Structural studies of phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.
ABSTRACT: Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) plays a key role in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis inside the cell, whereas outside the cell it exhibits cytokine properties. PGI is also known to act as an autocrine motility factor, a neuroleukin agent and a differentiation and maturation mediator. Here, the first crystal structure of PGI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) is reported. The structure was refined at 2.25 A resolution and revealed the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit with two globular domains. As known previously, the active site of Mtb PGI contains conserved residues including Glu356, Glu216 and His387 (where His387 is from the neighbouring molecule). The crystal structure of Mtb PGI was observed to be rather more similar to human PGI than other nonbacterial PGIs, with only a few differences being detected in the loops, arm and hook regions of the human and Mtb PGIs, suggesting that the M. tuberculosis enzyme uses the same enzyme mechanism.
Project description:Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) plays a central role in both the glycolysis and the gluconeogenesis pathways. We present here the complete crystal structure of PGI from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 2.3-A resolution. We show that PGI has cell-motility-stimulating activity on mouse colon cancer cells similar to that of endogenous autocrine motility factor (AMF). PGI can also enhance neurite outgrowth on neuronal progenitor cells similar to that observed for neuroleukin. The results confirm that PGI is neuroleukin and AMF. PGI has an open twisted alpha/beta structural motif consisting of two globular domains and two protruding parts. Based on this substrate-free structure, together with the previously published biological, biochemical, and modeling results, we postulate a possible substrate-binding site that is located within the domains' interface for PGI and AMF. In addition, the structure provides evidence suggesting that the top part of the large domain together with one of the protruding loops might participate in inducing the neurotrophic activity.
Project description:Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) catalyzes the interconversion between glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate in the glycolysis pathway. In mammals, the enzyme is also identical to the extracellular proteins neuroleukin, tumor-secreted autocrine motility factor (AMF) and differentiation and maturation mediator for myeloid leukemia. Hereditary deficiency of the enzyme causes non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia in human. In the present study, a novel interaction between GTP and human PGI was corroborated by UV-induced crosslinking, affinity purification and kinetic study. GTP not only inhibits the isomerization activity but also compromises the AMF function of the enzyme. Kinetic studies, including the Yonetani-Theorell method, suggest that GTP is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 63 μM and the GTP-binding site partially overlaps with the catalytic site. In addition, GTP stabilizes the structure of human PGI against heat- and detergent-induced denaturation. Molecular modelling and dynamic simulation suggest that GTP is bound in a syn-conformation with the γ-phosphate group located near the phosphate-binding loop and the ribose moiety positioned away from the active-site residues.
Project description:Colias eurytheme butterflies display extensive allozyme polymorphism in the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI). Earlier studies on biochemical and fitness effects of these genotypes found evidence of strong natural selection maintaining this polymorphism in the wild. Here we analyze the molecular features of this polymorphism by sequencing multiple alleles and modeling their structures. PGI is a dimer with rotational symmetry. Each monomer provides a critical residue to the other monomer's catalytic center. Sequenced alleles differ at multiple amino acid positions, including cryptic charge-neutral variation, but most consistent differences among the electromorph alleles are at the charge-changing amino acid sites. Principal candidate sites of selection, identified by structural and functional analyses and by their variants' population frequencies, occur in interpenetrating loops across the interface between monomers, where they may alter subunit interactions and catalytic center geometry. Comparison to a second (and basal) species, Colias meadii, also polymorphic for PGI under natural selection, reveals one fixed amino acid difference between their PGIs, which is located in the interpenetrating loop and accompanies functional differences among their variants. We also study nucleotide variability among the PGI alleles, comparing these data to similar data from another glycolytic enzyme gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Despite extensive nonsynonymous and synonymous polymorphism at PGI in each species, the only base changes fixed between species are the two causing the amino acid replacement; this absence of synonymous fixation yields a significant McDonald-Kreitman test. Analyses of these data suggest historical population expansion. Positive peaks of Tajima's D statistic, representing regions of neutral "hitchhiking," are found around the principal candidate sites of selection. This study provides novel views of molecular-structural mechanisms, and beginnings of historical evidence, for a long-persistent balanced enzyme polymorphism at PGI in these and perhaps other species.
Project description:Phosphoglucose isomerase is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of D-glucopyranose-6-phosphate to D-fructofuranose-6-phosphate. The present investigation reports the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, which shares 46% sequence identity with that of its human host. The recombinant protein, which was prepared using an Escherichia coli expression system, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 A and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 109.0, b = 119.8, c = 138.9 A.
