate, computational predictions of previously described gene boundaries were corrected. Transcript profiling of a single sample by RNA-Seq
Project description:Histophilus somni is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for respiratory and systemic diseases of cattle and sheep. Rapid and accurate detection of H. somni is essential to distinguish H. somni from other potential pathogens for proper control and treatment of infections. Nanomaterial optical fiber biosensors (NOFS) recognize analyte interactions, such as DNA hybridization, with high specificity and sensitivity, and were applied to detect H. somni DNA in culture and clinical samples. An ionic self-assembled multilayer (ISAM) film was fabricated on a long-period grating optical fiber, and a biotinylated, nucleotide probe complementary to the H. somni 16S rDNA gene was coupled to the ISAM film. Exposure of the ISAM::probe to ?100 killed cells of H. somni strain 2336 without DNA amplification resulted in attenuation of light transmission of ?9.4%. Exposure of the complexed fiber to Escherichia coli or non- H. somni species of Pasteurellaceae reduced light transmission by ?3.4%. Exposure of the ISAM::probe to blood, bronchoalveolar fluid, or spleen from mice or calves infected with H. somni resulted in ?24.3% transmission attenuation. The assay correctly detected all 6 strains of H. somni tested from culture, or tissues from 3 separate mice and calves tested in duplicate. Six heterologous strains (representing 6 genera) reacted at below the cutoff value of 4.87% attenuation of light transmission. NOFS detected at least 100 H. somni cells without DNA amplification within 45?min with high specificity. Although different fibers could vary in signal sensitivity, this did not affect the sensitivity or specificity of the assay.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Disaster research response (DR2) is necessary to answer scientific questions about the environmental health impacts of disasters and the effectiveness of response and recovery strategies. This research explores the preparedness and capacity of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) P30 Core Centers (CCs) to conduct DR2 and engage with communities in the context of disasters. METHODS:In early 2018, we conducted an online survey of CC Directors (n = 16, 69.5% response rate) to identify their DR2 relevant scientific assets, capabilities, and activities. Summary statistics were calculated. We also conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 16 (69.5%) CC Community Engagement Core directors to identify facilitators and barriers of DR2 community engagement. Interview notes were coded and thematically analyzed. RESULTS:Survey: While 56% of responding CCs reported prior participation in DR2 and preparedness to repurpose funding to support DR2, less than one third reported development of a disaster-specific data collection protocol, deployment plan, or concept of operations plan, participation in an exercise to test DR2 capacity, development of academic partnerships to conduct DR2, development of a process for fast-tracking institutional review board approvals for DR2, or maintenance of formal agreements with state, local, or community-based partner(s). A number of CCs reported developing or considering developing capacity in these areas. Barriers to, and tools and resources to enhance, CC engagement in DR2 were identified. Interviews: Four key components for community engaged DR2 were identified: pre-existing community relationships, responsive research that benefits communities, coordination among researchers, and coordination with community response partners. Several roles for, benefits of, and barriers to Community Engagement Rapid Response Teams (CERRT) were described. CONCLUSIONS:CCs have significant scientific assets and community partnerships that can be leveraged for DR2; however, additional planning is necessary to ensure that these scientific assets and community partnerships are leveraged when disasters strike.