Project description:The Zymomonas mobilis gene encoding phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) was cloned by genetic complementation of an Escherichia coli pgi mutant. An enzyme assay and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed the presence of excess amounts of phosphoglucose isomerase in E. coli clones carrying the Z. mobilis pgi gene. The pgi gene is present in only one copy on the Z. mobilis genome. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pgi region revealed an open reading frame of 1,524 bp preceded by a strong Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The pgi gene encodes a 507-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 55,398. Z. mobilis phosphoglucose isomerase is between 38 and 43% identical to the enzyme from other species. Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed that the pgi transcript is 1.8 kb in length. The level of the pgi transcript was found to be influenced by the phase of growth and by the carbon and energy sources. Transcript levels increased with respect to total RNA during logarithmic growth and were threefold higher when grown on fructose than on glucose. These changes in transcript levels paralleled phosphoglucose isomerase activities in the cultures. Differential mRNA stability was not a factor, since the half-life of the pgi transcript was 6.3 min in glucose-grown cells and 6.0 min in fructose-grown cells. Thus, an increase in the rate of transcription appears to be at least partially responsible for the increased levels of phosphoglucose isomerase observed for Z. mobilis grown on fructose.
Project description:Two glycerol utilization mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis that were unable to utilize most carbon sources except glucose were isolated. Supplementation of these media with small amounts of glucose restored growth in the mutants; these strains are therefore glucose auxotrophs. The mutant phenotype is complemented by the gene encoding phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi), and direct measurement of enzyme activities in the mutants suggests that this gene product is absent in the auxotrophic strains. Mapping of the mutant allele by Southern analysis demonstrates the presence of a 1-kb deletion extending into the coding sequence of pgi. The possible roles of phosphoglucose isomerase in mycobacterial cell wall synthesis and metabolic regulation are discussed.
Project description:A mutant (XT906) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri, the causal agent of citrus canker, was induced by insertion of the transposon Tn5tac1 and isolated. This mutant did not grow or elicit canker disease in citrus leaves but was still able to induce a hypersensitive response in a nonhost plant (the common bean). The mutant was also unable to grow on minimal medium containing fructose or glycerol as the sole carbon source. A 2.5-kb fragment of wild-type DNA that complemented the mutant phenotype of XT906 was isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that this DNA fragment encoded a protein of 562 amino acids that shows homology to phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI). Enzyme activity assay confirmed that the encoded protein possesses PGI activity. Analysis of the activity of the promoter of the pgi gene revealed that it was inhibited by growth in complex medium but induced by culture in plant extract. These results demonstrate that PGI is required for pathogenicity of X. campestris pv. citri.
Project description:Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) is a key enzyme in glycolysis and glycogenesis that catalyses the interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). For crystallographic studies, PGI from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfPGI) was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data to 1.5 A resolution were collected from an orthorhombic crystal form belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit-cell parameters a = 103.3, b = 104.1, c = 114.6 A. Structural analysis by molecular replacement is in progress.
Project description:Phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor (PGI/AMF) is a housekeeping gene product/cytokine that catalyzes a step in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and acts as a multifunctional cytokine associated with aggressive tumors. PGI/AMF has been correlated significantly with breast cancer progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer. We show here that ectopic expression of PGI/AMF induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A normal human breast epithelial cells, and inhibition of PGI/AMF expression triggered mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in aggressive mesenchymal-type human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. EMT in MCF10A cells was shown by morphologic changes and loss of E-cadherin/beta-catenin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, which is concomitant with the induction of the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor Snail and proteosome-dependent degradation of beta-catenin protein. Molecular analysis showed that PGI/AMF suppressed epithelial marker expressions and enhanced mesenchymal marker expressions. Silencing of PGI/AMF expression by RNA interference in MDA-MB-231 cells induced the reverse processes of EMT including altered cell shape, gain of epithelial marker, and reduction of mesenchymal marker, e.g., MET. Taken together, the results show the involvement of PGI/AMF in both EMT and MET: overexpression of PGI/AMF induces EMT in normal breast epithelial cells and reduction of PGI/AMF expression led to MET in aggressive breast cancer cells. These results suggest for the first time that PGI/AMF is a key gene to both EMT in the initiating step of cancer metastasis and MET in the later stage of metastasis during breast cancer progression.
Project description:Autocrine motility factor/ phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI) promotes cell survival by the pAkt survival pathway. Its receptor, gp78/AMFR, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation. We demonstrate here that AMF/PGI also protects against thapsigargin (TG)- and tunicamycin (TUN)-induced ER stress and apoptosis. AMF/PGI protection against the ER stress response is receptor mediated as it is not observed in gp78/AMFR-knockdown HEK293 cells. However, AMF/PGI protection against the ER stress response by TG and TUN was mediated only partially through PI3K/Akt activation. AMF/PGI reduction of the elevation of cytosolic calcium in response to either TG or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation with ATP was gp78/AMFR-dependent, independent of mitochondrial depolarization and not associated with changes in ER calcium content. These results implicate regulation of ER calcium release in AMF/PGI protection against ER stress and apoptosis. Indeed, sequestration of cytosolic calcium with BAPTA-AM limited the ER stress response. Importantly, elevation of cytosolic calcium upon treatment with the calcium ionophore ionomycin, while not inducing an ER stress response, did prevent AMF/PGI protection against ER stress. By regulating ER calcium release, AMF/PGI interaction with gp78/AMFR therefore protects against ER stress identifying novel roles for these cancer-associated proteins in promoting tumor cell survival.